Cultural Rehydration: A Layman’s Guide to Dealing with Culture Shock by Dr. Gerald W. Anthony - HTML preview
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Gerald W. Anthony, PhD
Lee Seetoo Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. AnthonyCONTENTS
Chapter 1: Introduction 4
Why the Metaphor?
Chapter 2: The Cultural Adaptation Cycle 8
The Evaluation Stage
The Interpretation Stage
The Application Stage
The Readjustment Stage
Chapter 3: Pre-Departure 20
Chapter 4: In Country 27
Cultural Rehydration Therapy
Chapter 5: Returning Home 37
List of Figures 43
Works Cited 44
Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony we lose is greater than the amount we take in, we become dehydrated. This is usually a process that happens over time and not a sudden event because, in the short-term, if our body lacks water, we have natural defense mechanisms to compensate. We get thirsty, signaling the need to drink. Our kidneys reduce the water in our urine; it becomes more concentrated and darker in color when we are dehydrated. Other symptoms of dehydration include dry mouth, headaches, increased heart rate, inability to sweat or produce tears, muscle cramps, vomiting, lightheadedness, and confusion. Dehydration can be treated by gradually increasing the amount of liquid in our body by repeatedly drinking small amounts or through IV drips; however, the greatest cure for dehydration is prevention. Without proper hydration, the body will break down and slowly cease to function (Medicine.net, 2009).Cultural paralysis is a condition experienced by expatriates that causes them to feel unable to function in a foreign environment. Like dehydration, it is usually a process that has developed over time, and can cause changes in the mind and body. The body can compensate for the discomfort of the environment for short-periods of time, but if not properly handled, the body and mind tend to break down. Once paralysis takes place, recovery takes place through frequent small doses of therapeutic exercises. Because of its similarities to dehydration, cultural paralysis can be considered cultural dehydration, and the cure is cultural rehydration. To determine how much of our body composition is water, there are various formulas that take into account age, height, and weight. Similarly, there are key variables we can use to calculate how culturally hydrated or dehydrated we are. Expatriates Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony planning to live in or visit a new culture must understand the reality of both obvious and subtle factors that will allow them to thrive in an overseas environment. The first step to overcoming dehydration is to understand the normal process of hydration. If we do not understand that our bodies need water, how can we solve the problem of dehydration? The same is true for cultural dehydration. If we do not first understand the natural processes that our minds and bodies go through when we enter foreign cultures, then it will be hard to remedy cultural dehydration and allow cultural rehydration. In the next chapter, we will discuss the Cultural Adaptation Process that expatriates experience in a new cultural environment. The stresses of that process can and often do lead to cultural dehydration. In the three chapters after that, we will learn techniques that will serve as hydrators in cases of cultural dehydration.Are you ready to get culturally hydrated? Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. AnthonyChapter 2: The Cultural Adaptation Process The Cultural Adaptation Process (or Hydration Cycle) is a four-stage process that occurs within individuals as they adjust to a new culture and experiences in that new culture. The four stages are: (1) The Evaluation Stage, (2) The Interpretation Stage, (3) The Application Stage, and (4) The Readjustment Stage.Hydration Checkpoint I once had the pleasure of being the local contact for a group of new expatriates arriving in the country where I resided half a world away from their home. These individuals had been contacting me for weeks with various questions on just about everything imaginable. Their arrival day came and I picked them up at the airport and took them to their respective homes after a good meal. During dinner that evening there were various emotions at the table. Some people were excited, others were anxious, and others were absolutely terrified. It was all normal. One week later I decided to make a surprise visit to each new expat to make them feel welcome with a small house warming present of fruit. As I went to each person’s home, they were thrilled to see me. I would chat a while, see how they were adjusting, and then move on to the next residence. When I arrived at the last one, I knocked on the door and waited for a response. There was none. I knocked again thinking maybe nobody was home. After the second knock, I heard a faint voice. It seemed as if I had disrupted an afternoon nap. The door opened and my mouth dropped. Was