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FM 3-31

MCWP 3-40.7

S

i e

Joint Force

Land Component

Commander

Handbook

(JFLCC)

DECEMBER 2001

HEADQUARTERS,

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION:

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

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Preface

SCOPE

This handbook provides guidance for planning and conducting land operations requiring the close coordination of Army forces and Marine Corps forces under the control of a joint force land component commander within a joint operations area. It presents considerations and options that joint force commanders can employ when designating a joint force land component commander and describes the authority and responsibilities of a joint force land component commander.

PURPOSE

This handbook describes guidance for establishing the command relationship based on the joint force commander’s concept of operations. It addresses formation, functions, and organization of the joint force land component commander. It also discusses the operational questions of who, what, when, and how of operations in support of major operations or campaigns by a joint force commander. It is not the intent of this handbook to supplant approved joint doctrine; nor is it the intent to restrict the authority of the joint force commander from organizing the force and executing the mission in a manner he deems most appropriate to ensure unity of effort in the accomplishment of the overall mission.

APPLICATION

The guidance in this handbook applies to combatant commanders, sub-joint task forces, and subordinate components of these commands. This handbook is used for guidance and reference only. If conflicts arise between the contents of this publication and the contents of joint publications, the joint publications will take precedence for the activities of joint forces.

JOHN N. ABRAMS

B.B. KNUTSON, JR.

General, U.S. Army

Lieutenant General, USMC

Commanding General

Commanding General

U.S. Army Training and Doctrine

Marine Corps Combat

Command

Development Command

v

FM 3-31

MCWP 3-40.7

Headquarters

Field Manual

Department of the Army

No. 3-31

Washington DC, 13 December 2001

Joint Force

Land Component Commander Handbook

(JFLCC)

Table of Contents

PAGE

Preface

..............................................................................v Chapter I Authority and Functions of Joint Force Land

Component Commander

Scope................................................................................. I-1

Purpose ............................................................................ I-1

Role and Authority of the Combatant Commander ............ I-2

Functions of the Combatant Commands............................ I-2

Authority over Subordinate Commanders .......................... I-3

Functional Component Command Authority ...................... I-3

Command Relationships.................................................... I-4

Chapter II Command, Control, and Command Relationships

Command Relationships................................................... II-1

JFLC Command Relationships ......................................... II-3

Command Relationships with the JFC .............................. II-4

Command Relationships with Functional Components..... II-4

Functional Component Support Relationships .................. II-5

Command Relationships with Service Components ......... II-6

Liaison .............................................................................. II-8

Planning.......................................................................... II-11

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

i

JFLCC Handbook

Process............................................................................II-11

Communications..............................................................II-13

Chapter III Responsibilities, Roles, and Functions

JFLCC Responsibilities and Roles....................................III-1

JFLCC Functions ..............................................................III-2

Multinational Considerations.............................................III-6

Chapter IV Considerations for Forming a JFLC Command

Establishing Authority ...................................................... IV-1

Defining the Area of Operations ...................................... IV-1

Organizing ....................................................................... IV-4

Employing........................................................................ IV-6

Timing.............................................................................. IV-8

Forming the Staff ............................................................. IV-8

Forming the Command Element...................................... IV-8

Sourcing the Forces....................................................... IV-11

Liaison, Board, and Cell Requirements ......................... IV-12

Appendix A Intelligence

General............................................................................. A-1

Offices, Centers, and Teams ............................................ A-2

Appendix B Movement and Maneuver

General............................................................................. B-1

Key Considerations........................................................... B-1

Appendix C Administration and Logistics

General............................................................................. C-1

Directive Authority for Logistics ........................................ C-1

Common User Logistics.................................................... C-3

Logistics Planning............................................................. C-4

Boards and Centers.......................................................... C-4

Functions of the J-1 and J-4 ............................................. C-6

Appendix D Firepower

General............................................................................. D-1

Fires Mission .................................................................... D-1

Resources ........................................................................ D-1

Targeting .......................................................................... D-2

