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The Spanish Language Speed

Learning Course

Speak Spanish Confidently … in 12 Days or Less!

DISCLAIMER AND TERMS OF USE AGREEMENT

The author and publisher have used their best efforts in preparing this report. The author and

publisher make no representation or warranties with respect to the accuracy, applicability, fitness, or completeness of the contents of this report. The information contained in this report is strictly for educational purposes. Therefore, if you wish to apply ideas contained in this report, you are

taking full responsibility for your actions.

EVERY EFFORT HAS BEEN MADE TO ACCURATELY REPRESENT THIS PRODUCT

AND IT'S POTENTIAL. HOWEVER, THERE IS NO GUARANTEE THAT YOU WILL

IMPROVE IN ANY WAY USING THE TECHNIQUES AND IDEAS IN THESE MATERIALS.

EXAMPLES IN THESE MATERIALS ARE NOT TO BE INTERPRETED AS A PROMISE OR

GUARANTEE OF ANYTHING. SELF-HELP AND IMPROVEMENT POTENTIAL IS

ENTIRELY DEPENDENT ON THE PERSON USING OUR PRODUCT, IDEAS AND

TECHNIQUES.

YOUR LEVEL OF IMPROVEMENT IN ATTAINING THE RESULTS CLAIMED IN OUR

MATERIALS DEPENDS ON THE TIME YOU DEVOTE TO THE PROGRAM, IDEAS AND

TECHNIQUES MENTIONED, KNOWLEDGE AND VARIOUS SKILLS. SINCE THESE

FACTORS DIFFER ACCORDING TO INDIVIDUALS, WE CANNOT GUARANTEE YOUR

SUCCESS OR IMPROVEMENT LEVEL. NOR ARE WE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY OF

YOUR ACTIONS.

MANY FACTORS WILL BE IMPORTANT IN DETERMINING YOUR ACTUAL RESULTS

AND NO GUARANTEES ARE MADE THAT YOU WILL ACHIEVE RESULTS SIMILAR TO

OURS OR ANYBODY ELSE'S, IN FACT NO GUARANTEES ARE MADE THAT YOU WILL

ACHIEVE ANY RESULTS FROM OUR IDEAS AND TECHNIQUES IN OUR MATERIAL.

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for any direct, indirect, punitive, special, incidental or other consequential damages arising

directly or indirectly from any use of this material, which is provided “as is”, and without

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The author and publisher do not warrant the performance, effectiveness or applicability of any

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All links are for information purposes only and are not warranted for content, accuracy or any

other implied or explicit purpose.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction

5

DAY 1:

8

Getting Started with Greetings and Basic Expressions in Spanish

DAY 2:

12

Recognizing Letters and Sounds in the Spanish Alphabet

DAY 3:

16

Forming Spanish Nominal Words and Phrases

Gender-Specific Characteristic

Number-Specific Characteristic

Definite and Indefinite Articles

Learn More Spanish Nouns

DAY 4:

25

Getting Familiar with Spanish Pronouns

Subject Pronouns

Object Pronouns

Possessive Pronouns

Demonstratives

DAY 5:

29

Learn to Describe with Spanish Adjectives

DAY 6:

34

Making Longer and Complete Phrases with Prepositions

DAY 7:

36

Introduction to Spanish Verbs

AR Verbs

ER Verbs

IR Verbs

DAY 8:

43

Conjugating Verbs to Present Tense

Regular Forms

Irregular Forms

Ser vs. Estar

Present Progressive Form

DAY 9:

51

Conjugating Verbs to Past Tense

Regular Forms

Irregular Forms

DAY 10:

56

Conjugating Verbs to Future Tense

Regular Forms

Irregular Forms

Be-Going-To Form

DAY 11:

59

Forming Basic Spanish Sentences

Declarative Sentences

Interrogative Sentences

Imperative Sentences

DAY 12:

66

Familiarizing Situational Phrases

Asking for Directions

Giving Directions

At the Airport

Checking in at Hotels

Riding a Bus

Riding the Train

Hiring a Taxi

Hiring a Boat

Driving Cars

Shopping for Clothes

Shopping for Food

Dining Out and Ordering Food

Visiting the Beach

Doing Sports

Problems and Complaints

Dealing with Emergencies

Conclusion

75

INTRODUCTION

¡Buenas dias!

