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Through the Looking Glass by Lewis Carroll, the Pennsylvania State University, Jim Manis, Faculty Editor, Hazleton, PA 18201-1291 is a Portable Document File produced as part of an ongoing student publication project, the Pennsylvania State University’s Electronic Classics Series, to bring classical works of literature, in English, to free and easy access of those wishing to make use of them.

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Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll she was hard at work on the white kitten, which was lying THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS

quite still and trying to purr—no doubt feeling that it was all meant for its good.


But the black kitten had been finished with earlier in the afternoon, and so, while Alice was sitting curled up in a cor-LEWIS CARROLL

ner of the great arm-chair, half talking to herself and half asleep, the kitten had been having a grand game of romps CHAPTER 1

with the ball of worsted Alice had been trying to wind up, and had been rolling it up and down till it had all come Looking-Glass house

undone again; and there it was, spread over the hearth-rug, all knots and tangles, with the kitten running after its own One thing was certain, that the white kitten had had noth-tail in the middle.

ing to do with it:—it was the black kitten’s fault entirely. For

‘Oh, you wicked little thing!’ cried Alice, catching up the the white kitten had been having its face washed by the old kitten, and giving it a little kiss to make it understand that it cat for the last quarter of an hour (and bearing it pretty well, was in disgrace. ‘Really, Dinah ought to have taught you considering); so you see that it couldn’t have had any hand in better manners! You ought, Dinah, you know you ought!’

the mischief.

she added, looking reproachfully at the old cat, and speak-The way Dinah washed her children’s faces was this: first ing in as cross a voice as she could manage—and then she she held the poor thing down by its ear with one paw, and scrambled back into the arm-chair, taking the kitten and the then with the other paw she rubbed its face all over, the worsted with her, and began winding up the ball again. But wrong way, beginning at the nose: and just now, as I said, she didn’t get on very fast, as she was talking all the time, 3

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll sometimes to the kitten, and sometimes to herself. Kitty sat got to say for yourself? Now don’t interrupt me!’ she went very demurely on her knee, pretending to watch the progress on, holding up one finger. ‘I’m going to tell you all your of the winding, and now and then putting out one paw and faults. Number one: you squeaked twice while Dinah was gently touching the ball, as if it would be glad to help, if it washing your face this morning. Now you can’t deny it, Kitty: might.

I heard you! What that you say?’ (pretending that the kitten

‘Do you know what to-morrow is, Kitty?’ Alice began.

was speaking.) ‘Her paw went into your eye? Well, that’s

‘You’d have guessed if you’d been up in the window with your fault, for keeping your eyes open—if you’d shut them me—only Dinah was making you tidy, so you couldn’t. I tight up, it wouldn’t have happened. Now don’t make any was watching the boys getting in sticks for the bonfire—and more excuses, but listen! Number two: you pulled Snow-it wants plenty of sticks, Kitty! Only it got so cold, and it drop away by the tail just as I had put down the saucer of snowed so, they had to leave off. Never mind, Kitty, we’ll go milk before her! What, you were thirsty, were you? How do and see the bonfire to-morrow.’ Here Alice wound two or you know she wasn’t thirsty too? Now for number three: three turns of the worsted round the kitten’s neck, just to see you unwound every bit of the worsted while I wasn’t look-how it would look: this led to a scramble, in which the ball ing!

rolled down upon the floor, and yards and yards of it got

‘That’s three faults, Kitty, and you’ve not been punished unwound again.

for any of them yet. You know I’m saving up all your pun-

‘Do you know, I was so angry, Kitty,’ Alice went on as soon ishments for Wednesday week—Suppose they had saved up as they were comfortably settled again, ‘when I saw all the all my punishments!’ she went on, talking more to herself mischief you had been doing, I was very nearly opening the than the kitten. ‘What would they do at the end of a year? I window, and putting you out into the snow! And you’d have should be sent to prison, I suppose, when the day came.

deserved it, you little mischievous darling! What have you Or—let me see—suppose each punishment was to be going 4

