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Biotechnology for Sustainability

Achievements, Challenges and Perspectives

Editors

Subhash Bhore,

K. Marimuthu &

M. Ravichandran

Biotechnology for Sustainability

Achievements, Challenges and Perspectives

Editors

Subhash Bhore, K. Marimuthu & M. Ravichandran

2017

1

Biotechnology for Sustainability

Achievements, Challenges and Perspectives

Subhash Bhore, K. Marimuthu & M. Ravichandran (Editors)

Published by AIMST University

2017

ISBN: 978-967-14475-3-6 (Print version)

eISBN: 978-967-14475-2-9 (e-Book version)

2

Published by

AIMST University

Printed by

AIMST University

Copyright

© 2017 by the authors; Licensee, Editors; AIMST University,

Malaysia. This book is an open access book distributed under

the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution

(CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

CC BY license is applied which allows users to download, copy, reuse and distribute

articles and or data provided the original article and book is fully cited. This open

access aims to maximize the visibility of articles, reviews and or perspectives, much of

which is in the interest of national, regional and global community.

Disclaimer: The information provided in this book is designed to highlight the views,

perspectives, achievements and or research findings of respective contributors. While

the best efforts have been used in preparing this book, Editors and or Publisher make

no representations or warranties of any kind and assume no liabilities of any kind with

respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents and specifically disclaim any

implied warranties. Neither the Editors nor Publisher of this book shall be held liable or

responsible to any person or entity with respect to any loss or incidental or

consequential damages caused, or alleged to have been caused, directly or indirectly,

by the information highlighted herein. Readers should be aware that the information

provided in this book may change.

All articles and or reviews published in this book are deemed to reflect the individual

views of respective authors and not the official points of view, either of the Editors or of

the Publisher.

Cover image: A diagram showing the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (Credit:

www.un.org/)

Edited by

Dr. Subhash J. Bhore (Senior Associate Professor)1,

Dr. K. Marimuthu (Professor)1, 2, and

M. Ravichandran (Senior Professor)1, 2

Address for Correspondence:

1Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University,

Bedong-Semeling Road, 08100 Bedong, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia; Telephone

No.: +604 429 8176; e-mail: subhash@aimst.edu.my / subhashbhore@gmail.com

2Chancellery, AIMST University, Bedong-Semeling Road, 08100 Bedong, Kedah Darul

Aman, Malaysia; Tel. No.: +604 429 1054 /8103; e-mail: marimuthu@aimst.edu.my /

ravichandran@aimst.edu.my

Edition

First; July 18, 2017

3

Dedication

This book is dedicated to all researchers working in

various domains of biotechnology and to all

stakeholders those are working for the global

sustainable development to improve the health of the

people and planet.

4

Preface

World Environment Day (WED) is a biggest global annual event celebrated each

year on June 5 to create the positive awareness to preserve the environment and planet

earth. This year, the theme for WED-2017 was “Connecting people to nature”. Our

environment should be healthy for our growth, development and to achieve the sustainable

development goals (SDGs) adopted by the international community to transform the world.

Most recently, António Guterres (United Nations Secretary General) precisely

highlighted that “Without a healthy environment we cannot end poverty or build prosperity.

We all have a role to play in protecting our only home: we can use less plastic, drive less,

waste less food and teach each other to care”. In fact, to achieve the SDGs by protecting

environment, everyone needs to do their part.

We strongly believe that biotechnology can play an important role directly or

indirectly in achieving various SDGs. Hence, we had decided to publish a book,

“Biotechnology for Sustainability” to commemorate the WED and to highlight the

achievements, challenges and perspectives in various domains of the biotechnology. In

response to our call for articles, we had received 50 manuscripts. The selected articles

published in this book are highlighting various issues, achievements, challenges and

perspectives for the viable development and sustainability. The World Commission on the

Environment and Development defined sustainability as the “development that meets the

needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their

own needs”. The United Nations recent estimate suggest that the world’s food supply needs

to be doubled by the year 2050 to keep up with the growing demand. To achieve this is a

huge challenge; because, the amount of arable land is continuously decreasing as a result of

rising urbanization, saline soils and desertification. Biotechnologists (and plant breeders)

around the world are working persistently to produce crops which will boost the food

production to meet the growing demand. Genetically engineered crop varieties do offer

many promising possibilities to boost nutritive value of the food, sustain farming on

marginal lands, and to minimize the loss by creating pests and disease resistant varieties.

The articles published in this book are going to be useful in creating awareness

about the environmental issues, natural resources, biodiversity conservation, sustainable

development and various biotechnological approaches that could be used to alleviate the

respective challenges.

We would like to express our sincere gratitude and thanks to Dato' Seri Utama Dr.

S. Samy Vellu, Chancellor and Chairman, AIMST University for his support in publishing

this book.

We wish to thank all contributing authors for making a common cause with us. This

book publication project could not have been completed without the courteous cooperation

of the authors to highlight achievements, challenges and or perspectives in using

biotechnological approaches for the sustainability.

