How to Cite – A quick Guide!

What is Citation and Why is it Needed?

A citation is the reference to the information you have quoted or used in your article, assignment, etc. It tells your readers where the information has been extracted from and helps them locate the original source of the information. Citations help credibility to your writing and keeps your readers informed that you conducted a thorough research before writing.

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Citations are very important for your paper. Whether you are writing an academic paper, a news article, book, or even a small social media post. Regardless of the type of writing, you need to make sure that you cite your writing if you have extracted an idea from another source. Even if you are rewriting or rewording, you need to mention the original source when talking about the same idea. In case you are quoting direct quotes from an author, you should always cite the name of the author, the name of the publication and the page number at the end.

Citation is essential to prevent plagiarism. Whether you are working on an academic assignment or writing an article for your website or a magazine, etc. you need to be wary of plagiarism. Citing sources accurately will help you refrain from plagiarizing content as you will have all sources mentioned at the end of your writing piece.

Learn here: how to write references in dissertation?

Various Types of Citation:

There are various types of citations used for different subjects and different purposes. However, there are three major types of citations that are followed by almost everyone in the world. These are APA, MLA, and Chicago. Others include, Harvard, IEEE, Vancouver, Oscola, Turabian, AMA, ACS, NLM, AAA, and APSA.

Let’s take a look at each of them with an example.

APA Citation:

When using this citation style, you need to include the author’s last name, year of publication and the page number (you may omit the page number; however, it is mandatory if you including a direct quote from the source).

Creating an environment where all leaders in the organization reflect on their way of leading and handling situations can help them improve immensely and become better leaders (Alvinius, 2017, p. 14).

MLA Citation:

For this citation style, you need to cite with the author’s last name and page number.

Creating an environment where all leaders in the organization reflect on their way of leading and handling situations can help them improve immensely and become better leaders (Alvinius 14).

Chicago Citation:

Chicago citation style consists of two variations. One with the author name and date and the other is the footnote citation.

Author-Date Example

Creating an environment where all leaders in the organization reflect on their way of leading and handling situations can help them improve immensely and become better leaders (Alvinius 2017, 14).

Footnote Example

Creating an environment where all leaders in the organization reflect on their way of leading and handling situations can help them improve immensely and become better leaders1.

IEEE Citation:

The IEEE citation style is used in technical studies, like IT and engineering. It uses a citation style similar to the Chicago footnote citation style.

Creating an environment where all leaders in the organization reflect on their way of leading and handling situations can help them improve immensely and become better leaders [1].

Vancouver Citation:

Vancouver citation style is commonly used in medical papers and uses a number format for in-text citations. The full details of the source appear next to the same number in the reference list.

Creating an environment where all leaders in the organization reflect on their way of leading and handling situations can help them improve immensely and become better leaders (1).

ASA Citation:

The ASA style of citation requires you to include the last name of the author followed by the year of publication.

Creating an environment where all leaders in the organization reflect on their way of leading and handling situations can help them improve immensely and become better leaders (Alvinius 2017).

AMA Citation:

The AMA citation style is used by medical professionals when publishing their research. In-text citations are done through superscripting numbers that correspond to the same reference in the reference list. For instance, if you want to cite the 3rd reference from your reference list, your citation would be:

Creating an environment where all leaders in the organization reflect on their way of leading and handling situations can help them improve immensely and become better leaders.3

Notice how the superscript number appears immediately after the period. If you are including a direct quote, this is how your in-text citation should be:

Creating an environment where all leaders in the organization reflect on their way of leading and handling situations can help them improve immensely and become better leaders.3(p14)

A complete guide on how to cite is here:

How to Cite a Website?

APA

Bitcoin will join the U.S. dollar as legal tender in El Salvador, not replace the official currency (Hart, 2021).

MLA

Bitcoin will join the U.S. dollar as legal tender in El Salvador, not replace the official currency (Hart).

Chicago

  • Bitcoin will join the U.S. dollar as legal tender in El Salvador, not replace the official currency1.
  • Bitcoin will join the U.S. dollar as legal tender in El Salvador, not replace the official currency (Hart 2021).

IEEE

Bitcoin will join the U.S. dollar as legal tender in El Salvador, not replace the official currency [1].

