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Edited by Oleg Sergiyenko

Optoelectronic Devices and Properties

Edited by Oleg Sergiyenko

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Preface XI

Part 1

New Materials in Optoelectronics 1

Chapter 1

Organic-Organic Semiconductor Interfaces

for Molecular Electronic Devices 3

Ji-Seon Kim and Craig Murphy

Chapter 2

A Study of Adhesion of Silicon Dioxide on

Polymeric Substrates for Optoelectronic Applications 23

E. Amendola, A. Cammarano and D. Acierno

Chapter 3

Organic Semiconductor Based Heterostructures

for Optoelectronic Devices 41

Anca Stanculescu and Florin Stanculescu

Chapter 4

Thin-Film Diamond Phototransistors 73

Linjun Wang, Jian Huang, Ke Tang, Jijun Zhang and Yiben Xia

Chapter 5

Multilayer Approach in Light-Emitting Transistors 89

Gianluca Generali, Stefano Toffanin and Raffaella Capelli

Chapter 6

Effects of Ionizing Radiation

on Optoelectronic Devices 103

V. Th. Tsakiri, A. P. Skountzos, P. H. Yannakopoulos and E. Verrelli

Chapter 7

Identification of Emergent Research Issues:

the Case of Optoelectronic Devices 125

Ivana Roche, Nathalie Vedovotto,

Dominique Besagni, Claire François, Roger Mounet,

Edgar Schiebel and Marianne Hörlesberger

Chapter 8

Synchronous Vapor-Phase Coating

of Conducting Polymers for Flexible

Optoelectronic Applications 151

Keon-Soo Jang and Jae-Do Nam



Part 2

Nanostructures: Properties and Applications 171

Chapter 9

ZnO Nanostructures for Optoelectronic Applications 173

Ashok K. Sood, Zhong Lin Wang, Dennis L. Polla,

Nibir K. Dhar, Tariq Manzur and A.F.M. Anwar

Chapter 10

Hybrid Optoelectronic and Photovoltaic Materials based

on Silicon Nanocrystals and Conjugated Polymers 197

Vladimir Svrcek

Chapter 11

Synthesis, Self-assembly and Optoelectronic

Properties of Monodisperse ZnO Quantum Dots 215

Ting Mei and Yong Hu

Chapter 12

In-Situ Analysis of Optoelectronic Properties

of Semiconductor Nanostructures and Defects

in Transmission Electron Microscopes 241

Yutaka Ohno, Ichiro Yonenega and Seiji Takeda

Chapter 13

Investigating Optoelectronic Properties of the NbN

Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detector 263

Zhizhong Yan

Chapter 14

Band Structure and Magneto- Transport Properties

in II-VI Nanostructures Semiconductors -

Application to Infrared Detector Superlattices 283

Abdelhakim Nafidi

Part 3

Optoelectronic Measurements in Spatial Domain 305

Chapter 15

3D Body & Medical Scanners’ Technologies:

Methodology and Spatial Discriminations 307

Julio C. Rodríguez-Quiñonez, Oleg Sergiyenko, Vera Tyrsa,

Luís C. Básaca-Preciado, Moisés Rivas-Lopez,

Daniel Hernández-Balbuena and Mario Peña-Cabrera

Chapter 16

Research and Development

of the Passive Optoelectronic Rangefinder 323

Vladimir Cech and Jiri Jevicky

Chapter 17

Methods and Devices of Processing Signals

of Optoelectronic Position Transducers 349

Zbigniew Szcześniak and Adam Szcześniak

Chapter 18

Optoelectronic Measurements in Science and Innovative

Industrial Technologies 373

Vladimir G. Meledin



Part 4

Optoelectronic Measurements in Frequency Domain 399

Chapter 19

Optoelectronic Oscillators 401

Patrice Salzenstein

Chapter 20

Statistical Tools and Optoelectronic

Measuring Instruments 411

Ionel Sabin and Ionel Ioana

Part 5

Physical Modeling and Simulations

of Optoelectronic Devices 431

Chapter 21

Advanced Numerical Simulation

of Organic Light-emitting Devices 433

Beat Ruhstaller, Evelyne Knapp, Benjamin Perucco,

Nils Reinke, Daniele Rezzonico and Felix Müller

Chapter 22

Design and Simulation of Time-Pulse Coded

Optoelectronic Neural Elements and Devices 459

Vladimir G. Krasilenko, Aleksandr I. Nikolskyy

and Alexander A. Lazarev

Chapter 23

Optical and Electrical Spectrum Analysis

of Optoelectronic Devices 501

Ning Hua Zhu, Wei Chen, Wei Li, Li Xian Wang,

Xiao Qiong Qi and Bang Hong Zhang

Chapter 24

Bistable Photoconduction in Semiconductors 527

Stefano Lagomarsino

Part 6

Laser Devices and Methods 547

Chapter 25

Electromechanical 3D Optoelectronic Scanners:

Resolution Constraints

and Possible Ways of Improvement 549

Oleg Sergiyenko, Vera Tyrsa, Luís C. Basaca-Preciado,

Julio C. Rodríguez-Quiñones, Wilmar Hernández,

Juan I. Nieto-Hipólito, Moisés Rivas Lopez and Oleg Starostenko

Chapter 26

Employment of Pulsed-Laser Deposition

for Optoelectronic Device Fabrication 583

Ullrich Bruno

Chapter 27

Optical Spectral Structure

and Frequency Coherence 603

Ning Hua Zhu, Wei Li, Jian Hong Ke,

Hong Guang Zhang, Jiang Wei Man and Jian Guo Liu



Part 7

Optical Communications 629

Chapter 28

Optoelectronic Chaotic Circuits 631

M.P. Hanias, H.E. Nistazakis and G.S. Tombras

Chapter 29

Optoelectronic Feedback in Semiconductor

Light Sources: Optimization of Network

Components for Synchronization 651

Sora F. Abdalah, Marzena Ciszak, Francesco Marino,

Kais Al-Naimee, Riccardo Meucci and F. Tito Arecchi


Optoelectronic devices impact many areas of society, from simple household appli-

ances and multimedia systems to communications, computing, spatial scanning, opti-

cal monitoring, 3D measurements and medical instruments. This is the most complete

book about optoelectromechanic systems and semiconductor optoelectronic devices; it

provides an accessible, well-organized overview of optoelectronic devices and proper-

ties that emphasizes basic principles. Coverage combines an optional review from key

concepts such as properties of compound semiconductors, semiconductor statistics,

carrier transport properties, optical processes, etc., up to gradual progress through

more advanced topics. This book includes the recent developments in the fi eld, empha-

sizes fundamental concepts and analytical techniques, rather than a comprehensive

coverage of diff erent devices, so readers can apply them to all current, and even future,


In this book are introduced novel materials and physico-chemical phenomena useful

for new tasks solution. It discusses important properties for diff erent types of applica-

tion, such as analog or digital links, the formation and analysis of optical waveguides;

channel waveguide components; guided wave interactions; electrooptical eff ects; time

dependence, bandwidth and electrical circuits.

Given the demand for ever more compact and powerful systems, there is growing in-

terest in the development of nanoscale devices that could enable new functions and

greatly enhanced performance. Semiconductor nanowires are emerging as a powerful

class of materials that, through controlled growth and organization, are opening up

substantial opportunities for novel photonic and electronic nanodevices.

Also progress in the area of nanowires growth is reviewed, as well as the fundamental

electronic and optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanowires and nanowire

heterostructures, as well as strategies for and emerging results demonstrating their

promise for nanoscale device arrays. Nanowires made could be ideal building blocks

for making nano-optoelectronic devices; the nanowires sometimes show periodic de-

fect structures along their lengths, which may be crucial for determining the optical

properties of the material, so nanostructures may lead to further novel properties and

promising applications such as point defects and stacking faults.

A signifi cant part of optoelectronic methods are contributed in various geometric mea-

surements like rangefi nders, various 2D and 3D vision systems, with several applica-

tions in robot navigation, structural health monitoring, medical and body scanners.



Optoelectronic measurements are still among of the most att ractive tools in a both spatial and

frequency domains.

Independently a review of a wide range of optical fi ber communication and optoelectronic

systems is presented. In such networks, the electrical and the optical characteristics of guided-

wave devices have a profound eff ect on the system design and overall performance. This book

generally combines both the optical and electrical behavior of optoelectronic devices so that

the interwoven properties, including interconnections to external components. It also shows

the impact of material properties on various optoelectronic devices, and emphasizes the impor-

tance of time-dependent interactions between electrical and optical signals. It provides the key

concepts and analytical techniques that readers can apply to current and future devices.

This is an ideal reference for graduate students and researchers in electrical engineering and

applied physics departments, as well as practitioners in the optoelectronics industry.

Oleg Sergiyenko

The Engineering Institute,

Autonomous University of Baja California,

Mexicali, Mexico

Part 1

New Materials in Optoelectronics


Organic-Organic Semiconductor Interfaces for

Molecular Electronic Devices

Ji-Seon Kim1 and Craig Murphy2

1Department of Physics & Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London,

2National Physical Laboratory (NPL)

United Kingdom

1. Introduction

Molecular (Plastic) electronics encompasses the materials science, chemistry and physics of

molecular electronic materials and the application of such materials to displays, lighting,

flexible thin film electronics, solar energy conversion and sensors. The field is a growth area,

nationally and globally, evidenced by the rapidly expanding organic display and printed

electronics industries. Organic semiconductors combine the semiconductor properties

traditionally associated with inorganic materials with the more desirable properties of

plastics. Moreover, the organic syntheses of these materials allow for great flexibility in the

tuning of their electronic and optical properties. By combining these properties, organic

semiconductors such as conjugated polymers have been demonstrated as the active material

in light-emitting diodes (LEDs), transistors, and photovoltaic (PV) cells. Furthermore, these

conjugated polymers provide a new way of looking at many of the broad fundamental

scientific issues related to using molecules for electronics. A great deal of the physics which

governs the behaviour of molecules for electronics occurs at the organic-organic interfaces