Spanish is one of the most spoken languages in the world. It belongs to the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European language family, and is primarily spoken at the Iberian Peninsula and Latin America of about 250 million people. It is also called Castilian, which was

derived from the dialect it came from. This language was brought and introduced by the Spaniards in Canary Island, Antilles, the Philippines, the southern part of North America, South

America, and the coast of Africa.

The Standard Spanish language is being spoken at 43 countries, not including Spain.

Most of them consider it as their official language and use it for business, education, industry,

politics, and everyday conversation.

This shows how widely popular the Spanish language is and how it will continue to be

for many years to come. Foreign language courses are already being offered at different colleges

and universities. Spanish training is always included in them. Students taking up such courses are

continuously increasing in number. New books and training materials are being published and

sold.

Aside from the possibility of having to deal with so many Spanish speakers in business or

education, another reason to learn Spanish is that it is regarded as a romantic language, both in

literature and everyday conversations.

This is the reason why a lot of movies and television programs nowadays use the language – to captivate and touch the hearts of millions of audiences. Imagine how many friends

and loved ones you can impress with lines like Te amo (I love you) or Te quiero (I need you) and actually knowing how they came to be!

Whether you’re having a hard time coping up with Spanish in school, you’re dealing with

many Spanish speakers in the office or business, or you simply like adding another entry on the

“language spoken” part on your résumé, you have chosen the right report to help you learn the

language by yourself.

With this report, you’ll be learning basic Spanish not within a whole year, not during one

term in school, not even a month! You can learn how to speak Spanish confidently in just 12

days, or even less! Imagine that.

Common foreign language trainings usually bombard you with thousands of words and

phrases in their vocabulary. They let you memorize these words and phrases until you get used to

speaking them out – without really knowing how they became that way.

How this book differs from those word factories is that it applies the linguistic approach

in training you to learn the language effectively. This means, as a foreign language learner, you

start by studying the letters and sounds of the language. From these sounds, you create words and

phrases. As you gather up these words, you’ll be able to form sentences.

In the first few days of your training using this report, you’ll be concentrating on Spanish

sounds. This is important as you will be encountering sounds that are not present in the English

language, or sounds familiar to your native tongue but not used in the Spanish language.

Sounds are among the fundamentals of one language because all throughout your language training, you’ll be using these sounds as you speak out words and form sentences.

From the 3rd to the 10th day, you will be forming different kinds of Spanish words and

phrases. These words consist of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, prepositions, and verbs. Among

these basic parts of speech, more days will be given to the training of verbs as they are the most

important and complicated topic in learning the Spanish language. You will be taught to conjugate different types of verbs according to tenses such as past, present, and future.

Finally, as you approach the 11th day of our training, you’ll be able to compose sentences

in Spanish using the words and phrases you’ve learned. Recall that simple sentences are actually

composed of only a subject and a predicate, where a subject can be as simple as a pronoun, and a

predicate can be composed of only a verb. Hence, excellent knowledge of word formation will

help you a lot in forming sentences.

During your final day of training, you will be provided with some useful situational

phrases you can use when you actually deal with Spanish culture, like when you visit Spanish

countries or live with Spanish people.

Are you still unconvinced that you can learn the language in just 12 days? It’s always

easier said than done. Nevertheless, if you really put your mind to it, and if you’re determined to achieve success, you can actually learn to speak Spanish in 1 day – if you choose to finish

reading and comprehending the book today!

With faith and patience, nothing is impossible. In Spanish, nada es imposible. So, are you ready to speak Spanish?

Click here if you want to improve your spoken Spanish, including your pronunciation, and

understand spoken Spanish, all in an efficient and effective way...

DAY 1:

Getting Started with Greetings and Basic Expressions in Spanish

The first step to learning a new language is being familiar with its greetings and most

basic phrases. Listed below are everyday expressions in Spanish words, with pronunciation guides, to help you enunciate them properly. Please be reminded that when written, the Spanish

language use both the inverted question mark (¿) and inverted exclamation mark (¡) at the beginning of every interrogative and exclamatory sentence, respectively.