We are confident that this book will serve as a reference to various researchers,

scientists, academicians and graduate students involved in biodiversity conservation,

environmental protection and various fields of biology and biotechnology.

It is hoped that a prudent use of biotechnology in the biodiversity conservation,

environmental protection, and production of more and better quality of food, fiber, fuel and

drugs will contribute in accomplishing SDGs and to promote peace in the world.

Subhash J. Bhore

K. Marimuthu

M. Ravichandran

ISBN: 978-967-14475-3-6 ; eISBN: 978-967-14475-2-9 i

Contents

Preface ................................................................................................................................ i

Contents ............................................................................................................................ ii

Plant Tissue Culture for Sustainability

C. K. John ....................................................................................................................... 1

Traditional Medicine of the Tribes in Tamil Nadu and Its Sustainable

Use through Biotechnology

Valli Gurusamy, Kavitha Valampuri John, Usha Raja Nanthini

Ayyakkanu, Ramani Bai Ravichandran ......................................................................... 14

Vermitechnology – An Eco-Biological Tool for Sustainable

Environment

Mahaly Moorthi, Koilpathu Senthil Kumar Abbiramy, Arumugam Senthil

Kumar and Karupannan Nagarajan................................................................................ 41

Role of Biotechnology in Food Authentication

Shobana Manoharan, Raghavan Kuppu and Ramesh Uthandakalaipandian ................... 51

Management Strategies against Tiny Tigers for Sustainable

Development of Agriculture

Viswa Venkat Gantait ................................................................................................... 58

Designing Greener Pharmaceuticals and Practicing Green Health Is

Required for Sustainability

Sridevi Chigurupati, Jahidul Islam Mohammad, Kesavanarayanan

Krishnan Selvarajan, Saraswati Simansalam, Shantini Vijayabalan and

Subhash Janardhan Bhore ............................................................................................. 68

Clonal Propagation of a High Value Multipurpose Timberline Tree

Species Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. of West Himalaya, India

Aseesh Pandey and Sushma Tamta ............................................................................... 79

Spent Mushroom Substrate of Hypsizygus ulmarius: A Novel

Multifunctional Constituent for Mycorestoration and Mycoremediation

Padmavathi Tallapragada and Ranjini Ramesh .............................................................. 88

Biotechnology for Sustainability of Forests

Kumud Dubey and Kesheo Prasad Dubey ................................................................... 104

Biotechnological Approaches for Conservation and Sustainable Supply

of Medicinal Plants

Sagar Satish Datir and Subhash Janardhan Bhore ........................................................ 117

ISBN: 978-967-14475-3-6 ; eISBN: 978-967-14475-2-9 ii

Making Himalayas Sustainable: Opportunities and Challenges in

Indian Himalayan Region

Harsh Kumar Chauhan and Anil Kumar Bisht ............................................................. 129

Natural Polyphenols and Its Potential in Preventing Diseases Related

To Oxidative Stress as an Alternative Green Nutraceutical Approach

Sreenivasan Sasidharan, Shanmugapriy, Subramanion Lachumy Jothy,

Mei Li Ng, Nowroji Kavitha, Chew Ai Lan, Khoo Boon Yin,

Soundararajan Vijayarathna, Leow Chiuan Herng and Chern Ein Oon ........................ 141

A Review on Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Its Antimicrobial

Properties

Karthika Arumugam and Naresh Kumar Sharma ......................................................... 171

Production of Secondary Metabolites Using a Biotechnological

Approach

Produtur Chandramati Shankar and Senthilkumar Rajagopal ....................................... 187

Potential of Marine Algae Derived Extracts as a Natural Biostimulant

to Enhance Plant Growth and Crop Productivity

Lakkakula Satish* and Manikandan Ramesh ............................................................... 200

Biotransformation of Various Wastes into a Nutrient Rich Organic

Biofertilizer - a Sustainable Approach towards Cleaner Environment

Geetha Karuppasamy, Michael Antony D’Couto, Sangeetha Baskaran and

Anant Achary.............................................................................................................. 212

Bacterial Endophytes as Biofertilizers and Biocontrol Agents for

Sustainable Agriculture

Amrutha V. Audipudi, Bhaskar V. Chakicherla and Shubhash Janardhan

Bhore .......................................................................................................................... 223

Microbial Metabolic Engineering: A Key Technology to Deal with

Global Climate and Environmental Challenges

Meerza Abdul Razak, Pathan Shajahan Begum and Senthilkumar

Rajagopal .................................................................................................................... 248

Biodiesel Production for Sustainability: An Overview

R. Meena Devi, R. Subadevi and M. Sivakumar .......................................................... 262

In vitro Cell Bioassays in Pollution Assessment

Narayanan Kannan, Poorani Krishnan and Ahmad Zaharin Aris ................................. 274

Lipopeptide Biosurfactants from Bioagent, Bacillus as a Weapon for

Plant Disease Management

Sampath Ramyabharathi, Balaraman Meena, Lingan Rajendran and

Thiruvengadam Raguchander ...................................................................................... 287

