This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.netTitle: Beeton's Book of Needlework
Author: Isabella Beeton
Release Date: February 22, 2005 [EBook #15147]
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*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BEETON'S BOOK OF NEEDLEWORK ***
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DESCRIPTIONS AND INSTRUCTIONS,
SIX HUNDRED ENGRAVINGS,
OF TATTING PATTERNS. CROCHET PATTERNS.
POINT LACE PATTERNS.
INITIALS AND NAMES.
PILLOW LACE, AND LACE STITCHES.
_Every Pattern and Stitch Described and Engraved with the utmost Accuracy, and the Exact Quantity of Material requisite for each Pattern stated._CHANCELLOR PRESS
_Beeton's Book of Needlework_ was originally published in Great Britain in 1870 by Ward, Lock and Tyler.
This facsimile edition published in Great
Britain in 1986 by
59 Grosvenor Street London W 1 Printed in Czechoslovakia 50617
SAMUEL BUTLER'S PREFACE
The Art of Needlework dates from the earliest record of the world's history, and has, also, from time immemorial been the support, comfort, or employment of women of every rank and age. Day by day, it increases its votaries, who enlarge and develop its various branches, so that any addition and assistance in teaching or learning Needlework will be welcomed by the Daughters of England, "wise of heart," who work diligently with their hands.
The recent introduction of Point Lace has brought a finer, and, apparently, more difficult class of fancy work into general favour. Ladies may now, however, confidently commence, with our patterns before them, to reproduce Antique laces; for care and patience, with a knowledge of Point Lace stitches, are alone required to perfect the beautiful work, which, as shown in existing specimens of exquisite Old Lace, constitute the chief glory of women's refined industry in past centuries.
INSTRUCTIONS in TATTING, in EMBROIDERY, in CROCHET, in KNITTING and NETTING, in BERLIN WOOL WORK, in POINT LACE, and GUIPURE D'ART are prefixed to the pages devoted to these separate branches of needlework. The whole work is interspersed with coloured and other Patterns in Point Lace, Guipure d'Art, Tatting, Embroidery, and Designs for Monograms and Initials for marking handkerchiefs and table-linen. The quantity of materials required for each class of work is also given with every pattern.
The idea of combining a series of minute and exact instructions in fancy needlework with useful patterns was conceived some years ago by one whose life was devoted to the inculcation of the practical duties of woman's life, and to assisting her sex in their daily work of HOUSEHOLD MANAGEMENT and REFINEMENT.
Her great wish was that her BOOK OF NEEDLEWORK should be as valuable in its way to her Countrywomen as her work upon Household Management was useful in showing the best mode of providing for the diurnal wants of families. Other hands have brought to a conclusion her original plans. The best attainable workers have contributed to this volume. Only those who knew the extent of the late Mrs. Beeton's design, will miss, in the pages now before them, "the touch of a vanished hand."S.O.B.
_Paternoster Row,_ 1870.
KNITTING AND NETTING PATTERNS
ALPHABETS FOR MONOGRAMS AND INITIALS
MONOGRAMS AND INITIALS
POINT LACE WORK
POINT LACE INSTRUCTIONS
POINT LACE PATTERNS
INSTRUCTIONS AND PATTERNS IN GUIPURE D'ART
BERLIN WORK INSTRUCTIONS
[Illustration: Tatting Shuttle.]
The needlework called Tatting in England, _Frivolite_ in French, and _Frivolitaeten_ in German, is a work which seems, from all accounts, to have been in favour several generations ago. Modern ingenuity has discovered some ways of improving on the original plan of tatting, which was, indeed, rather a primitive sort of business as first practised. To Mrs. Mee, one of our most accomplished _artistes_ in all matters connected with the work-table, belongs, we believe, the introduction of the plan of working from the reel instead of the shuttle. By this alteration the advantage of the shuttle being constantly kept filled with cotton was gained, and the necessity also obviated for frequently joining the thread; and to Mdlle. Riego, equally distinguished in all details appertaining to the employment of the needle, ladies are indebted for an arrangement by which the same thread used in the making of the pattern is used for fastening the work. The old plan only provided for the working of the different portions which constituted the pattern, and then these portions had to be sewn together with a needle and thread. The ingenious workers on the Continent have also given much attention of late to the art of tatting, and our instructions now printed comprise what we consider the best mode of learning and doing this exceedingly interesting and fashionable work.[Illustration: Tatting Pin.]
