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FM 3-22.34(FM 23-34)

NOVEMBER 2003

HEADQUARTERS

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

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*FM

3-22.34(FM 23-34)

FIELD MANUAL

HEADQUARTERS

NO. 3-22.34(23-34)

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

Washington, DC, 28 November 2003

TOW WEAPON SYSTEM

CONTENTS

Page

Preface................................................................................................................................ iv CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

1-1.

Characteristics........................................................................... 1-1

1-2.

System

Configurations.............................................................. 1-2

1-3.

Missile Configurations and Types ............................................ 1-5

1-4.

TOW Missile Identification...................................................... 1-6

1-5.

Internal Components and Sequence of Operations................... 1-8

1-6.

TOW

Training

Strategy .......................................................... 1-11

CHAPTER 2. TRIPOD-MOUNTED TOW/TOW 2

Section I.

Operation

Procedures............................................................................ 2-1

2-1.

System

Checkout ...................................................................... 2-1

2-2.

Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services.......................... 2-1

2-3.

Selection of Firing Positions..................................................... 2-1

2-4.

Preparation

of

Missiles ............................................................. 2-2

Section

II. Performance Problems and Destruction Procedures............................. 2-2

2-5.

Malfunctions ............................................................................. 2-2

2-6.

Firing

Limitations ..................................................................... 2-4

2-7.

Destruction

of

TOW Weapon Systems..................................... 2-9

CHAPTER 3. M966-MOUNTED TOW/TOW 2

Section I.

Individual

Duties and Responsibilities ................................................. 3-1

3-1.

Squad

Leader ............................................................................ 3-1

3-2.

Gunner ...................................................................................... 3-2

3-3.

Driver-Loader ........................................................................... 3-2

Section II.

Operation

Procedures............................................................................ 3-3

3-4.

Equipment

Storage.................................................................... 3-3

3-5.

HMMWV Interchangeable Mount System............................... 3-5

3-6.

Preparation

of

an M966 for TOW Firing.................................. 3-6

3-7.

Loading, Arming, and Unloading........................................... 3-12

3-8.

Target

Engagement ................................................................. 3-15

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 23-34, 17 August 1994.

i

FM 3-22.34

Page

3-9.

Immediate

Action ................................................................... 3-15

3-10.

M220A1

Dismount ................................................................. 3-20

3-11.

M220A1

Remount .................................................................. 3-21

3-12. M220A2 Dismount (Ready-to-Fire Configuration)................ 3-23

3-13. M220A2 Remount (Ready-to-Fire Configuration)................. 3-24

3-14.

Firing

Limitations ................................................................... 3-25

CHAPTER 4. TOW TRAINING PROGRAM

Section

I. Training Assessment and Planning....................................................... 4-1

4-1.

Commander’s

Responsibility.................................................... 4-1

4-2.

Sustainment

Training and Evaluation....................................... 4-2

4-3.

TOW

Training

Guidelines ........................................................ 4-2

4-4.

TOW

Gunnery

Tables............................................................... 4-4

4-5.

Conduct of Unit TOW Training................................................ 4-4

4-6.

Collective

Training ................................................................... 4-5

Section

II. TOW Training Phases........................................................................... 4-5

4-7.

Phase I: Individual Training ..................................................... 4-6

4-8.

Phase II: Squad Training......................................................... 4-18

4-9.

Phase III: Section Training ..................................................... 4-25

4-10. Phase IV: Platoon Training..................................................... 4-30

4-11.

Field

Tracking......................................................................... 4-37

CHAPTER 5. COMBAT TECHNIQUES OF FIRE

Section

I. Fire Control Measures .......................................................................... 5-1

5-1.

Target Engagement Determination........................................... 5-1

5-2.

Fire

Commands......................................................................... 5-5

5-3.

Target

Tracking......................................................................... 5-8

5-4.

Target Engagement with the M220A1 (Basic TOW)............... 5-9

5-5.

Target Engagement with M220A2 (TOW 2).......................... 5-11

Section II.

Helicopter

Engagement....................................................................... 5-12

5-6.

Operational

Concept ............................................................... 5-12

5-7.

Gunnery

Training.................................................................... 5-12

Section

III. NBC and Limited Visibility Conditions ............................................. 5-13

5-8.

Decontamination..................................................................... 5-13

5-9.

Thermal Target Recognition, Identification, and

Engagement ............................................................................ 5-13

5-10. Effects of Weather and Obscurants ........................................ 5-14

5-11. Compensation for Target Appearance Variables.................... 5-15

5-12.

Battlefield

Identification......................................................... 5-16

Section IV.

Electrooptical

Countermeasures ......................................................... 5-16

5-13.

TOW

Launcher ....................................................................... 5-16

5-14.

TOW

2

Launcher .................................................................... 5-17

APPENDIX A. TOW TRAINING TIPS ................................................................. A-1

APPENDIX B. TRAIN-THE-TRAINER PROGRAM ...........................................B-1

APPENDIX C. FIGHTING POSITIONS ................................................................C-1

ii

FM 3-22.34

Page

APPENDIX D. STANDARD RANGE CARD ........................................................ D-1

APPENDIX E. SAFETY............................................................................................E-1

APPENDIX F. TOW TRAINING DEVICES..........................................................F-1

APPENDIX G. COMBAT VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION.................................. G-1

APPENDIX H. OPFOR/THREAT COUNTERPART SYSTEMS....................... H-1

GLOSSARY........................................................................................................Glossary-1

REFERENCES............................................................................................... References-1

INDEX...................................................................................................................... Index-1

iii

FM 3-22.34