Vancouver

Bitcoin will join the U.S. dollar as legal tender in El Salvador, not replace the official currency (1).

ASA

Bitcoin will join the U.S. dollar as legal tender in El Salvador, not replace the official currency (Hart, 2021).

AMA

Bitcoin will join the U.S. dollar as legal tender in El Salvador, not replace the official currency.1


How to Cite a Book?

APA

Time is a major aspect in event marketing where even a slightest delay can be a missed opportunity for the event marketing firms (Reic, 2016, p.2).

MLA

Time is a major aspect in event marketing where even a slightest delay can be a missed opportunity for the event marketing firms (Reic, 2).

Chicago

  • Time is a major aspect in event marketing where even a slightest delay can be a missed opportunity for the event marketing firms (Reic 2016, 2).
  • Time is a major aspect in event marketing where even a slightest delay can be a missed opportunity for the event marketing firms1.

IEEE

Time is a major aspect in event marketing where even a slightest delay can be a missed opportunity for the event marketing firms [1].

Vancouver

Time is a major aspect in event marketing where even a slightest delay can be a missed opportunity for the event marketing firms (1).

ASA

Time is a major aspect in event marketing where even a slightest delay can be a missed opportunity for the event marketing firms (Reic 2016).

AMA

Time is a major aspect in event marketing where even a slightest delay can be a missed opportunity for the event marketing firms.1

How to Cite an Article?

APA

Effective communication is one of the most vital aspects towards the success of any business (Markovic & Salamzadeh, 2018, p. 10)

MLA

Effective communication is one of the most vital aspects towards the success of any business (Markovic & Salamzadeh, 10)

Chicago

  • Effective communication is one of the most vital aspects towards the success of any business (Markovic & Salamzadeh 2018, 10)
  • Effective communication is one of the most vital aspects towards the success of any business1.

IEEE

Effective communication is one of the most vital aspects towards the success of any business [1].

Vancouver

Effective communication is one of the most vital aspects towards the success of any business (1).

ASA

Effective communication is one of the most vital aspects towards the success of any business (Markovic & Salamzadeh 2018).

AMA

Effective communication is one of the most vital aspects towards the success of any business.1

How to Cite the Bible?

APA

“And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear” (King James Version, 2017, Matt 14:26).

MLA

“And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear” (King James Version, Matt 14-26).

Chicago

  • “And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear” (Matt. 14:26 King James Version).
  • “And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear”1.

Vancouver

“And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear” (1).

Note: IEEE, ASA and AMA are subject specific citation styles, thus they do not have a Bible citation guide. Bible is only cited in any one of the above formats.

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How to Cite a YouTube Video?

APA

Fever, chills, tiredness, and headache are some of the most common side effects of the covid vaccine which usually go away in a couple of days after you get the shot (World Health Organization, 2021)

MLA

Fever, chills, tiredness, and headache are some of the most common side effects of the covid vaccine which usually go away in a couple of days after you get the shot (World Health Organization, 0:00 – 0:11)

Chicago

  • Fever, chills, tiredness, and headache are some of the most common side effects of the covid vaccine which usually go away in a couple of days after you get the shot (World Health Organization, 2021, 0:00 – 0:11)
  • Fever, chills, tiredness, and headache are some of the most common side effects of the covid vaccine which usually go away in a couple of days after you get the shot1.

IEEE

Fever, chills, tiredness, and headache are some of the most common side effects of the covid vaccine which usually go away in a couple of days after you get the shot [1].

Vancouver

Fever, chills, tiredness, and headache are some of the most common side effects of the covid vaccine which usually go away in a couple of days after you get the shot (1)

ASA

Fever, chills, tiredness, and headache are some of the most common side effects of the covid vaccine which usually go away in a couple of days after you get the shot (World Health Organization 2021)

AMA

Fever, chills, tiredness, and headache are some of the most common side effects of the covid vaccine which usually go away in a couple of days after you get the shot.1(0:00-0:11)

How to Cite a Screenshot?

APA

Screenshots can be cited in a couple of ways. You can only include the name of the author and the year of publication (if any) beneath the screenshot. Alternatively, you can hyperlink the source you have picked the screenshot from. Both examples are as follows:

  • (World Health Organization, 2012)
  • Health Statistics from a report published by World Health Organization. (Specify the name of the report and link it back to the original source).