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll without a dinner: then, when the miserable day came, I that came wiggling down among my pieces. Kitty, dear, let’s should have to go without fifty dinners at once! Well, I pretend—’ And here I wish I could tell you half the things shouldn’t mind that much! I’d far rather go without them Alice used to say, beginning with her favourite phrase ‘Let’s than eat them!

pretend.’ She had had quite a long argument with her sister

‘Do you hear the snow against the window-panes, Kitty?

only the day before—all because Alice had begun with ‘Let’s How nice and soft it sounds! Just as if some one was kissing pretend we’re kings and queens;’ and her sister, who liked the window all over outside. I wonder if the snow loves the being very exact, had argued that they couldn’t, because there trees and fields, that it kisses them so gently? And then it were only two of them, and Alice had been reduced at last to covers them up snug, you know, with a white quilt; and say, ‘Well, you can be one of them then, and I’ll be all the perhaps it says, “Go to sleep, darlings, till the summer comes rest.’ And once she had really frightened her old nurse by again.” And when they wake up in the summer, Kitty, they shouting suddenly in her ear, ‘Nurse! Do let’s pretend that dress themselves all in green, and dance about—whenever I’m a hungry hyaena, and you’re a bone.’

the wind blows—oh, that’s very pretty!’ cried Alice, drop-But this is taking us away from Alice’s speech to the kitten.

ping the ball of worsted to clap her hands. ‘And I do so wish

‘Let’s pretend that you’re the Red Queen, Kitty! Do you it was true! I’m sure the woods look sleepy in the autumn, know, I think if you sat up and folded your arms, you’d look when the leaves are getting brown.

exactly like her. Now do try, there’s a dear!’ And Alice got

‘Kitty, can you play chess? Now, don’t smile, my dear, I’m the Red Queen off the table, and set it up before the kitten asking it seriously. Because, when we were playing just now, as a model for it to imitate: however, the thing didn’t suc-you watched just as if you understood it: and when I said ceed, principally, Alice said, because the kitten wouldn’t fold

“Check!” you purred! Well, it was a nice check, Kitty, and its arms properly. So, to punish it, she held it up to the Look-really I might have won, if it hadn’t been for that nasty Knight, ing-glass, that it might see how sulky it was—‘and if you’re 5

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll not good directly,’ she added, ‘I’ll put you through into Look-can see, only you know it may be quite different on beyond.

ing-glass House. How would you like that?’

Oh, Kitty! how nice it would be if we could only get through

‘Now, if you’ll only attend, Kitty, and not talk so much, I’ll into Looking-glass House! I’m sure it’s got, oh! such beauti-tell you all my ideas about Looking-glass House. First, there’s ful things in it!

the room you can see through the glass—that’s just the same Let’s pretend there’s a way of getting through into it, some-as our drawing room, only the things go the other way. I can how, Kitty. Let’s pretend the glass has got all soft like gauze, see all of it when I get upon a chair—all but the bit behind so that we can get through. Why, it’s turning into a sort of the fireplace. Oh! I do so wish I could see that bit! I want so mist now, I declare! It’ll be easy enough to get through—’

much to know whether they’ve a fire in the winter: you never She was up on the chimney-piece while she said this, though can tell, you know, unless our fire smokes, and then smoke she hardly knew how she had got there. And certainly the comes up in that room too—but that may be only pretence, glass was beginning to melt away, just like a bright silvery just to make it look as if they had a fire. Well then, the books mist.

are something like our books, only the words go the wrong In another moment Alice was through the glass, and had way; I know that, because I’ve held up one of our books to jumped lightly down into the Looking-glass room. The very the glass, and then they hold up one in the other room.

first thing she did was to look whether there was a fire in the

‘How would you like to live in Looking-glass House, Kitty?

fireplace, and she was quite pleased to find that there was a I wonder if they’d give you milk in there? Perhaps Looking-real one, blazing away as brightly as the one she had left glass milk isn’t good to drink—But oh, Kitty! now we come behind. ‘So I shall be as warm here as I was in the old room,’

to the passage. You can just see a little peep of the passage in thought Alice: ‘warmer, in fact, because there’ll be no one Looking-glass House, if you leave the door of our drawing-here to scold me away from the fire. Oh, what fun it’ll be, room wide open: and it’s very like our passage as far as you when they see me through the glass in here, and can’t get at 6

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll me!’

