Improving persistently low-performing schools is a core goal of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. As a result, policymakers have sought ways to address the increasingly large numbers of schools identified as low-performing. Across the nation, 13,457 schools failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) in 2007–08. Of those, 1,583 were planning for restructuring, and 3,358 were in the first year of implementing restructuring. These numbers are likely to rise because many states have established progressively ambitious targets for meeting the NCLB goal of student proficiency by 2013–14.