¡Hola!

[oh-lah]

‘Hi, Hello’

¡Hola! is the most basic Spanish expression in greeting other people. It means ‘hi’ or

‘hello’. It can be used both for people you know, and for those you don’t know to get them to

notice you. This is also the phrase used when answering calls from the phone, followed by a

good morning or good evening in Spanish.

Note: Spanish people do not pronounce the letter /h/, making it a silent letter, except

when used in the /ch/ sound. Thus, the above expression should not be read [hoh-lah] but [oh-

lah].

To Remember Easily: Change the common hello to hallo. Interchange the position of the vowels /o/ and /a/ to make it holla, then eventually hola, without pronouncing the letter /h/.

¡Buenos dias!

¡Buenas tardes!

¡Buenas noches!

[bwe-nos di-yahs]

[bwe-nas tar-des]

[bwe-nas noh-ches]

‘Good morning/day’

‘Good afternoon’

‘Good evening/night’

These are the daily or timely greetings in Spanish. Similar to English, they are composed

of two words, namely bien which means ‘good’ and the Spanish words for morning, afternoon,

and night.

To Remember Easily: Dias is ‘day(s)’ in Spanish (Note the change of /y/ to /i/ and the rearrangement of letters). Since daytime is usually associated with mornings, you should not

forget that ¡Buenos Dias! is to be greeted to a person during the morning.

To associate the Spanish tardes with ‘afternoon,’ simply imagine the time of the day

when you feel the laziest or, say, tardiest – during the afternoon! Now you know why you

always feel like taking a short nap after lunch.

Using alliteration, a literary style where words beginning with the same consonant are

placed together in a phrase or sentence, we can easily relate noches with its English translation meaning ‘night’ since they both start with the letter /n/.

¿Cómo te llamas?

¿Cómo se llama?

[ko-mo te lya-mas]

[ko-mo se lya-mah]

‘What is your name?’

‘What is your name?’ (Formal)

Literally, these phrases mean ‘How do you call yourself?’ The former is being used

during informal or casual conversations, like when asking a lost kid what his name is, when

meeting new acquaintances in school or organizations, or when getting to know a person younger

or the same age as you are. The latter is being used during formal instances, like when talking to

an elder or anybody with high societal and political positions like professors, mayor, or your

friend’s mother. The literal translation of “What is your name in Spanish?” is…

¿Qué es tú nombre?

[ke es tu nom-bre]

‘What is your name?’

If someone asks for your name using any of the above questions, you may also respond

with various answers:

Yo soy [name].

Me llamo [name].

Mi nombre es [name].

[yo soy … ]

[me lya-mo … ]

[mi nom-bre es … ]

‘I am …’

‘I am called …’

‘My name is …’

Though there are variations when telling your name in Spanish, all are accepted and are

used to introduce yourself to other people. However, be reminded that the first introduction is

usually a response to the direct question ¿Quién eres tú? or ‘Who are you?’; the second introduction is the most common response among Spanish; and the third introduction is used

when giving emphasis to what your name is (i.e. My name is [name1], not [name2]).

¿Qué tal?

¿Como estas?

[ke tal]

[ko-mo es-tas]

‘What’s up?’

‘How are you?’

Both expressions above are used for asking how another person is today, what he has

been doing lately, how he is feeling, and the likes.

Note: When talking formally, use esta instead of estas in the latter expression. The topic on formality in the Spanish Language, especially on pronouns, will be discussed on Day 4.

(Muy) Bien

(Muy) Mal

[(muy) byen]

[(muy) mal]

‘(Very) Good’

‘(Very) Bad’

Questions on knowing ‘how you are doing’ can be answered depending on how you are

actually feeling during the moment you are asked. Hence, from the options above, you can reply

with a good, a very good, a bad, or a very bad.

To Remember Easily: Know that muy is ‘much’ in English, literally. Hence, if something is much, extreme words like ‘very’ should be used to emphasize it. In this case, ‘very’

is translated as muy.

As we have already mentioned earlier, bien is ‘good;’ while mal is ‘bad.’ If you can’t relate the English word to its Spanish counterpart using creative thoughts, try associating the

number of letters from one to another – both bien and ‘good’ has 4 letters, while both bad and

‘mal’ has 3 letters.