this the same person I had picked up from the airport? I handed the basket of fresh apples, oranges, bananas, and local exotic fruit to the new expatriate. Without even inviting me in, the Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony person snatched the bag of fruit from my hands and began to devour each piece of fruit one by one, chunk by chunk. I stepped inside and sat down on a short wooden stool. When the expatriate was finished, I asked in a voice mixing sarcasm and disbelief, “So, how was the first week?” After a deep breath and a wipe of the mouth with a shirt sleeve, the expat said, “Thanks for coming by. I haven’t eaten in a week!”The Evaluation Stage The first stage of the Cultural Hydration Cycle is the Evaluation Stage. When an individual arrives in a new culture, or discovers a new facet of the culture, the first action that takes place is an assessment or evaluation of resources and environment. Resources can be divided into three main categories: (1) Personal Resources, (2) Social Resources, and (3) Material Resources2 (Schultz and Schwarzer, 2001, p. 4). Personal Resources include characteristics and experiences of the individual, such as personality, mental processes, and working experience. Social Resources include all formal and informal relationships. Working and professional relationships are formal relationships; family, friends, and all other relationships not defined as formal are informal. Finally, Material Resources are all tangible resources that can be consumed by the individual, such as food, shelter, and money. These three types of resources will be evaluated immediately upon entering a new culture or a new cultural situation. In addition to evaluating resources, the individual also evaluates the environment, which can be divided into two aspects: (1) Flexible and (2) Relatively Inflexible. Flexible refers to aspects of the environment that can be changed in the short term by an 2 See Exercise 2 in The Cultural Rehydration Workbook.
Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony individual or group acting in the environment, like the economy, fashion, and slang. Relatively Inflexible refers to aspects of the environment that change only very slowly over long periods of time, like the fundamental culture or national language, and would include population and climate. Since you can’t expect to exert much influence over Relatively Inflexible aspects of the environment, you are better off trying to accept and adapt to them. Figure 2.1 graphs the Evaluation Stage of the Cultural Adjustment Cycle (Anthony, 2009).
Personal Resources Resources Social Resources
Material Resources Evaluate
Environment Flexible Environment
Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony
Class Placement Label of Belonging High or Low
Language Placement Label of Belonging High or Low
Estimate of Probability of Success High or Low
Ability to Gather Information Label of Belonging High or LowFigure 2.1 The Interpretation Stage To arrive at an Estimate of High or Low Probability of Success, the number of Highs and Lows from the Labels of Belonging are tallied. Since there are an odd number of Labels of Belonging and no intermediate answers, the composite estimate of Probability of Success in the new culture must ultimately be either High or Low. After an estimate is reached, the individual moves on to the Application Stage.Hydration Checkpoint Traffic patterns can vary among regions within a country. To an even greater extent they can vary between different countries. Some countries drive on the left side of the road, others on the right. Some countries have aggressive traffic laws (or enforcement), while other countries are more relaxed. In a conversation with an expat friend about the challenges of living abroad, I brought up the issue of adjusting to time differences since I had been having trouble sleeping for several nights. My friend tabled my concern by assuring me that I would eventually acclimate and then turned the conversation to another problem. “Why does Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony nobody seem to stop at a red light? Why do cars drive on the sidewalk?” Both were very good questions. In response, I asked my friend, “What are you going to do about it?” Slightly shocked by my directness, my friend paused for a moment to consider and answered, “I am going to obey the traffic laws and watch others change with me.”The Application Stage The Application Stage is the where individuals begin to apply their Estimate of Probability of Success from the various Labels of Belonging to determine their actions. Our actions are motivated by several factors, including beliefs about the effectiveness of increased effort, the certainty of reward, and how much the reward is valued.4 Imagine a child preparing for a test in school. If she believes that how she does on the test won’t be affected by how much she studies, she won’t be motivated to study. She might believe that