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JFLCC Handbook

Joint Targeting Process Functions and Responsibilities ...D-3

Fires Synchronization and Coordination ...........................D-3

Targeting Coordination Board ...........................................D-4

Component Target Coordination Responsibilities .............D-7

Air Tasking Order..............................................................D-8

Effects Assessment ..........................................................D-9

Appendix E Force Protection

General ............................................................................. E-1

Theater Air and Missile Defense ....................................... E-2

Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Defense ...................... E-3

Antiterrorism Measures..................................................... E-4

Defensive Information Operations..................................... E-5

Physical Security Measures .............................................. E-6

Operations Security Measures.......................................... E-6

Planning............................................................................ E-7

Appendix F Notional Headquarters Organization

General ............................................................................. F-1

Staff .................................................................................. F-1

Staff Responsibilities......................................................... F-2

Appendix G Multinational Considerations

General .............................................................................G-1

Land Component Command Headquarters and Staff .......G-2

Command Focus...............................................................G-3

Coordination and Control ..................................................G-3

Standardize Procedures ...................................................G-4

Intelligence Collection and Dissemination.........................G-4

Communications ...............................................................G-5

Integration of Capabilities .................................................G-6

Rules of Engagement .......................................................G-6

Logistics............................................................................G-7

Appendix H Operational Tasks

General .............................................................................H-1

Scope................................................................................H-1

Core Tasks/Functions .......................................................H-2

Glossary

........................................................... Glossary-1

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JFLCC Handbook

Bibliography

.............................................. Bibliography-1

iv

Acknowledgement

This handbook would not have been possible without the guidance and advice of many great individuals. The US Army and US

Marines are extremely grateful to the experts who provided their time, expertise, and encouragement. While it is impossible to list everyone, special recognition is given to—

LtCol Mark Triplett, USMC, and MAJ Ken Bowman, USA,

co-authors. Special thanks to COL John Bonin, USA;

COL Vincent Brooks, USA; COL Rick Steinke, USA;

LtCol Michael Bulawka, USMC; LTC Buffy Wilcox, USA;

LtCol Andrew Gerke, USMC; LTC Charles Guerry, USA;

LTC Charles Maurer, USA; LTC Steve Wallace, USA;

MAJ Andrew Curthoys, USA; MAJ Paul Davis, USA;

Mr. Bo Bielinski; Mr. Douglas Agee; Mr. William Shugrue;

Mr. Terry Patterson; Mr. Steve Leeder; and the members of

the Joint Force Land Component Commander’s Working

Group.

Corrections or suggestions for improvement of this handbook are welcome. Comments should be forwarded to HQ TRADOC,

DCSDOC, Joint and Army Doctrine Directorate, Ingalls Road,

Building 133, Fort Monroe, Virginia 23651-5000. The telephone number is DSN 680-3892, commercial (757) 788-3892.

This publication is available on the

General Dennis J. Reimer Training

And Doctrine Digital Library at

www.adtdl.army.mil

Chapter I

Authority and Functions

of

Joint Force Land Component Commander

SCOPE

I-1. This handbook is designed for planning and conducting land operations requiring the close coordination of Army forces (ARFOR) and Marine Corps forces (MARFOR) under the control of a joint force land component commander (JFLCC) within the joint operations area (JOA).

Joint force land component (JFLC) command operations addressed are primarily those involving large forces to include Army divisions and Marine expeditionary forces (MEFs) and the conduct of operations outside of an amphibious objective area (AOA), if designated. This handbook is also useful for planning and conducting land operations across the range of military operations and in multinational environments.

PURPOSE

I-2. Formation, functions, and organization of the JFLC command are addressed herein. Also discussed are the operational questions of who, what, when, and how of JFLC command operations in support of a campaign by a joint force commander (JFC). Joint doctrine establishes that the JFLCC option is available to the JFC. However, the doctrine necessary for planning and executing the JFLCC concept is still evolving. This United States Army (USA)/United States Marine Corps (USMC) handbook

provides information and guidance to assist readers in the forming, planning, training, and execution of the JFLCC concept.