Por favor

[por fa-vor]

‘Please’

Por favor is the Spanish way of showing respect when asking a favor. It can be used

either at the beginning of your sentence or at the end.

To Remember Easily: Don’t you usually say please when you ask por (for) a favor?

Gracias

De nada

[gra-thyas]

[de na-dha]

‘Thank you’

‘You’re welcome’ or

‘Don’t mention it’

To Remember Easily: Gracia, without /s/, is ‘grace’ or ‘blessing’ in English. Don’t you say thank you for all the gracia(s) you receive? De nada literally means ‘it’s nothing.’ When it’s nothing, you don’t have to mention it.

¡Adiós!

[a-dhyos]

‘Goodbye’

¡Adios! or ‘goodbye’ is used when you bid farewell to somebody you know – whether

personally or through the telephone. It’s like wishing that God be with the other person as he

continues his journey as a diós literally means ‘to God.’

Click here if you want to improve your spoken Spanish, including your pronunciation, and

understand spoken Spanish, all in an efficient and effective way...

DAY 2:

Recognizing Letters and Sounds in the Spanish Alphabet

As you are now familiar with the everyday greetings in Spanish, you can start learning

the Spanish alphabet. You must know how each letter is called, and the sound it produces.

The Spanish alphabet is composed of 30 letters. However, Spanish sounds are more than

the total number of letters, as there are instances that a letter is pronounced in various ways

according to its position in a word.

In addition, each letter has a name different from the ABC’s of English. The table below

will show you how each letter in Spanish is called, how each one of them is pronounced, and

some examples for practice.

Alphabet

Name

Pronounce It!

Examples

A

a

[ah]

/ah/ as in English other, shut, son

alto ‘tall’

[al-to]

B

b

[beh]

/b/ as in English boy, about, crib

bien ‘good’

[byen]

C

c

[theh]

/k/ as in English cup, rocky, milk

cuatro ‘four’

when followed by the vowels a, o, u

[kwat-ro]

/th/ as in English thin, Catherine, math

cinco ‘five’

when followed by the vowels e, I

[thing-ko]

Ch

ch

[cheh]

/ch/ as in English child, Richard, beach

chica ‘girl’

[chi-ka]

D

d

[deh]

/d/ as is English doll, idea, glad

donde ‘where’

when used in the start of a word or syllable [don-de]

/th/ as is then, mother, breathe

nada ‘nothing’

when placed in between vowels in a word

[na-dha]

E

e

[eh]

/eh/ as in English enter, let, said

estado ‘state’

[es-ta-dho]

F

f

[eh-feh]

/f/ as in English fan, raffle, wife

falso ‘false’

[fal-so]

G

g

[keh]

/g/ as in English gift, beagle, dog

gordo ‘fat’

when followed by the vowels a, o, u

[gor-do]

gargled /k/ as in German Bach when

gente ‘person’

followed by the vowels e, I

[khen-te]

H

h

[ah-cheh]

the letter h is not pronounced in Spanish

hasta ‘until’

words making it a silent letter

[as-ta]

I

I

[i]

/i/ as in English income, hit, pity

ídolo ‘idol’

[i-do-lo]

J

j

[hoh-tah]

gargled /k/ as in German Bach

jabón ‘soap’

[kha-bon]

K

k

[kah]

/k/ as in English kite, wacky, silk

kilo ‘kilo’

[ki-lo]

L

l

[eh-leh]

/l/ as in English light, blame, ball

lapiz ‘pencil’

[la-piz]

Ll

ll

[eh-lyeh]

/ly/ as in English galleon

llover ‘rain’

[lyo-ver]

M

m

[eh-meh]

/m/ as in English money, summit, tame

mal ‘bad’

[mal]

N

n

[eh-neh]

/n/ as in English net, tiny, green

norte ‘north’

[nor-te]

Ñ

ñ

[eh-nyeh]

/ny/ as in English canyon, onion

ñaque ‘junk’

[nya-ke]

O

o

[oh]

/o/ as in English Auckland, saw, decor

obra ‘work’

[ob-ra]

P

p

[peh]

/p/ as in English party, happy, leap

pato ‘duck’