Tatting differs entirely from crochet, and is composed of stitches forming _knots_. It is intended as an imitation of point lace, and is especially used for trimming under-linen, on account of its strength.
To make the stitches or knots a small instrument is used, called a _shuttle_. This shuttle consists of two oval pieces, flat on one side and convex on the other, and is made of wood or ivory.
The two oval pieces are joined together by a strong cross-piece. The illustration shows the construction of the shuttle. These shuttles are made in ivory, pearl, tortoiseshell inlaid with pearl, and silver; they are also manufactured in coloured bone, black, red, and white. The best to work with are the pearl for a white shuttle, and the inlaid tortoiseshell for a black shuttle; the prices vary from sixpence to one shilling and two-and-sixpence each. In selecting a shuttle be careful to see that the ends close, as if dropped it soon becomes unthreaded, which is very inconvenient. The cotton intended for the work is wound round this shuttle, and the thickness of the cotton varies according to the style of work. It is better to use the proper tatting cotton, because it is stronger than the ordinary kinds; this is manufactured by Messrs. Walter Evans and Co. for the purpose. Their Boar's Head Cotton is also frequently used, and answers very well._Shuttles._
These are made in 3 sizes:--Finest, No. 1; No. 2, useful medium size; No. 3, the largest.
_The Way to Hold the Hands._
Take the shuttle in the right hand, between the thumb and second finger, and allow the forefinger to remain at liberty, and rest the under part of the shuttle _between_ the second and third and _on_ the middle finger. Place the thread round the three middle fingers of the left hand, so as to form a loop, keeping the second and third fingers a little apart, and bring the cotton again between the thumb and forefinger, letting the end fall within the palm of the hand, while the end of cotton which holds on to the shuttle passes over the thumb-nail._To Make a Stitch._
Keep the hands in the position above described; pass the shuttle at the back, through the loop--that is, between the second and third fingers. Take the end of the shuttle which comes out from the loop between the forefinger and thumb of the right hand, and strain the cotton very tightly towards the right. When the cotton is drawn through the loop, this cotton must not be impeded by the fourth finger; it should, on the contrary, slide over it, and be drawn tight. It should divide the loop into two parts. After this withdraw the second left-hand finger, which is _above_ the cotton, and pass it again under that cotton, so as to draw up the loop. A _half-stitch_ is thus formed, and must be tightened by being drawn closely to the forefinger and thumb of the left hand. For the remaining half of the stitch keep the hands in the same position, but, instead of letting the cotton fall over the thumb, pass this cotton over the back of the hand; then let the shuttle fall between the second and third fingers of the left hand, in front, and take it out again at the back, strain the cotton very tightly, withdraw the second finger from the loop, letting the cotton which is behind the hand sweep over the fingers. When this is done, guide with the unoccupied fingers of the left hand this second half-stitch up to the other, thus completing _one stitch_._The Way to Make a Loop in Tatting._
When a certain number of stitches are made, very tightly draw in the loop by straining the cotton until the first stitch touches the last, and thus a loop is formed. During this process the stitches should be held tightly between the forefinger and thumb._The Way to Make a Purl._
A _purl_ is a small loop of cotton often used as an edging in tatting, as, for instance, round the outer edge of the ovals in tatted insertion No. 2. The following is the easiest method of making a purl:--The stitches are not made quite closely together at the place where a purl is to be made; about one-sixth of an inch is left between each. This space is left free until the loop is made by uniting the stitches; then the small piece of cotton in the space bulges out between the stitches, and forms the purl. If several are required a small space is left between every two or three stitches, according to the desired number. Care must be taken in that case that the small pieces of cotton left be all of the same length, so that the purl may be perfectly even. The purl can also be made thus: At the same time with the end of thread take the tatting-pin or a very large darning needle or knitting needle in the left hand, so that the point may come out farther than the row of stitches; if then you wish to make a purl, throw the cotton on the pin before making the stitch; then fasten this stitch, and push it at once close to the preceding; the pin with the cotton should come above the stitches. Do not take out the pin before all the purl and all the stitches are completed and joined together._Joining the Work._
Place the tatting-pin in the loop that is to be joined, and with the hook draw the thread of the loop--that is, round the hand through it--pass the shuttle through this loop, and draw it up tightly close to the stitches.