there is no way she could learn what she needs to know for the test, or that she already knows everything she needs to know; either way, studying more would be seem pointless. On the other hand, if she is confident that by studying harder she will do better, then she will have some motivation to study. We’ll use the termConfidence for the belief that increased effort will produce a better result. To a young child, a test score may seem like meaningless number. If the personal satisfaction of achievement is not enough to motivate the child, her parent or guardian could offer a reward, for example, ice cream. When the child brings home a test with a high mark, she will be met with a favorable response. “What a smart child! Let’s go get the ice-cream I promised.” Actually, the child here receives both an intangible reward 4 I use the terms Confidence, Expectation, and Value as less technical substitutes for the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence from Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony (praise and affirmation) and a tangible one (the treat). We’ll use the term Expectation for the certainty of receiving a reward for a good performance. Most children love ice cream, but there could be one who did not like it, or would have preferred something else instead. To determine whether or how much a person will be motivated by a particular reward, we must know the Value of the particular reward to the particular person. For example, which would be more important to you, to be wealthy or to have a loving family? Neither answer is right or wrong, and different people will attach a different degree of importance to either outcome. One person might say, “I want a loving family; that is very important to me. If I happen to get wealthy along the way, that’s great.” Someone else might have different priorities. “I want to be wealthy. There are no other alternatives! A loving family will come naturally.” When Confidence, Expectation, and Value are all high, we would expect a person to be highly motivated. However, if any of them is low, motivation will probably be low. If you feel unmotivated, is it because you don’t feel that increased effort will produce a better result, or because even if you achieve a good result, there’s no reward offered? Or if there is a reward, is it something that you don’t care much about? From the Interpretation Stage, an individual carries an Estimate of High or Low Probability of Success. If the Estimate indicates Low Probability of Success, then in the Application Stage, the individual will likely apply previous familiar actions because those actions were successful in the past and of lack the motivation to try a new application. Conversely if the Estimate indicates High Probability of Success, the individual will try something new.55 See Exercise 4 in The Cultural Rehydration Workbook.
Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony If my friend who was troubled by the lax enforcement of traffic law estimated from this situation a Low Probability of Success, the likely action would be something familiar, like stop at the red traffic light and not try to communicate disagreement with the individuals who continue. If the estimate was of High Probability of Success, then something new or different might be chosen, such as going against the grain by blocking passage until the traffic light was green. This entire process is shown below in Figure 2.3. Probability of Success Action Taken Low Previous or Familiar High New Figure 2.3 The Application Stage After application takes place, the individual then enters the Readjustment Stage.Hydration Checkpoint There are holidays intertwined with every culture. In my home culture there is a time of year when we bundle up in snow suits. Our noses are red, and we walk outside where a sheet of white snow covers the earth as if it were simply a painting. Patches of ice here and there add color. Everywhere people carry bags filled with presents for others. In the air are sounds of joy - people laughing, children singing, music playing. It is all so wonderful. The smells of home cooking greet us at the door upon our return. Hot apples with nutmeg, spiced pumpkin, the scent of roasting meat are all mixed together to entice us to take another step. This is exactly how the holidays should be. My first winter abroad was somewhat different. The ground was painted a dismal dark brown with black patches of mud. Old Man Winter did not caress your face, but Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony slapped it with a force that left no room for questioning. Music was in the air, but it might as well have been humming, for I could not recognize any words. No one laughed, smiled, or even made eye contact. Is this how winter should be?The Readjustment Stage Adjustment to a new culture is required whenever our original beliefs or values are in contrast to or conflict with those held in the new culture. We are used to seeing things in a