[pa-to]

Q

q

[kuh]

/k/ as in English kite, wacky, silk

quema ‘fire’

[ke-ma]

R

r

[eh-reh]

/r/ as in English roll, mark, lyre

robo ‘robbery’

[ro-bo]

Rr

rr

[ehr-reh]

/r/ with a roll of the tongue; hard /r/

correr ‘to run’

[kor-rer]

S

s

[eh-seh]

/s/ as in English son, daisy, office

salsa ‘sauce’

[sal-sa]

T

t

[teh]

/t/ as in English time, later, belt

taza ‘cup’

[ta-za]

U

u

[uh]

/u/ as in English put, book, push

único ‘single’

[u-ni-ko]

V

v

[uh-veh]

/v/ as in English vase, lava, have

vaca ‘cow’

when used in the start of a word or syllable [va-ka]

soft /b/ when placed in between vowels

ave ‘bird’

[a-be]

W

w

[uh-veh

/w/ as in English whale, lower, show

wáter ‘toilet’

do-ble]

[wa-ter]

X

x

[eh-kis]

gargled /k/ as in German Bach when

Xavier (name)

used in the start of a word

[khav-yer]

/ks/ as in English taxi, box, fix when

sexto ‘sixth’

placed inside a word

[seks-to]

Y

y

[i-gri-yeh-gah] /y/ as in English yoyo, boy, Sunday

yate ‘yacth’

[ya-te]

/i/ as in English receive, cream, ski when

used as the conjunction y ‘and’

Z

z

[zeh-tah]

/z/ as in English zebra, lazy, buzz

zona ‘zone’

[zo-na]

To summarize, sounds not present or are very minimal in the English language but are

common in Spanish includes /ch/, /th/, gargled /k/ of German, /ly/, /ny/, /rr/, and the soft /b/.

Meanwhile, the letter h is common in the written language of Spanish, but is not pronounced

verbally unless it belongs to the /ch/ sound.

As this day ends, you should now be able to recite the 30 letters of the Spanish alphabet

using the names they are called (ah, beh, theh, etc.), distinguish the different sounds made by

some letters like c, d, g, v, x, and y according to certain conditions, and cite some examples

where all letters and sounds can be observed.

Click here if you want to improve your spoken Spanish, including your pronunciation, and

understand spoken Spanish, all in an efficient and effective way...

DAY 3:

Forming Spanish Nominal Words and Phrases

With enough knowledge on Spanish letters and sounds, you are now ready to begin

forming words and phrases. On this 3rd day of training, the focus will be on forming nominal

words and phrases. These are what we usually call nouns. These words name people, places,

animals, events, and even abstract entities.

Spanish is a gender- and number-specific language. This means that its words, particularly nouns and adjectives, contain within them the categorization whether they are masculine, feminine, or neuter; and whether they are plural or singular.

Gender-Specific Characteristic

Nouns in Spanish may be classified according to gender – masculine, feminine, or neuter.

How do we know which gender fits which noun?

To help you resolve this problem, I’d like you to meet two good friends of mine: Lawrence, a clever guy from California, and Dazcion, a pretty maiden from Mexico. Lawrence

can help you remind which nouns in Spanish are masculine because he is a guy, while Dazcion

can do the same for feminine nouns. How is that possible? Read on.

Spanish nouns ending in L, O, R, E, N, and S are masculine. Here are some examples:

Árbol

[ar-bol]

‘tree’

Azucar

[ah-zu-kar]

‘sugar’

Barrio

[bar-ryo]

‘town’

Bebé

[be-be]

‘baby’

Cinturón

[sin-tu-ron]

‘belt’

Disco

[dis-ko]

‘disk’

Examen

[ek-sa-men]

‘exam’

Freno

[fre-no]

‘brake’

Garaje

[ga-ra-he]

‘garage’

Hombre

[om-bre]

‘man’

Imán

[i-man]

‘magnet’

Jamón

[ha-mon]

‘ham’

Libro

[lib-roh]

‘book’

Miedo

[mye-do]

‘fear’

Nombre

[nom-bre]

‘name’

Oído

[oy-do]

‘ear’

País

[pa-is]

‘country’