Functional component commands can be appropriate

when forces from two or more Military Departments must

operate in the same dimension or medium or there is a

need to accomplish a distinct aspect of the assigned

mission.

Joint Pub (JP) 5-00.2

I-1

JFLCC Handbook

ROLE AND AUTHORITY

OF THE COMBATANT COMMANDER

I-3. Unified action demands maximum interoperability. The forces, units, and systems of all Services achieve interoperability through collective efforts to develop and use joint doctrine; joint tactics, techniques, and procedures; and through the conduct of joint training. Joint forces can be established on either a geographic or functional basis. JFCs have the authority to organize forces to best accomplish the assigned mission based on their concept of operations (CONOPS). The organization should be sufficiently flexible to meet the planned phases of the campaign or major operation and any development that necessitates a change in plan. It should also optimize the capabilities of each component while maintaining the requisite unity of effort to attain the military objectives.

FUNCTIONS OF THE COMBATANT COMMANDS

I-4. Unless otherwise directed by the President or the Secretary of Defense (SecDef), the authority, direction, and control of the commander of a combatant command (COCOM), with respect to the commands and the forces assigned to that command, are shown in Figure I-1.

• Giving authoritative direction to subordinate commands and forces necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command, including authoritative direction over al aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics.

• Prescribing the chain of command to the commands and forces within the command.

• Organizing commands and forces within that command as necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command.

• Employing forces within that command as necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command.

• Assigning command functions to subordinate commanders.

• Coordinating and approving those aspects of administration, support (including control of resources and equipment, internal organization, and training), and discipline necessary to carry out missions assigned to the command.

• Exercising the authority with respect to selecting subordinate commanders, selecting combatant command staff, suspending subordinates, and convening courts-martial as delineated in Chapter 6, title 10, US Code.

Figure I-1. General Functions of a Combatant Commander

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JFLCC Handbook

AUTHORITY OVER

SUBORDINATE COMMANDERS

I-5. Unless otherwise directed by the President or the SecDef—

• Commanders of commands and forces assigned to a combatant

commander are under the authority, direction, and control of, and are responsible to, the combatant commander.

• The subordinate commander communicates with other elements of the Department of Defense (DOD) on matters the combatant

commander is assigned authority for in accordance with procedures, if any, established by the combatant commander.

• Other elements of DOD communicate with the subordinate

commander on matters the combatant commander is assigned

authority for in accordance with established procedures.

• The subordinate commander advises the combatant commander, if so directed, of all communications to and from other elements of DOD

on matters the combatant commander has not been assigned authority for.

A joint force commander (JFC) is a combatant

commander, subunified commander, or joint task force

(JTF) commander authorized to exercise combatant

command (command authority) or operational control

over a joint force.

FUNCTIONAL COMPONENT COMMAND

AUTHORITY

I-6. Combatant commanders and commanders of subordinate unified commands and JTFs have the authority to establish functional component commands to control military operations. Functional component commands may be established across the range of military operations to perform operational missions that may be of short or extended duration. The JFC has the authority to establish and designate a JFLCC. Functional component commands do not constitute a “joint force” with the authorities and responsibilities of a joint force as described in the United Action Armed Forces (UNAAF). Normally, the Service component commander with the

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JFLCC Handbook

majority of forces, and requisite command and control (C2) capabilities, is designated as the functional component commander. However, the JFC

considers the mission, nature and duration of the operation, force capabilities, and the C2 capabilities in selecting a commander.

I-7. The responsibilities and authority of a functional component command are assigned by the establishing JFC. The establishment and designation of a functional component commander must not affect the command relationships between Service component commanders and the JFC.

I-8. The JFC must designate the military capability and forces that will be made available for tasking by the functional component commander and the appropriate command relationship(s) the functional component commander exercises over the forces provided.

I-9. When a functional component command will employ forces from more than one military department, the staff should be representative of the land forces that comprise the land component command.

COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

I-10. The authority vested in a commander is commensurate with the responsibility assigned. Forces, not command relationships, are transferred between commands. When forces are transferred, the command relationship the gaining commander exercises (and the losing commander relinquishes) over those forces must be specified. The four levels of command relationships used for US military forces are—

• Combatant command.

• Operational control (OPCON).

• Tactical control (TACON).

• Support.

These command relationships are discussed in detail in Chapter II.

I-4

Chapter II

Command, Control, and

Command Relationships

COMMAND RELATIONSHIPS

II-1. The four levels of command relationships used for US military forces are described below.

COMBATANT COMMAND

(COMMAND AUTHORITY)

II-2. COCOM is the command authority over assigned forces vested only in the commanders of COCOMs by title 10, US Code, Section 164, or as directed by the President in the Unified Command Plan (UCP), and cannot be delegated or transferred. The combatant commander normally exercises OPCON over forces attached by the National Command Authority (NCA).

Forces are attached when the transfer of forces is temporary. Establishing authorities for subordinate unified commands and JTFs will normally direct the delegation of OPCON over forces attached to those subordinate commands.

II-3. COCOM is the authority of a combatant commander to perform those functions of command over assigned forces to include—

• Organizing and employing commands and forces.

• Assigning tasks.

• Designating objectives.

• Giving authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training (or in the case of US Southern Command, training of assigned forces).

• Logistics.

II-4. COCOM should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations. Normally, this authority is exercised through subordinate JFCs and Service and/or functional component commanders. COCOM provides full

II-1

JFLCC Handbook

authority to organize and employ commands and forces as the combatant commander considers necessary to accomplish assigned missions.

OPERATIONAL CONTROL

II-5. OPCON is the command authority exercised by commanders at any echelon at or below the level of COCOM and can be delegated or transferred.

II-6. OPCON is inherent in COCOM and is the authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving—

• Organizing and employing commands and forces.

• Assigning tasks.

• Designating objectives.

• Giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission.

II-7. OPCON includes authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations and joint training necessary to accomplish missions assigned to the command. It should be exercised through the commanders of subordinate organizations; normally, this authority is exercised through subordinate JFCs and Service and/or functional component commanders. OPCON normally provides full authority to organize commands and forces and employ those forces necessary to accomplish assigned missions. It does not include authoritative direction for logistics or matters of administration, discipline, internal organization, or unit training. The combatant commander delegates these elements. OPCON does include the authority to delineate functional responsibilities and geographic JOAs of subordinate JFCs.

II-8. The superior commander gives commanders of subordinate commands and JTFs OPCON of assigned or attached forces.

TACTICAL CONTROL

II-9. TACON is the command authority over assigned or attached forces or commands, or military capability or forces made available for tasking. It is limited to the detailed and usually local direction and control of movements or maneuvers necessary to accomplish assigned missions or tasks.

II-10. TACON may be delegated to and exercised by commanders at any echelon at or below the level of COCOM. TACON is inherent in OPCON.

II-2

JFLCC

Handbook

SUPPORT

II-11. Support is a command authority. A support relationship is established by a superior commander between subordinate commanders when one organization should aid, protect, complement, or sustain another force.

II-12. Support may be exercised by commanders at any echelon at or below the level of COCOM. This includes the NCA designating a support relationship between combatant commanders as well as within a COCOM.

The designation of supporting relationships is important as it conveys priorities to commanders and staffs who are planning or executing joint operations. The support command relationship is a flexible arrangement. The establishing authority is responsible for ensuring that both the supported and supporting commanders understand the degree of authority granted the supported commander.

II-13. The supported commander should ensure that the supporting commander understands the assistance required. The supporting commander provides the assistance needed, subject to the supporting commander’s existing capabilities and other assigned tasks. When the supporting commander cannot fulfill the needs of the supported commander, the establishing authority is notified by either the supported or supporting commander. The establishing authority is responsible for determining a solution.

II-14. An establishing directive is normally issued