A "straight" or double thread is used to join various parts of the work, and forms very beautiful patterns. Without the straight thread we should be unable to imitate point lace patterns, or, indeed, to execute any designs but those composed of circles, ovals, &c. To use this straight thread 2 shuttles are required; they should be of different colours. Sometimes one end of thread is left attached to the reel instead of using the second shuttle. In commencing a loop the straight thread is held between the second and third fingers of the left hand, about 2 or 3 inches from the work; the other shuttle is held as usual in the right hand, and the stitches and purls worked with it upon the foundation of the straight thread of the second shuttle.* * * * *
TATTING. 1.--_Pine Pattern Collar in Tatting._
[Illustration: I.--Pine Pattern Collar in Tatting.]
Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s Boar's Head cotton No. 80, or tatting cotton No. 60; tatting-pin No. 3; a small shuttle.
This collar is worked with very fine tatting cotton as follows:--1st circle: 2 double, 1 purl 7 times, 2 double, draw up the cotton.
2nd circle: 3 double, join it to the last purl of the 1st circle, 1 double, 1 purl 8 times, 2 double, draw the cotton up.
3rd circle: 2 double, join it to the last purl of the 2nd circle, 1 double, join it to the 7th purl of the 2nd circle, 1 double, 1 purl 8 times, 2 double, draw the cotton up.4th circle: 2 double, join it to the last purl of 3rd circle, 3 double, 1 purl, 1 double 7 times, 1 double, draw the cotton up.
5th circle: 2 double, join it to the last purl of 4th circle, 2 double, 1 purl, 1 double 3 times, draw up the cotton.
6th circle: 2 double, join it to the last purl of the 5th circle, 1 double, join it to the 5th purl of the preceding circle, 1 double, 1 purl 6 times, 1 double, join it to the first purl of the 1st circle, 2 double, draw up the cotton. This completes the star pattern in centre of pine.1st circle of pine: 2 double, 1 purl, 1 double 8 times, 2 double, draw up the cotton.
2nd circle: 3 double, join to the last purl of 1st circle, 1 double, join it to the 7th purl of 1st circle, 1 double, 1 purl 6 times, 3 double, draw up the cotton and join it to the 3rd purl of centre star.
3rd circle: 3 double, join to the last purl of 2nd circle, 1 double, 1 purl 8 times, 2 double, draw up the cotton and join it on to the centre purl of 2nd circle in star.
4th circle: 2 double, join to the last purl of 3rd circle, 1 double, 1 purl 5 times, 3 double, 1 purl, 2 double, draw up the cotton and join it to the 5th purl of 2nd centre circle in star.
5th circle: 2 double, join the cotton to the last purl of 4th circle, 1 double, 1 purl 7 times, 2 double, draw up the cotton, repeat the 5th circle twice more, then join the cotton to the centre purl of 4th circle in star.
8th circle: 2 double, join to the last purl of 7th circle, 1 purl,1 double 5 times, 2 double, draw up the cotton and join it to the centre purl of 5th circle in star.
9th circle: 2 double, join to the last purl of 8th circle, 1 double, 1 purl 6 times, 2 double, draw up the cotton. Repeat the 9th circle 3 times.
13th circle: 3 double, join the cotton to the last purl of the 12th circle, 1 double, 1 purl 7 times, 4 double, draw up the cotton, turn the work downwards, and work the
14th circle: 2 double, 1 purl, 3 double, join it to the 1st purl of the
1st circle of pine, 1 double, join it to the 2nd purl of first pine circle,1 double, 1 purl 6 times, 2 double, draw up the cotton.
16th circle: 3 double, join to the last purl of the 15th circle, 1 double, 1 purl 4 times, 3 double, 1 purl, 1 double, draw up the cotton.
17th circle: 1 double, join to the last purl of the 16th circle, 1 double, 1 purl 6 times, 2 double, draw up the cotton.
18th circle: 1 double, join to the last purl of the 17th circle, 1 double, 1 purl 8 times, 1 double, draw up the cotton, and repeat from commencement until the collar is the required size. The upper part of the pines is filled in with lace stitches, as clearly shown in our illustration.* * * * *
Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s tatting cotton No. 30, or Boar's Head crochet cotton No. 12; tatting pin No. 2; large shuttle.
[Illustration: 2.--Tatted Insertion.]
This insertion should be worked with coarse cotton. 5 double *, 1 purl, 2 double, repeat from * 4 times, 1 purl, 5 double, draw up the cotton, turn the pattern downward, and work another circle the same as that above described, leaving one-sixth of an inch of cotton between each circle.* * * * *
3.--_Lace Edging in Tatting._ Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s crochet cotton No. 10, or tatting cotton No. 20; tatting-pin No. 3; any sized shuttle. For a finer edging, No. 18.