(heterojunctions). For example, the nature of organic interfaces determines the fate of

excitons to be either stabilised (for efficient LEDs) or destabilised (for efficient PV cells) at

the interfaces. Therefore, by selecting semiconductors with proper band-edge offsets

between their conduction and valence bands, different device characteristics can be readily

achieved. While significant progress has been made in developing the materials and high

performance organic devices, many fundamental aspects of organic-organic semiconductor

interfaces remain to be understood. In particular, fundamental understanding of the

correlation between nanostructures and interfaces of organic semiconductors in thin films

and multilayers and associated device performance still remain to be fully explored. In this

Chapter, we will introduce how to control and characterise various length-scale organic-

organic interfaces facilitating the rational design of materials, device architectures and

fabrication methods via increased understanding of fundamental properties of organic-

organic interfaces and their modification due to processing. In particular, we will address

the distinctive optoelectronic and charge transport properties which have been observed

across different organic-organic interfaces depending on their length-scale (micron-scale in

the blends down to molecular-scale in the copolymers) and nature (interchain vs intrachain),

providing the deeper understanding of organic interfaces and their vital roles in various

optoelectronic devices. The key advances in organic semiconductor interfaces achieved so


Optoelectronic Devices and Properties

far will provide important insight into a design rule of organic semiconductors which is

essential for future development in molecular electronic devices.

2. The main aim and contents of this chapter

This chapter aims to review fundamental scientific issues related to using molecules for

electronics down to the single-molecule scale by studying a range of well-controlled

organic-organic interfaces, with a particular focus on their role on electronic structures and

electronic processes of organic semiconductors and their devices. Specific topics were:

1. Control and characterisation of various length-scale organic interfaces (Section 3)

2. Photophysical dynamics of electronic species at the organic interfaces (Section 4)

3. Electronic processes of charge carriers across the organic interfaces (Section 5)

4. Charge-carrier operational dynamics across the organic interfaces (Section 6)

3. Control and characterisation of various length-scale organic interfaces

3.1 Interfaces controlled by polymer molecular weight variation

Polymer molecular weight (MW) (i.e. chain length) variation was used as a tool to control

the phase separation laterally and/or vertically in blend films (Yim et al., 2010). The

conjugated polymers studied are poly(9,9-di- n-octylfluorene- alt-benzothiadiazole) F8BT (Mn

= 9 - 255 kg/mol) and poly(9,9-di- n-octylfluorene- alt-(1,4-phenylene-((4- sec-butylphenyl)

imino)-1,4-phenylene) TFB (Mn = 3 - 102 kg/mol) (Chemical structures in Table 1). Micron-

scale lateral phase separation is observed in blend films that consist of high MW of both

F8BT and TFB (Mn > 60 kg/mol), in which domain sizes increase with MW of each

homopolymer. For these blend films, the micro-Raman spectroscopy study indicates that the

higher-lying domains are F8BT-rich and the lower-lying domains are TFB-rich. In contrast,

the blend films that consist of at least one low MW homopolymer (Mn < 10 kg/mol) show

relatively smooth surface with sub-micron or no measurable lateral phase separation.

Using the surface-sensitive X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique, it is observed

first that, for blend films that consist of at least one low MW polymer (Mn < 10 kg/mol),

there is a significant enrichment of the short polymer chains at the film-air interface. This

reveals that the vertical phase segregation at the film-air interface is driven by the contrast of

MW between the two homopolymers. On the other hand, for blend films that show micron-

scale lateral phase separation, the film-air interface is always enriched with TFB, suggesting

the presence of TFB capping layer apart from the exposed TFB-rich domains. Second, for all

the blend films at the film-substrate interface, there is an enrichment of the lower surface

energy material (TFB). The extent of TFB enrichment is found to increase with the MW of

both polymers, possibly due to increased thickness or purity of the TFB wetting layer in

these blend films. These observations suggest that surface energy contrast (as oppose to MW

contrast) might be the dominant driving force in determining the vertical phase segregation

at the film-substrate interface. Based on the morphological and compositional analyses of

these blend films, we proposed two different models of the final phase separated structures

(Fig 1a and 1b) for blend films without and with micron-scale lateral phase separation,


For the blend films with no visible lateral phase separation (in which a large MW contrast

exists between the two homopolymers), the film-air interface is enriched with the low MW

polymer, while the film-substrate interface is always enriched with the lower surface energy



Organic-Organic Semiconductor Interfaces for Molecular Electronic Devices


polymer TFB. For the blend films with obvious micron-scale lateral phase separated

structures, additional nanoscale vertical phase segregation also occurs resulting in a

continuous TFB wetting layer at the film-substrate interface and a discontinuous TFB

capping layer at the film-air interface (aKim et al., 2004). These remarkably different lateral

and vertical phase separation observed in the F8BT:TFB blend films has important

implications on LED performance.


Chemical Structure



[eV] efficiency














8 17




8 17

























Table 1. Chemical structures and optoelectronic properties of conjugated polymers and

F4TCNQ. [a] PL efficiency of 5 % F4TCNQ-doped polymer, [b] PL efficiency of 5 %

F4TCNQ-doped polymer after annealing (N2 environment, 200 ºC, 1 hr), [c] LUMO level of