Pupitre

[pu-pit-re]

‘desk’

Queso

[ke-so]

‘cheese’

Regalo

[reh-ga-lo]

‘gift’

Sello

[sel-yo]

‘stamp’

Tacón

[ta-kon]

‘heel’

Traje

[tra-he]

‘dress’

Zorro

[zor-ro]

‘fox’

On the other hand, nouns ending in D, A, Z, and Cion are feminine. Some examples are

shown below:

Agua

[ah-gwa]

‘water’

Barba

[bar-ba]

‘beard’

Blusa

[blu-sa]

‘blouse’

Cama

[ka-ma]

‘bed’

Circulación

[sir-ku-la-thyon] ’traffic’

Cosa

[ko-sa]

‘thing’

Dirección

[di-rek-thyon] ‘address’

Estrella

[es-tre-lya]

‘star’

Fruta

[fru-ta]

‘fruit’

Guerra

[ger-ra]

‘war’

Hora

[oh-ra]

‘hour’

Hierba

[yer-ba]

‘grass’

Iglesia

[ig-le-sya]

‘church’

Juventud

[hu-ven-tud] ‘youth’

Luz

[luz]

‘light’

Mancha

[man-cha]

‘stain’

Nación

[na-syon]

‘nation’

Página

[pa-hi-na]

‘page’

Profesión

[pro-fe-syon] ‘profession, job’

Querida

[ke-ri-da]

‘dear’

Red

[red]

‘net’

Suela

[swe-la]

‘sole’

Salud

[sa-lud]

‘health’

Tinta

[tin-ta]

‘ink’

Uña

[uh-nya]

‘nail’

Voz

[voz]

‘voice’

Vida

[vi-da]

‘life’

Zona

[zo-na]

‘zone’

Hence, when you encounter a Spanish noun, all you have to do is look at its ending and

see if it belongs to Lawrence (L-O-R-E-N-S) or Dazcion to know its gender. However, there are

some exceptions to these rules. You would notice that most of them are borrowed words from

other languages like English. Observe the table below:

Masculine Nouns

Feminine Nouns

Not Ending in L-O-R-E-N-S

Not Ending in Dazcion

Arroz

[ar-roz]

‘rice’

Calle

[ka-lye]

‘street’

Bistec

[bis-tek]

‘steak’

Cancer

[kan-ser] ‘cancer’

Champu

[cham-pu]

‘shampoo’

Carcel

[kar-sel] ‘prison’

Dia

[di-ya]

‘day’

Carne

[kar-ne]

‘meat’

Esqui

[es-ki]

‘ski’

Flor

[flor] ‘flower’

Fax

[faks]

‘fax’

Ley

[ley]

‘law’

Mapa

[ma-pa]

‘map’

Lente

[len-te]

‘lens’

Menú

[me-nu]

‘menu’

Mujer

[mu-her]

‘wife’

Pez

[pez]

‘fish’

Noche

[noh-cheh]

‘night’

Programma

[pro-gra-ma] ‘programme’

Orden

[or-den] ‘command’

Reloj

[re-loh]

‘watch’

Razón

[ra-zon] ‘reason’

Rey

[rey]

‘king’

Suerte

[swer-te]

‘luck’

You should also note that not because the actual entity which is being referred by the

word is associated with a certain gender (i.e., pants for men, skirts for women); the word takes

the gender of the actual thing. Look how ironic Spanish nouns can be just for the sake of

following its gender-specific characteristic:

Masculine Nouns

Feminine Nouns

Camison

[ka-mi-son]

‘nightdress’

Cantera

[kan-te-ra]

’case’

Pantys

[pan-tis]

‘thights’

Corbata

[kor-ba-ta]

’tie’

Paraguas

[pa-ra-gwas] ‘umbrella’

Ginebra

[khi-ne-bra]

‘gin’

Salvaslips

[sal-vas-lips] ‘panty liner’

Gorra

[gor-rah]

‘cap’

Sujetador [su-he-ta-dor] ‘bra’

Guardia

[gwar-dya]

‘guard’

Pendiante

[pen-dyan-te] ‘earrings’

Guitarra

[gi-tar-ra]

‘guitar’