MLA

If citing screenshots from books, journals, etc. include the image number. If you are including a screenshot from an online source i.e., a website or a blog, only the author name or a link to the original source will suffice.

  • (Thompson)
  • (Thompson, fig 2.1, p. 18)

Chicago

When including screenshots in your paper, label them as figure 1, figure 2, and so on. Next, make sure that you have a list of figures at the end of the paper where all images are properly referenced. No in-text citations are required in this format.

IEEE

To cite a screenshot, include a figure number followed by an image title. Next include source along with the corresponding reference number in square brackets.

Figure 1: 7 Cs of Communication

Source [3]

Vancouver

Just include the figure number along with the title that ends with the corresponding reference number.

Figure 1: 7Cs of Communication(1).

ASA

“7Cs of Communication” 2019. World of Work Project. Retrieved 15th June 2021 (https://worldofwork.io/2019/07/the-7-cs-of-communication/)

AMA

Include a figure number, title of the image followed by a footnote. The reference list/bibliography will contain complete details of the screenshot.

How to Cite a Research Paper?

APA

The rise of e-commerce, digital experience, online shopping, and other smart technologies has brought a huge change in the way people shop today (Reinartz, Wiegand, & Imschloss, 2019, p. 14)

MLA

The rise of e-commerce, digital experience, online shopping, and other smart technologies has brought a huge change in the way people shop today (Reinartz, Wiegand, & Imschloss, 14)

Chicago

  • The rise of e-commerce, digital experience, online shopping, and other smart technologies has brought a huge change in the way people shop today (Reinartz, Wiegand, & Imschloss 2019, 14)
  • The rise of e-commerce, digital experience, online shopping, and other smart technologies has brought a huge change in the way people shop today1.

IEEE

The rise of e-commerce, digital experience, online shopping, and other smart technologies has brought a huge change in the way people shop today [1].

Vancouver

The rise of e-commerce, digital experience, online shopping, and other smart technologies has brought a huge change in the way people shop today (1).

ASA

The rise of e-commerce, digital experience, online shopping, and other smart technologies has brought a huge change in the way people shop today (Reinartz, Wiegand, & Imschloss 2019)

AMA

The rise of e-commerce, digital experience, online shopping, and other smart technologies has brought a huge change in the way people shop today.1

How to Cite References? Books, websites, journals, etc?

APA

Aithal, P. S. (2017). Industry Analysis–The First Step in Business Management Scholarly Research. International Journal of Case Studies in Business, IT and Education (IJCSBE)1(1), 1-13.

MLA

Aithal, P. S. “Industry Analysis–The First Step in Business Management Scholarly Research.” International Journal of Case Studies in Business, IT and Education (IJCSBE) 1.1 (2017): 1-13.

Chicago

Aithal, P. S. “Industry Analysis–The First Step in Business Management Scholarly Research.” International Journal of Case Studies in Business, IT and Education (IJCSBE) 1, no. 1 (2017): 1-13.

IEEE

[1] Aithal, P. S, “Industry Analysis–The First Step in Business Management Scholarly Research.” International Journal of Case Studies in Business, IT and Education (IJCSBE) 1, no. 1, pp. 1-13, 2017.

Vancouver

Aithal PS. Industry Analysis–The First Step in Business Management Scholarly Research. International Journal of Case Studies in Business, IT and Education (IJCSBE). 2017 Jun 17;1(1):1-3.

ASA

Aithal, P. S. 2017. Industry Analysis–The First Step in Business Management Scholarly Research. International Journal of Case Studies in Business, IT and Education (IJCSBE) 1, no. 1, 1-13.

AMA

Aithal, P. S. Industry Analysis–The First Step in Business Management Scholarly Research. International Journal of Case Studies in Business, IT and Education (IJCSBE) 1. 2017;1:1-13.

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How to Cite Stock Photos?

APA

(John, 2015)

MLA

(John)

Chicago

Figure 1 (details should be provided in the list of figures)

IEEE

Figure 1: Marketing Framework [5] – the corresponding reference should include complete details of the stock photo.