certain way, like a person wearing a pair of yellow glasses. Suddenly we are confronted with the fact that everyone in the new culture wears a pair of blue glasses. It is not really possible or desirable simply to throw away our old glasses and put on the new ones, but we can add the new color to what we already have and arrive at a new cultural tone – green. During the Readjustment Stage old values are combined with new values to form a different ‘cultural tone’ of acceptable values. I prefer the word 'tone,' because with a tone, the new and the old are combined but the base is added upon, not erased. In the readjustment of an individual, the individual’s base or previous experiences and values also cannot be erased, but only added upon. A new culture does not erase the values of your home culture, but simply adds to them to create a new 'tone.' For example, if you are from a highly individualistic culture but are now living in a culture that is much more group oriented, you will probably find that your individualism softens a bit, and you begin to appreciate the group value of the new culture. Figure 2.4 depicts the Readjustment Stage. Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony Old +New=Different Values Values Cultural ToneFigure 2.4 The Readjustment Stage After a different cultural tone is created, the individual then meets new cultures or new situations and the process commences again from the first stage, the Evaluation Stage. For deeper processing, please refer to the accompanying workbook and complete Exercise 5. After the cycle or process has been completed, it is common to ask project feedback questions (Greer, 2007). Figures 2.5 and 2.6 show a summative visual diagram of The Cultural Adaptation Process. Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. AnthonyThe Evaluation Stage Resources
Personal Resources Social Resources Material ResourcesEvaluate Environment
Flexible Environment Relatively Inflexible EnvironmentThe Interpretation Stage
Class Placement Label of Belonging High or Low
Language Placement Label of Belonging High or Low
Estimate of Probability of Success
High or Low
Ability to Gather Information Label of Belonging High or LowThe Application Stage Probability of Success Action Taken Low Previous or Familiar NewHighThe Readjustment Stage Old +New=Different Values Values Cultural ToneThe Evaluation Stage (Cycle Begins Again) Resources Evaluate Environment
Personal Resources Social Resources Material ResourcesFlexible Environment Inflexible Environment Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony Readjustment Evaluation Application InterpretationFigure 2.6 Cultural Adaptation Cycle Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. AnthonyChapter 3: Pre-Departure You have spent the last six months of your life preparing for your trip. You have read books, started practicing saying basic numbers and phrases, and even gone shopping for those last minute items like converters. It can be a nerve-wracking time. A voice in the back of your mind grows with doubt and uncertainty: "Can I make it there? Will I commit some faux pas, or do something embarrassing to tarnish my image?" These questions go back and forth in your head as you prepare, but don't worry, they are quite normal. Everyone has a mixture of fear and excitement when facing unknown situations: it is up to you to decide how much will be fear and how much will be excitement. In 2008, more than 50.5 million foreigners visited America. The top five countries sending the most visitors to the United States were Canada, Mexico, The United Kingdom, Japan, and Germany with 18.9 million, 6.2 million, 4.6 million, 3.2 million, and 1.8 million visitors respectively (Thomas, 2009). People visiting other countries do so now not just for business or travel, but to live in the new country for long periods of time. These people decide to become expatriates. Why would an individual choose to be voluntarily absent from their home or country? A survey conducted in Britain recently revealed the following as the top reasons for becoming an expatriate. (Shelter Offshore, 2008):
• 57% found better weather made their life abroad more pleasant
• 56% felt they had a better quality of life when living abroad
• 53% enjoyed a higher standard of living
• 49% stated their new country was safer and enjoyed a lower crime rate
• 36% enjoyed a more relaxed and slower pace of life
• 30% had a higher income when living abroad
• 28% preferred the cuisine
• 27% cited the overall ‘expat lifestyle’ as a great reason for living overseas
• 26% enjoyed mixing with the local people and getting to know the local culture
• 19% reported finding a more social society since moving abroad Figure 3.1 Reasons for Becoming an Expatriate
6 A variation on the Kellogg’s slogan, “Leggo my Eggo®” from television commercials that first aired in
1972 (Smith, 2007) in which one character tries unsuccessfully to snatch another’s freshly toasted frozen waffle (called an Eggo®).
