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Maintenance of Waterfront Facilities by Department of the Army - HTML preview

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MAINTENANCE

OF

WATERFRONT

FACILITIES

ARMY

TM-5-622

NAVY

MO-104

AIR FORCE

AFM 91-34

JUNE 1978

DEPARTMENTS OF THE ARMY,

THE NAVY AND THE AIR FORCE

NAVY:

SNDL: (2 copies each unless otherwise noted)

Part 1:

21A, 27G, 39B, 49, 51D1

Part 2:

A1 (I&L only), A2A (ONR only), A3, A4A, A5, A6

B5 (Wash DC only-25 copies)

C4F9, C4F6, C4F8 (San Clemente and Fallbrook only), C4F36, C4K

E3A (Wash DC only), E3C

FA6, FA7, FA10, FA18, FA23, FA24, FA25 (10 copies)

FB6 (Atsugi only), FB7, FB10, FB13, FB21, FB26, FB28, FB30, FB33, FB34, FB36

FC1, FC3, FC4, FC5, FC7, FC12

FE4 (Chesapeake, Edzell, Adak, Hanza, Homestead, Sabana Seca, Skaggs Isl., Winter Harbor only) FF1 (Wash DC only), FF3, FF19, FF38

FG2, FG3 (Cutter, Cheltenham, Thurso only), FG6 (Oahu only)

FKA1, FKA6A, FKA8,

FKM3, FKM8, FKM9 (Oakland only), FKM13, FKM15

FKN1 (25 copies), FKN2, FKN3, FKN5 (10 copies), FKN8, FKN10

FKP1B, FKP1E, FKP1J, FKP7 (5 copies), FKP14, FKP1M

FKR1A, FKR3C, FKR3G, FKR3H, FKR4B

FR1, FR3, FR4

FT1, FT6, FT22, FT28, FT37 (10 copies), FT55, FT73, FT78

V5, V8, V12, V16, V23

Additional copies may be obtained from:

U.S. Naval Publications and Forms Center

5801 Tabor Avenue

Philadelphia, PA 19120

AIR FORCE:

F

ARMY:

To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-34B, Requirements for TM 5-600 Series: Facilities Engineering:

Maintenance and Operation of Facilities.

ii

FOREWORD

This manual prescribes the criteria and procedures for inspection, maintenance, and repair of waterfront facilities at military installations. It establishes maintenance standards for and provides guidance for the selection, use, and installation of standard materials and equipment that will perform satisfactorily.

The use of the systems and procedures described in this publication, by personnel who have the responsibility for specifications, requisitions, procurement, inspection, storage, issue, application, and safety, should assure uniform, economical, and satisfactory maintenance and repair. When information in this publication varies from that contained in the latest issue of Federal or Military Specifications, the(se) Specification(s) shall apply. Reference to Federal, Military, or other Specifications is to the current issues of these specifications as identified by their basic number(s). In case of doubt, advice concerning any procedure may be obtained from:

(1)

Department of the Army Office of the Chief of Engineers DAEN-FEB

(2)

Department of the Navy Naval Facilities Engineering Command (1013) or its geographic Engineering Field Division (102)

(3)

Department of the Air Force Directorate of Engineering and Services AF/PRE

Recommendations or suggestions for modification, or additional information and instructions that will improve the publication and motivate its use, are invited and should be submitted through appropriate channels to the addresses listed above.

This publication supersedes Army TM-5-622 of 13 June 1946 and NAVDOCKS MO-104 of July 1963. It is certified that it has been reviewed and approved for official use in the Navy in accordance with Secretary of the Navy Instruction 5600.16.

iii

By Order of the Secretaries of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force:

BERNARD W. ROGERS

General, United States Army

Chief of Staff

Official:

J. C. PENNINGTON

Brigadier General, United States Army

The Adjutant General

D. G. ISELIN

Rear Admiral, CEC, US Navy, Commander

Naval Facilities Engineering Command

DAVID C. JONES, General, USAF

Chief of Staff

Official:

JAMES J. SHEPARD, Colonel, USAF

Director of Administration

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

SECTION 1. GENERAL ..................................................................................................................

1-1

Purpose....................................................................................................................................

1-1

Scope.......................................................................................................................................

1-1

Cooperation and Coordination ..................................................................................................

1-1

SECTION 2. JOINT SERVICE RESPONSIBILITY...........................................................................

1-1

Army ........................................................................................................................................

1-1

Navy ........................................................................................................................................

1-2

Air Force. .................................................................................................................................

1-2

SECTION 3. MAINTENANCE STANDARDS, POLICIES, AND CRITERIA ......................................

1-3

Standards.................................................................................................................................

1-3

Engineering ..............................................................................................................................

1-3

Related Published Material.......................................................................................................

1-3

SECTION 4. TERMINOLOGY .........................................................................................................

1-4

Primary Considerations ............................................................................................................

1-4

Types of Structures ..................................................................................................................

1-4

SECTION 5. PLANNING .................................................................................................................

1-9

Programming ...........................................................................................................................

1-9

Economic Requirement ............................................................................................................

1-9

Causes of Deterioration ............................................................................................................

1-9

Inspection.................................................................................................................................

1-9

SECTION 6. PREPARATION FOR WORK. ....................................................................................

1-10

Field Measurements .................................................................................................................

1-10

As-Built Drawings .....................................................................................................................