Vancouver

Figure 1: Marketing Framework (5) – number 5 reference in the reference list should contain complete details of the stock photo.

ASA

“Marketing Framework” 2011. Stock Images. Retrieved 15th June 2021 (https://www.shutterstock.com/image-vector/business-concepts-illustration-marketing-mix-4ps-1069384133)

AMA

Figure 1: Marketing Framework1

The first reference in the reference list will contain details from where the image has been retrieved.

How to Cite Same Source Multiple Times?

APA

The citation remains same for a single author; however, when there are three or more authors, the first citation will contain names of all the authors and the following in-text citations can include et.al instead of mentioning names of all the authors.

First Citation:

Talent management is an essential aspect of every business; thus, the human resource management must make the right decisions to retain the top talent (Bailey, Mankin & Kelliher, 2018, p. 15)

Second Citation

Organizations should formulate policies that help them enhance employee productivity that can prove to be beneficial for the success of the company (Bailey, et.al, 2018, p. 40)

MLA

First Citation:

Talent management is an essential aspect of every business; thus, the human resource management must make the right decisions to retain the top talent (Bailey, Mankin & Kelliher, 15)

Second Citation

Organizations should formulate policies that help them enhance employee productivity that can prove to be beneficial for the success of the company (Bailey, et.al, 40)

Chicago

First Citation:

Talent management is an essential aspect of every business; thus, the human resource management must make the right decisions to retain the top talent (Bailey, Mankin & Kelliher 2018, 15)

Second Citation

Organizations should formulate policies that help them enhance employee productivity that can prove to be beneficial for the success of the company (Bailey, et.al 2018, 40)

IEEE

The citation remains same throughout the paper.

First Citation:

Talent management is an essential aspect of every business; thus, the human resource management must make the right decisions to retain the top talent [1].

Second Citation

Organizations should formulate policies that help them enhance employee productivity that can prove to be beneficial for the success of the company [1].

Vancouver

First Citation:

Talent management is an essential aspect of every business; thus, the human resource management must make the right decisions to retain the top talent (1).

Second Citation

Organizations should formulate policies that help them enhance employee productivity that can prove to be beneficial for the success of the company (1).

ASA

First Citation:

Talent management is an essential aspect of every business; thus, the human resource management must make the right decisions to retain the top talent (Bailey, Mankin & Kelliher 2018).

Second Citation

Organizations should formulate policies that help them enhance employee productivity that can prove to be beneficial for the success of the company (Bailey, et.al 2018).

AMA

First Citation:

Talent management is an essential aspect of every business; thus, the human resource management must make the right decisions to retain the top talent.1

Second Citation

Organizations should formulate policies that help them enhance employee productivity that can prove to be beneficial for the success of the company.1

How to Cite in Word?

  • Click on the References tab in MS Word.
  • Next, select the citation format for your paper from the dropdown menu.
  • Click on ‘Insert Citation’ and then select any one of the two options.
  • If you click on ‘Add New Source’, make sure to add all the relevant details of your reference and click ok. As soon as you add a source, Word creates an in-text citation automatically based on the citation style you selected. You can now just click on the citation, and it will be inserted in your paper.
  • If you choose the ‘Add New Placeholder’, a question mark will appear next to the placeholder sources in Source Manager. You can create a source and fill in information later.

How to Cite PowerPoint?

APA

The three stages of strategic management are strategy formulation, strategy formulation and strategy evaluation (Fred, 2013).

MLA

The three stages of strategic management are strategy formulation, strategy formulation and strategy evaluation (Fred, slide 7).

Chicago

  • The three stages of strategic management are strategy formulation, strategy formulation and strategy evaluation (Fred, 2013, slide 7).
  • The three stages of strategic management are strategy formulation, strategy formulation and strategy evaluation1.

IEEE

The three stages of strategic management are strategy formulation, strategy formulation and strategy evaluation [1].

Vancouver

The three stages of strategic management are strategy formulation, strategy formulation and strategy evaluation (1).

ASA

The three stages of strategic management are strategy formulation, strategy formulation and strategy evaluation (Fred 2013).

AMA

The three stages of strategic management are strategy formulation, strategy formulation and strategy evaluation.1

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