Nouns referring to persons and animals are inflected depending on the gender of the noun

being referred to:

Masculine Nouns

Feminine Nouns

Meaning

Arquitekto

[ar-ki-tek-to]

Arquitekta

[ar-ki-tek-ta]

‘architect’

Cajero

[ka-he-ro]

Cajera

[ka-he-ra]

‘cashier’

Chico

[chi-ko]

Chica

[chi-ka]

‘boy/girl’

Director

[di-rek-tor]

Direktora

[di-rek-to-ra]

‘director’

Dueño

[dwe-nyo]

Dueña

[dwe-nya]

‘owner’

Esposo

[es-poh-so]

Esposa

[es-poh-sa]

‘spouse’

Granjero

[gran-he-ro]

Granhera

[gran-he-ra]

‘farmer’

Hermano

[er-ma-no]

Hermana

[er-ma-na]

‘sibling’

Huesped

[wes-ped]

Huespeda

[wes-pe-da]

‘guest’

Hijo

[i-ho]

Hija

[i-ha]

‘son/daughter’

Ladron

[lad-ron]

Ladrona

[lad-ro-na]

‘thief’

Medico

[me-di-ko]

Medica

[me-di-ka]

‘doctor’

Nieto

[nye-to]

Nieta

[nye-ta]

‘grandchild’

Perro

[per-ro]

Perra

[per-ra]

‘dog’

Notice that most of the masculine nouns referring to persons and animals above end in -o

or use the base form (without any suffix) of the word, while the feminine nouns end in -a.

The third gender in Spanish noun classification is called neuter. Words belonging to this

category can be both male and female, depending on the actual gender of the noun being referred

to. They do not need to be inflected with any suffix. Look at some examples below:

Agente

[ah-hken-te]

‘agent’

Adolescente

[ah-doh-le-sen-te]

‘adolescent’

Artista

[ar-tis-ta]

‘artist’

Canguro

[kan-gu-ro]

‘babysitter’

Ciclista

[si-klis-ta]

‘cyclist’

Cliente

[kli-yen-te]

‘client, customer’

Especialista

[es-pe-sya-lis-ta]

‘specialist’

Estudiante

[es-tu-dyan-te]

‘student’

Gerente

[he-ren-te]

‘manager’

Periodista

[per-yo-dis-ta]

‘journalist’

Policia

[po-li-thyah]

‘policeman, policewoman’

Representante

[re-pre-sen-tan-te]

‘representative’

Number-Specific Characteristic

Similar to English, Spanish can be inflected for number – an affix is placed on words to

show plurality. Below are the rules in forming plural nouns in Spanish:

1. Add -s to nouns ending in vowels.

Vaca

Vacas

[va-kas]

‘cows’

Gato

Gatos

[ga-tos]

‘cats’

Plaza

Plazas

[pla-zas]

‘towns’

Calle

Calles

[ka-lyes]

‘streets’

Tía

Tías

[ti-yas]

‘aunts’

2. Add -es to nouns ending in consonants except /s/.

Papel

Papeles

[pa-pe-les]

‘papers’

Color

Colores

[ko-lo-res]

‘colors’

Ciudad

Ciudades

[thyu-da-des] ‘cities’

Hotel

Hoteles

[o-te-les]

‘hotels’

Flor

Flores

[flo-res]

‘flowers’

3. Most nouns ending in /s/ remain themselves when pluralized.

Jueves

Jueves

[khwe-ves]

‘Thursdays’

4. Add -es to some other nouns ending in /s/.

Mes

Meses

[me-ses]

‘months’

País

Países

[pay-ses]

‘countries’

5. For nouns ending in /z/, change first the letter /z/ to /c/ before adding -es.

Pez

Peces

[pe-thes]

‘fishes’

Luz

Luces

[lu-thes]

‘lights’

Vez

Veces

[ve-thes]

‘number of times’

Voz

Voces

[vo-thes]

‘voices’

Lapiz

Lapices

[la-pi-thes]

‘pencils’

Apart from adding the suffixes -s and -es, numbers can be observed in Spanish nouns by using the numerals themselves with the nouns. They should agree with one another – if the noun

is more than one, a plural suffix should be present in the word. Here is the table for Spanish