7 The mini test covers the twelve factors, but not in the same order.
Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony
9 Compare with the third stage of Bruce Tuckman’s model of group dynamics: Forming-StormingNorming-Performing.
10 The labels for the four roles are my adaptation of Kline’s group roles and functions. Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony
Even; it is an easy way to remember that there are other ways of handling situations. Exercises 12a and 12b in the Cultural Rehydration Workbook will help you apply Processing techniques. It is helpful to remember the simple fact that you won’t cure most cultural discomforts by changing the culture but by changing the way you think about and understand the culture. Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony The seventh and final step of Cultural Paralysis Therapy is Linking. Individuals are encouraged to remain in contact with other group members after the group’s time in the new environment ends. Cultural dehydration is not a one-time event but requires a life-long process of rehydration. Linking begins with preparing your pairing group(s) for the conclusion of their time in the new environment. The pairing group(s) should discuss the feelings that come from recognizing this reality. Members are then given the option of ‘linking’ with other group members. Linking takes place when an individual ask another person or group to help with a specific behavior in the future, describing (1) a newly suggested behavior, (2) the time when this will be used or applied, and (3) a method for starting the interaction to use the behavior. (Kline, 2003, p. 200). An example of a link created between Sue and Joe at a farewell dinner, went as follows: Sue: Joe, I seem to have issues with being unable to achieve complete independence. Can you help me with that since we are neighbors? Joe: Sure. Gerald: Sue, what exactly do you want Joe to do? You should tell him. Sue: Whenever I isolate myself or want to have things done the way my culture does them, please just ask me two questions: (1) Where are we now? and (2) Why did you come here? In this sample link between Sue and Joe, an experimental behavior is suggested (asking two questions), specific circumstances for the behavior are stated (whenever Sue isolates herself or wants things to done the as they would be her home country), and an interaction to promote the behavior (when Joe sees Sue) exists. Linking is necessary in Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony that it keeps group members in contact with ‘healers’ and sustains accountability in rehydration. Exercise 13 provides help with this final step. To summarize, the seven steps of the Cultural Rehydration Process are: Pairing, Boundary Setting, Learning, Norming, Challenging, Processing, and Linking. By following this process, you will keep up your ‘fluids’ and stay culturally hydrated. Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. AnthonyChapter 5: Returning Home Your mini-adventure or journey has concluded. You left many new friends behind, and have fond memories of the foreign environment you eventually adapted to. Your current environment presents similar challenges, but you are completely unaware of it, because this new environment is the place you call ‘home.’Hydration Checkpoint Returning home for a short visit, I just knew what I needed to rejuvenate myself. I had contacted a few friends who promised to visit me while I was home. My family had agreed to pick me up at the airport. When I saw them I was so excited. However, they looked different: age showed in that brief moment before we exchanged hugs. I never mentioned it, but they didn’t match the picture of my family I held in my mind. On the car ride home, there were a few questions asking about my time overseas, but eventually conversation shifted to domestic current events. Many of the names and incidents were completely unknown to me. I nodded in a familiar habit that I had developed overseas when I pretended to understand what natives were saying. As we continued driving I noticed many of the roads, signs, stores and family shops had all changed. I thought to myself, “Where am I?” I finally arrived home and everyone wanted to visit me or have me visit them. It became a full-time job trying to keep all the appointments straight. That first night I wanted to stay up to watch the nightly news but fell asleep at 5pm. I tried to fight it, but my body couldn’t stay awake. The country I had left was twelve hours ahead of my Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony home time zone. This pattern of sleeping during the day continued for around two weeks, making many of the visits with friends less refreshing and more like a chore. There were also other changes happening inside of me. My family took me to my favorite restaurant for lunch (they understood that I would be too tired for dinner). At the restaurant I ordered a plate of buttermilk pancakes with fruit topping, two slices of butter, and maple syrup. I devoured the stack of pancakes without saying too many words to my family. As I reclined in the chair with my full stomach, I