1st oval: Fill the shuttle, but do not cut it off from the reel, as a double thread is used, and commence by working 10 double stitches, 1 purl, 10 double; draw up.Double thread: Putting the thread attached to the reel round the left hand, work 8 double, 1 purl, 8 double.
[Illustration: 3.--Lace Edging in Tatting.]
2nd oval: 10 double, join to purl in 1st oval, 10 double; draw up.
The pattern is now complete. Repeat from beginning, taking care that the next oval be close to the last.
Crochet a heading with the same cotton, working 7 chain, 1 double into the purl in double thread. Repeat.
* * * * *
4.--_Lace Edging in Tatting._
Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s crochet cotton No. 10, or tatting cotton No. 20; tatting-pin No. 3; any sized shuttle. For a finer edging, No. 18.[Illustration: 4.--Lace Edging in Tatting.]
1st oval: Fill the shuttle, but do not cut it off from the reel, as a double thread is required, and commence by working 10 double stitches, 1 purl, 10 double stitches, draw up.2nd oval: Close to last oval, work 10 double, 1 purl, 10 double; draw up.
Double thread: Putting the thread attached to the reel round the left hand, work 12 double, 1 purl, 4 double; then join the shuttle-thread to the purl in 2nd oval, by drawing it through with a pin. Then do another similar chain of stitches with the double thread, viz., 4 double, 1 purl, 12 double.3rd oval: 10 double, join to the purl in 2nd oval--the same as that to which the shuttle-thread has been fastened--10 double; draw up.
4th oval: Close to last oval, work 10 double, join to purl of 1st oval,
10 double, draw up.
The pattern is now complete. Repeat from beginning, taking care that the next oval be close to the last. Crochet a heading with the same cotton, working 4 chain, 1 double into the purl of double thread, 6 chain, 1 double into the next purl. Repeat.
5.--_Border in Tatting with Crochet Edging._
Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s tatting cotton No. 60, or crochet cotton No. 80; tatting-pin No. 2; a bone shuttle.
[Illustration: 5.--Border in Tatting with Crochet Edging.]
Work * 4 double stitches (that is, 4 times following 1 purled stitch and 1 plain), 1 purl, four times following 3 double stitches, 1 purl, 4 double stitches, draw up the cotton so as to form an oval, and for the smaller oval, work 9 double stitches, but leave, before beginning the first double stitch, the space of one-sixth of an inch between this oval and the preceding; repeat from *, leaving the same space between each oval; join together the larger ovals by the purl.For the crochet edging, work the 1st row in the following manner:--
1 double (followed by 6 chain) in each of the smaller ovals. The 2nd and
3rd rows are composed of short treble stitches, placed one above the other, and divided by one chain. While working the short treble stitches of the 3rd row form the small purl thus:--
* 1 short treble in the first short treble of preceding row, let the loop slip off from the crochet needle, insert the needle in the under stitch, from which comes the loop now made into a purl, work 1 double in the first short treble of preceding row, 1 chain, under which miss 1 stitch, and repeat from *.* * * * *
6.--_Border in Tatting with Crochet._
Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s Boar's Head cotton No. 20, or tatting cotton No. 40; tatting-pin No. 2. For a coarser size use Boar's Head cotton No. 4, or tatting cotton No. 20.[Illustration: 6.--Border in Tatting with Crochet.]
4 double stitches, 1 purl, 4 times following, 3 double stitches, 1 purl,
4 double stitches, draw up the oval, but not quite tight, leave a space about one-sixth of an inch, leave a similar space between this oval and the next, work 3 double stitches, fasten them to the nearest purl of preceding oval, then work twice following 4 double stitches, 1 purl, then 3 double stitches, 1 purl, 3 double stitches, and draw up the oval
Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s Boar's Head crochet cotton No. 18; tatting-pin No. 3.
This strip of insertion is worked with crochet cotton, and consists of a row of circles, two of which are always joined together, and edged on either side with chain stitches. Work first * 2 double, 4 purl divided by 1 double, 1 double, 1 long purl about one-fifth of an inch long, 10 double divided by 1 purl, 1 long purl, 4 times alternately 1 double, 1 purl, then 2 double; join the stitches into a circle; work close to this a second circle, and knot the end of the cotton together with the cotton with which the first circle has been begun; repeat from *, but henceforward in the first of the two circles fasten the cotton on to the middle purl of the preceding circle, instead of working the middle purl. When the strip of insertion is sufficiently long, edge it on either side with a row of chain stitches, by working 1 double in 1 long purl and 5 chain between.[Illustration: 7.--Tatted Insertion.]