1-10

Sketches ..................................................................................................................................

1-10

Checking Structural Stability.....................................................................................................

1-10

SECTION 7. ACCESS TO WORK...................................................................................................

1-10

Divers.......................................................................................................................................

1-10

Rafts and/or Barges..................................................................................................................

1-10

v

page

Scaffolds .................................................................................................................................. 1-11

Ladders .................................................................................................................................... 1-11

Excavations.............................................................................................................................. 1-12

SECTION 8. SAFETY ..................................................................................................................... 1-12

Instructions............................................................................................................................... 1-12

Personal Protection .................................................................................................................. 1-12

Barricades and Safety Lines ..................................................................................................... 1-13

Traffic Control .......................................................................................................................... 1-13

Protection from Mechanical Damage........................................................................................ 1-13

Berthing.................................................................................................................................... 1-13

Currents ................................................................................................................................... 1-13

Changes in Tides...................................................................................................................... 1-14

CHAPTER 2 - TIMBER STRUCTURES

SECTION 1. PRESERVATION OF WOOD ..................................................................................... 2-1

Preservative Treatment ............................................................................................................ 2-1

Wood Destroying Organisms .................................................................................................... 2-1

Preservative Materials.............................................................................................................. 2-2

Pressure Treatment.................................................................................................................. 2-4

Handling of Treated Wood........................................................................................................ 2-5

Seasoning Checks or Cracks .................................................................................................... 2-6

Hardware.................................................................................................................................. 2-6

SECTION 2. INSPECTION ............................................................................................................. 2-6

Exposed Areas ......................................................................................................................... 2-6

Submerged Sections ................................................................................................................ 2-7

SECTION 3. - MAINTENANCE ......................................................................................................... 2-7

Replacement ............................................................................................................................ 2-7

Repair . .................................................................................................................................... 2-12

CHAPTER 3 - CONCRETE STRUCTURES

SECTION 1. CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY...................................................................................... 3-1

vi

page

Definition of Concrete...............................................................................................................

3-1

Components of Concrete..........................................................................................................

3-1

Desirable Properties of Concrete ..............................................................................................

3-2

Special Concretes for Waterfront Structures.............................................................................

3-3

SECTION 2. CAUSES AND TYPES OF DETERIORATION ............................................................

3-5

Causes of Concrete Deterioration. ............................................................................................

3-5

Types of Concrete Damage ......................................................................................................

3-6

SECTION 3. METHODS OF INSPECTION .....................................................................................

3-6

Visual . .....................................................................................................................................

3-6

Mechanical ...............................................................................................................................

3-7

Electronic .................................................................................................................................

3-8

SECTION 4. REPAIR METHODS ...................................................................................................

3-8

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................

3-8

Dry-Pack Mortar .......................................................................................................................

3-9

Cast-In-Place Concrete ............................................................................................................

3-10

Shotcrete..................................................................................................................................

3-13

Prepacked Concrete .................................................................................................................

3-13

Tremie Concrete ......................................................................................................................

3-14

Pumped Concrete ....................................................................................................................

3-14

Epoxy Resin .............................................................................................................................

3-15

Protective Coatings ..................................................................................................................

3-16

CHAPTER 4 - STONE MASONRY STRUCTURES

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................

4-1

Background ..............................................................................................................................

4-1

Design......................................................................................................................................

4-1

SECTION 2. METHOD OF INSPECTION .......................................................................................

4-1

Visual .......................................................................................................................................

4-1

Settlement................................................................................................................................

4-1

Documentation .........................................................................................................................

4-3

vii

page

SECTION 3. METHODS OF REPAIR . ...........................................................................................

4-3

Engineering Investigation .........................................................................................................

4-3

Weep Holes .............................................................................................................................

4-3

Shrinkage Cracks .....................................................................................................................

4-3

Tuck-Pointing ...........................................................................................................................

4-3

Grouting ...................................................................................................................................

4-4

CHAPTER 5 - RUBBLE-MOUND STRUCTURES

SECTION 1. STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS .................................................................................

5-1

Mound ......................................................................................................................................

5-1

Rubble......................................................................................................................................

5-1

Riprap ......................................................................................................................................

5-1

SECTION 2. CAUSES AND TYPES OF DETERIORATION ............................................................

5-3

Types of Damage .....................................................................................................................

5-3

Structural Damage ...................................................................................................................

5-3

SECTION 3. INSPECTION .............................................................................................................

5-5

Components .............................................................................................................................

5-5

Drainage ..................................................................................................................................

5-5

SECTION 4. METHODS OF REPAIR .............................................................................................

5-5

As-Built Drawings .....................................................................................................................

5-5

Replacing Components ............................................................................................................

5-5

CHAPTER 6 - STRUCTURES INVOLVING SOIL

SECTION 1. SOIL DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................

6-1

Waterfront Use ........................................................................................................................

6-1

Definition..................................................................................................................................

6-1

Soil Classification .....................................................................................................................

6-1

SECTION 2. SOIL PLACEMENT ....................................................................................................

6-2

Types of Soil ...........................................................................................................................

6-2

Compaction Control..................................................................................................................

6-2

Types of Compaction ...............................................................................................................

6-3

viii

page

SECTION 3. INSPECTION .............................................................................................................

6-3

SECTION 4. REPAIR......................................................................................................................

6-3

Erosion..............................................................