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AN ENGLISH GRAMMAR

FOR THE USE OF

HIGH SCHOOL, ACADEMY, AND COLLEGE CLASSES

BY

W.M. BASKERVILL

PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY NASHVILLE, TENN.

AND

J.W. SEWELL

OF THE FOGG HIGH SCHOOL, NASHVILLE, TENN.

1895

PREFACE.

Of making many English grammars there is no end; nor should there be till theoretical scholarship and actual practice are

more happily wedded. In this field much valuable work has already been accomplished; but it has been done largely by

workers accustomed to take the scholar's point of view, and their writings are addressed rather to trained minds than to

immature learners. To find an advanced grammar unencumbered with hard words, abstruse thoughts, and difficult

principles, is not altogether an easy matter. These things enhance the difficulty which an ordinary youth experiences in

grasping and assimilating the facts of grammar, and create a distaste for the study. It is therefore the leading object of

this book to be both as scholarly and as practical as possible. In it there is an attempt to present grammatical facts as

simply, and to lead the student to assimilate them as thoroughly, as possible, and at the same time to do away with

confusing difficulties as far as may be.

To attain these ends it is necessary to keep ever in the foreground the real basis of grammar; that is, good literature.

Abundant quotations from standard authors have been given to show the student that he is dealing with the facts of the

language, and not with the theories of grammarians. It is also suggested that in preparing written exercises the student

use English classics instead of "making up" sentences. But it is not intended that the use of literary masterpieces for

grammatical purposes should supplant or even interfere with their proper use and real value as works of art. It will,

however, doubtless be found helpful to alternate the regular reading and æsthetic study of literature with a grammatical

study, so that, while the mind is being enriched and the artistic sense quickened, there may also be the useful acquisition

of arousing a keen observation of all grammatical forms and usages. Now and then it has been deemed best to omit

explanations, and to withhold personal preferences, in order that the student may, by actual contact with the sources of

grammatical laws, discover for himself the better way in regarding given data. It is not the grammarian's business to

"correct:" it is simply to record and to arrange the usages of language, and to point the way to the arbiters of usage in all

disputed cases. Free expression within the lines of good usage should have widest range.

It has been our aim to make a grammar of as wide a scope as is consistent with the proper definition of the word.

Therefore, in addition to recording and classifying the facts of language, we have endeavored to attain two other objects,

—to cultivate mental skill and power, and to induce the student to prosecute further studies in this field. It is not

supposable that in so delicate and difficult an undertaking there should be an entire freedom from errors and oversights.

We shall gratefully accept any assistance in helping to correct mistakes.

Though endeavoring to get our material as much as possible at first hand, and to make an independent use of it, we

desire to express our obligation to the following books and articles:—

Meiklejohn's "English Language," Longmans' "School Grammar," West's "English Grammar," Bain's "Higher English

Grammar" and "Composition Grammar," Sweet's "Primer of Spoken English" and "New English Grammar," etc.,

Hodgson's "Errors in the Use of English," Morris's "Elementary Lessons in Historical English Grammar," Lounsbury's

"English Language," Champney's "History of English," Emerson's "History of the English Language," Kellner's "Historical

Outlines of English Syntax," Earle's "English Prose," and Matzner's "Englische Grammatik." Allen's "Subjunctive Mood in

English," Battler's articles on "Prepositions" in the "Anglia," and many other valuable papers, have also been helpful and

suggestive.

We desire to express special thanks to Professor W.D. Mooney of Wall & Mooney's Battle-Ground Academy, Franklin,

Tenn., for a critical examination of the first draft of the manuscript, and to Professor Jno. M. Webb of Webb Bros. School,

Bell Buckle, Tenn., and Professor W.R. Garrett of the University of Nashville, for many valuable suggestions and helpful

criticism.

W.M. BASKERVILL.

J.W. SEWELL.

NASHVILLE, TENN., January, 1896.

CONTENTS.