* * * * *
8.--_Rosette in Tatting._
Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s tatting cotton No. 40; tatting-pin No. 3.
This rosette is worked with two cottons, viz., 1 plain, 1 purl, 1 plain,
5 double, 1 purl, 10 double, 1 purl, 1 plain; turn the work downwards,
10 double, fastened on the last purl turned downwards; this forms one loop turned upwards; turn work downwards, 10 double, 1 purl, 5 double, fastened on first purl turned downwards; turn figure thus formed downwards; 4 double, 1 single, repeat 4 times more from *, joining the figures by means of the purl stitch; the ends of the cotton are knotted together.
* * * * *
9.--_Star in Tatting._
Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s tatting cotton No. 50; tatting-pin No. 3.
[Illustration: 9.--Star in Tatting.]
Fill the shuttle, and commencing a loop, work 1 double, then 1 purl and 1 double 12 times, draw into a round; join the cotton to the 1st purl loop. 1st oval.--Commence a loop close to the joining, work 7 double, join to 1st purl of round, work 7 double and draw close; reverse the work. Join the thread from reel, and holding it out for a straight thread, commence the scallop:--5 double, 1 purl, 5 double, reverse the work. The 2nd oval same as first. Repeat oval and scallop alternately, until the star is completed.
* * * * *
10.--_Insertion worked in Tatting_.
Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s tatting cotton No. 50; tatting-pin No. 3.
[Illustration: 10.--Insertion worked in Tatting.]
This strip of insertion is worked with two cottons. Work with the cotton in the left hand over that in the right hand. Both ends of cotton are fastened together at the beginning by a knot. First work one half of the insertion the long way in the following manner:--1 plain, 1 purl, 1 plain (the purl must be very short); turn the purl downwards, 6 double, 1 purl, * 6 double, 1 purl, 1 plain, which must all be turned upwards; then turn the work so that the upper edge is turned downwards; work 6 double, fastened on to the last purl turned downwards (the fastening of the stitches is made with the thread in the right hand); a loop turned upwards is thus formed; turn the work downwards, draw the cotton in right hand underneath that in left hand, and work 6 double, 1 purl, 6 double, all turned upwards; fasten these stitches on 1st purl turned downwards. In this pattern 1st of border pattern is thus completed; turn it downwards, 8 double, 1 purl, 8 double, 1 purl, 1 plain, turn work downwards, 6 double, fastened on last purl of last pattern, turned up. Repeat from *. When the insertion is of sufficient length, work the other half in same manner, and fasten it on the 1st half by means of purl stitches between the 8 double stitches twice repeated.* * * * *
11.--_Tatted Insertion for Trimming Lingeries_.
Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s tatting cotton No. 40, or crochet cotton No. 20; tatting-pin No. 3.
[Illustration: 11.--Tatted Insertion.]
This insertion consists of 2 rows of three-branched patterns which lie opposite each other, and are joined by slanting rows of knots. A coloured silk ribbon is drawn through these rows which join the patterns. Each of the 3 branches of 1 pattern consists of 9 double, 1 purl, 9 double, and must be worked close to another. When the 3rd branch is completed, fasten another piece of cotton on to the middle branch. Work 12 double over this 2nd piece of cotton, and then work without the 2nd piece of cotton a 2nd three-branched pattern like the 1st.* Fasten the 2nd piece of cotton on to the middle branch of the just-finished pattern, work 12 double over it, then again a three-branched pattern; in this pattern as well as in the following ones, instead of working the purl of the 1st branch, fasten it on to the purl of the 3rd branch of the preceding three-branched pattern of the _same_ row, as can be seen in illustration. Repeat till the strip of insertion is sufficiently long.* * * * *
12.--_Circle in Tatting_.
Materials: Messrs. Walter Evans and Co.'s tatting cotton No. 80; tatting-pin No. 3.
[Illustration: 12.--Circle in Tatting.]
Work first 8 ovals, each composed of 5 double stitches, 3 purl divided one from the other by 4 double stitches, 5 double stitches; these ovals are joined together by the purl at the sides, then the circle is tightened as much as possible, and the cotton with which you are working is twisted round the ends of cotton that have been cut: the cotton is then fastened off nearly underneath.