ISBN: 978-967-14475-3-6 ; eISBN: 978-967-14475-2-9 iii

Biotechnology as a Tool for Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of

Plant and Seaweed Genetic Resources of Tropical Bay Islands, India

Pooja Bohra, Ajit Arun Waman and Anuraj Anirudhan ............................................... 295

Plantibodies for Global Health: Challenges and Perspectives

Prasad Minakshi, Basanti Brar, Manimegalai Jyothi, Ikbal, Koushlesh

Ranjan, Upendra Pradeep Lambe and Gaya Prasad ..................................................... 305

Renewable Energy from Agro-industrial Processing Wastes: An

Overview

Sudhanshu S. Behera, Ramesh C. Ray and S. Ramachandran ..................................... 322

Mitigation of Climatic Change by Organic Agriculture

Mohan Mani, Manohar Murugan, Ganesh Punamalai and Vijayalakshmi

Ganesan Singaravelu ................................................................................................... 336

Application of Anti-vibrio and Anti-quorum Sensing Technology for

Sustainable Development in Shrimp Aquaculture

Ramesh Kandasamy, Amutha Raju and Manohar Murugan ......................................... 344

Promiscuous Rhizobia: A Potential Tool to Enhance Agricultural Crops

Productivity

Ikbal, Prasad Minakshi, Basanti Brar, Upendera Praddep Lambe,

Manimegalai Jyothi, Koushlesh Ranjan, Deepika, Virendra Sikka and

Gaya Prasad ................................................................................................................ 358

Organic Farming and Halalan Toyyiban Foods: An Attempt to Relate

Them

Quamrul Hasan and Zakirah Othman .......................................................................... 376

Biotechnological Approaches: Sustaining Sugarcane Productivity and

Yield

Ashutosh Kumar Mall and Varucha Misra .................................................................. 386

Bioremediation: A Biotechnology Tool for Sustainability

Niharika Chandra, Ankita Srivastava, Swati Srivastava, Shailesh Kumar

Mishra and Sunil Kumar ............................................................................................. 398

Sea Urchin - A New Potential Marine Bio-resource for Human Health

M. Aminur Rahman, Fatimah Md. Yusoff, Kasi Marimuthu and Yuji

Arakaki ....................................................................................................................... 417

Marine Pollution and Its Impacts on Living Organisms

Thavasimuthu Citarasu and Mariavincent Michael Babu ............................................. 444

Ecology, Distribution and Diversity of Bioluminescent Bacteria in Palk

Strait, Southeast Coast of India

Srinivasan Rajendran, Ganapathy selvam Govindarasu and Govindasamy

Chinnavenkataraman................................................................................................... 456

ISBN: 978-967-14475-3-6 ; eISBN: 978-967-14475-2-9 iv

Synthesis of Biocompatible Silver Nanoparticles Using Green Alga

( Ulva reticulata) Extract

Ganapathy selvam Govindarasu, Srinivasan Rajendran and Sivakumar

Kathiresan................................................................................................................... 475

Diversity and Ethno-Botanical Potential of Tree Plants of Katarniaghat

Wildlife Sanctuary, Bahraich (UP) India: An Overview

Tej Pratap Mall ........................................................................................................... 486

Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Anticancer Activity of Primula

denticulata Sm. from North-Western Himalayas

Bilal Ahmad Wani, Mohammed Latif Khan and Bashir Ahmad Ganai ........................ 512

Panchakavya: Organic Fertilizer and Its Stimulatory Effect on the Seed

Germination of Abelmoschus esculentus and Solanum melongena

V. Ramya and S. Karpagam ........................................................................................ 525

Increasing Human Interference in Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary

Shiv Pratap Singh ....................................................................................................... 534

ISBN: 978-967-14475-3-6 ; eISBN: 978-967-14475-2-9 v

Biotechnology for Sustainability

Achievements, Challenges and Perspectives

Biotech Sustainability (2017), P1-13

Plant Tissue Culture for Sustainability

C. K. John*

Plant Tissue Culture Division, CSIR-National Chemical Laboratory, Dr. Homi Bhabha

Road, Pune 411008, India;*Correspondence: ck.john@ncl.res.in; Tel.: +91-9822531551

Abstract: The United Nations has placed great emphasis on sustainability. Three of the

most important requirements of sustainable development are: eradicating extreme pov-

erty and hunger, protecting the environment, and conserving biodiversity. Because of human activities the stable functioning of earth‛s life support system – which includes the at-

mosphere, oceans, forests, waterways, biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles, is at risk.

One of the major contributing factors is the large scale destruction of natural forests. Defor-

estation had many adverse effects; most importantly, the effects on climate, environment,

and biodiversity. The three pillars of sustainable development are: sustainable agriculture,

conserving biodiversity, and protecting the environment through reversing the effects of

deforestation by large scale afforestation. Plant Tissue Culture can greatly contribute in all

the three.

Keywords: Afforestation; biodiversity conservation; micropropagation; plant tissue culture;

sustainable a