expressed my satisfaction with the meal. “That sure was good! They don’t make food like that in my old environment!” As I went home, I had the feeling not of indigestion, but violent nausea. Every time I ate some ‘home-cookin’ I spent hours afterwards in the bathroom. I slowly became used to another change. Out in public, I experienced mental pauses during which I could not understand my mother tongue. This was very scary for me. Besides this, my normal speaking speed slowed down. It seemed like I was a foreigner. I went to visit friends to find relief. At one friend’s home, the conversation was like talking to a relative that I knew from childhood but had nothing in common with anymore. We knew each other’s names, but no longer who we really were. I left that house and many others overhearing the words, “He’s changed.” I was now a lost stranger in my ‘home.’ Coming home is a welcome change. It can be a chance to refresh yourself from the stresses of new and unfamiliar environments. However, you must understand one thing: in our minds we keep pictures and pictures always stand still. There is a picture of home, the last time we were there. It may be a few months or a few years ago. Whatever Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony the picture looks like, we have an expectation that when we return, our world will perfectly match it. When our world differs from the picture, we are left with an array of different feelings, especially confusion. This can lead to cultural dehydration. Don’t make the mistake of thinking that because you are back in familiar territory, you will adjust immediately. It is common to take up to one year to really adjust to your new environment or your home country. The language has changed (slang), new music has come out, and many local events have occurred that didn’t make international news. Your diet will most likely be different, fashion will be different, and most of all you are different. Do you remember in our Pre-Departure exercises we were left with a new tone? Now you are looking at your home country through the new tone, not the old original one. Let’s begin with the first basic physical challenge you will face upon returning home – adapting to the time difference. Each person’s body has an internal clock that creates a cycle of slightly over twenty-four hours. When you change time zones, this internal clock must readjust. While your body is adjusting you may begin to notice certain problems such as not being able to think clearly, difficulty falling asleep or maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, and headaches or stomachaches. How long this discomfort lasts will depend on how many hours’ difference there is between your home time zone and your old environment. The good news however is that as soon as you arrive in your new environment, your body starts to adjust naturally. Your body and mind will try to maintain the same number of hours of usual sleep, but slowly start shifting to an earlier or later time depending on the direction of time zone shift. If you travel eastward, your new environment will demand that you sleep earlier than in your old environment. From your mind and body’s point of view, this means you Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony will need to go to bed earlier. You will probably notice difficulty going to sleep at ‘normal’ hours and will wake up later than usual. If you travel westward, your environment will demand that you sleep later than your old environment. This time your mind and body will want to go to bed later. You will wake up earlier than ‘normal hours’ and find yourself sleeping earlier than the locals (Friedman, 2003). Exercise 14 in the Cultural Rehydration Workbook will help you figure out roughly how long this time zone hydration process should last. If you have a choice, travel westward because recovery time is faster. (This can be remembered by the acronym WISE-TL = West Is Sooner; East –Tired Longer.) The second challenge you will probably face after returning home is food. If you consume more meat, bread, and sugar than you did in your old environment, you will probably experience slight stomach discomfort and weight gain after a few weeks. This often happens to women moving to new environments because of their tendency to eat more comfort foods. It also usually happens to men moving from an Asian or Mediterranean diet to a western American or European diet. (For dietary purposes, it should be noted that Eastern Europe, Africa, and the Middle East are all classified under a Mediterranean diet.) Conversely, if you consume less meat, bread, and sugar, you may still experience slight stomach discomfort, but you will lose weight after a few weeks. This usually happens to men moving from American or European diets to Asian or Mediterranean diets and to women who move to lesser-developed areas where snacks are not readily available. If your diet is South American or Australian, weight gain or loss can be predicted according to the relative increase or decrease in meat, bread, and sugar. Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony Exercise 15 in the Cultural Rehydration Workbook will help you deal with food cultural dehydration. Once you come home you will probably be concerned with meeting the basic needs of food, shelter, and clothing, all of which require money. You may be able to stay with family and friends for a while, but eventually you will need a job. The purpose of a job is not only financial but to bring meaning to your life. Do you expect it to be easy to find a job after living overseas? Australian consultant Susie Moore, prompted by employers’ comparison between foreign experience and local expertise, says, “If you've been offshore all the time, it's not always easy to translate those skills back domestically” (Yeates, 2009). Give yourself time and start to build up your old network. Friends from overseas may also be able to open a few doors for you. The reflection questions in the Cultural Rehydration Workbook, Exercise 16 will help with work rehydration. After your basic needs have been addressed, you must get accustomed to the pace of life in your home country. This may or may not be attractive to you. The survey in Chapter Three stated that 56% of expats enjoy a better lifestyle than they would in their home country (Shelter Offshore, 2008). You may also have to adjust to a simpler lifestyle. This takes time. Finally as you adjust back to the home life you may discover a feeling that you don’t quite belong. You no longer belong in your old environment, but you also don’t quite fit in your ‘home’ any more. This is a heavy feeling to process in your heart. Focus on your current uniqueness and how it can help yourself and others. I always tell others “Be the best ‘you’ that you can be, because no one can be a better ‘you’ than you. Others will always be better at being someone else.” Copyright © 2009 by Gerald W. Anthony One reflection tool that is useful one month after you return home is a ‘hydration trail’ – a timeline that uses symbols for significant events in a certain time frame. After creating a hydration trail, it is beneficial to find a new pairing partner you can share it with. This activity is in the Cultural Rehydration Workbook, Exercise 17. As you get back into the flow of things you will probably see that you need to rehydrate yourself all over again. In life hydration is a daily process; staying culturally hydrated is the same.Welcome home, good luck to you, and stay hydrated. The Cultural Rehydration Workbook is available at www.fhandlove.org.cn/tests.html . If you wish to contact Dr. Anthony, you may contact him at:firstname.lastname@example.org Or
Dr. Gerald W. Anthony
C/O The Faith Hope and Love Foundation P.O. Box 2603
Manassas, Virginia 20108
Figure 2.1 The Evaluation Stage 10
Figure 2.2 The Interpretation Stage 12
Figure 2.3 The Application Stage 15
Figure 2.4 The Readjustment Stage 16
Figure 2.5 The Cultural Adaptation Process 18
Figure 2.6 Cultural Adaptation Cycle 19
Figure 3.1 Reasons for Becoming an Expatriate 20
Anthony, Gerald. (2007). Male Pride. Peace From A Distance Newsletter (December): 1. __________. (2009). The Cultural Adjustment Cycle. USA: Columbus University. Batt, Richard D., Ian D. Watson, and Partricia E. Watson. (1980). Volumes for AdultMales and Females Estimated From Simple Anthropometrics Measurements. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1980 (January): 27-39.
BRS. (2009). “Market Segmentation,” in BRS: Center for Career Planning. Internet. http://www.businessplans.org/Segment.html .
Chizzo, Jacob. (June 30, 2002). Acculturation and Language Acquisition: A Look at Schumann’s Acculturation Model. Virginia: Islamic Saudi Academy.
Cody, David. (2002). “Social Class.” The Victorian Web: Hartwick College. http://www.victorianweb.org/history/Class.html.
Friedman, Norman R. (2003). Time Traveler. “How to Adjust Quickly to New Time Zones,” in The Bridge Online. Internet.
Greer, Michael. (2007). “Project ‘Post Mortem’ Review Questions,” in Michael Greer’s Project Management Home Page. Internet.
Helpguide.org. (2008). “Depression,” in The Helpguide.org. Internet.
Indiana Department of Education. (n.d.). Internet Search, “Iceberg Theory.” Internet: http://www.doe.in.gov/lmmp/pdf/iceburgofculture.pdf.
Kline, William B. (2003). Interactive Group Counseling and Therapy. Ohio: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Medicine.net. (2009). “Dehydration,” in Medicine.net. Internet.
Norris-Holt, Jacqueline. (2001). The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VII, No. 6. Motivation as a Contributing Factor in Second Language Acquisition. Internet. http://iteslj.org/Articles/Norris-Motivation.html.
Schumann, John H. (n.d.). “Second Language Acquisition: The Pidginization Hypothesis.” Los Angeles: University of California.
Shelter Offshore; Expat Money Matters. (November 14, 2008). “Living Abroad as an Expatriate: The Best and Worst Aspects.” Internet.
Thomas, Frank. (April 13, 2009). USA Today. U.S. Saw Record Number of Visitors in 2008. http://www.usatoday.com/travel/2009-04-12-visitors_N.htm.
Yeates, Clancy. (2009). One in Five Australian Expats Earns More Than $320,000 A Year. The Sydney Morning Herald. 19 July: Business Day.
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