Here something began squeaking on the table behind Alice, Then she began looking about, and noticed that what could and made her turn her head just in time to see one of the be seen from the old room was quite common and uninter-White Pawns roll over and begin kicking: she watched it esting, but that all the rest was a different as possible. For with great curiosity to see what would happen next.

instance, the pictures on the wall next the fire seemed to be

‘It is the voice of my child!’ the White Queen cried out as all alive, and the very clock on the chimney-piece (you know she rushed past the King, so violently that she knocked him you can only see the back of it in the Looking-glass) had got over among the cinders. ‘My precious Lily! My imperial the face of a little old man, and grinned at her.

kitten!’ and she began scrambling wildly up the side of the

‘They don’t keep this room so tidy as the other,’ Alice fender.

thought to herself, as she noticed several of the chessmen

‘Imperial fiddlestick!’ said the King, rubbing his nose, which down in the hearth among the cinders: but in another mo-had been hurt by the fall. He had a right to be a little an-ment, with a little ‘Oh!’ of surprise, she was down on her noyed with the Queen, for he was covered with ashes from hands and knees watching them. The chessmen were walk-head to foot.

ing about, two and two!

Alice was very anxious to be of use, and, as the poor little

‘Here are the Red King and the Red Queen,’ Alice said (in Lily was nearly screaming herself into a fit, she hastily picked a whisper, for fear of frightening them), ‘and there are the up the Queen and set her on the table by the side of her White King and the White Queen sitting on the edge of the noisy little daughter.

shovel—and here are two castles walking arm in arm—I don’t The Queen gasped, and sat down: the rapid journey through think they can hear me,’ she went on, as she put her head the air had quite taken away her breath and for a minute or closer down, ‘and I’m nearly sure they can’t see me. I feel two she could do nothing but hug the little Lily in silence.

somehow as if I were invisible—’

As soon as she had recovered her breath a little, she called 7

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll out to the White King, who was sitting sulkily among the much astonished to cry out, but his eyes and his mouth ashes, ‘Mind the volcano!’

went on getting larger and larger, and rounder and rounder,

‘What volcano?’ said the King, looking up anxiously into till her hand shook so with laughing that she nearly let him the fire, as if he thought that was the most likely place to drop upon the floor.

find one.

‘Oh! please don’t make such faces, my dear!’ she cried out,

‘Blew—me—up,’ panted the Queen, who was still a little quite forgetting that the King couldn’t hear her. ‘You make out of breath. ‘Mind you come up—the regular way—don’t me laugh so that I can hardly hold you! And don’t keep your get blown up!’

mouth so wide open! All the ashes will get into it—there, Alice watched the White King as he slowly struggled up now I think you’re tidy enough!’ she added, as she smoothed from bar to bar, till at last she said, ‘Why, you’ll be hours his hair, and set him upon the table near the Queen.

and hours getting to the table, at that rate. I’d far better help The King immediately fell flat on his back, and lay per-you, hadn’t I?’ But the King took no notice of the question: fectly still: and Alice was a little alarmed at what she had it was quite clear that he could neither hear her nor see her.

done, and went round the room to see if she could find any So Alice picked him up very gently, and lifted him across water to throw over him. However, she could find nothing more slowly than she had lifted the Queen, that she mightn’t but a bottle of ink, and when she got back with it she found take his breath away: but, before she put him on the table, he had recovered, and he and the Queen were talking to-she thought she might as well dust him a little, he was so gether in a frightened whisper—so low, that Alice could covered with ashes.

hardly hear what they said.

She said afterwards that she had never seen in all her life The King was saying, ‘I assure, you my dear, I turned cold such a face as the King made, when he found himself held in to the very ends of my whiskers!’

the air by an invisible hand, and being dusted: he was far too To which the Queen replied, ‘You haven’t got any whis-8

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll kers.’

anxious about him, and had the ink all ready to throw over

‘The horror of that moment,’ the King went on, ‘I shall him, in case he fainted again), she turned over the leaves, to never, never forget!’

find some part that she could read, ‘—for it’s all in some

‘You will, though,’ the Queen said, ‘if you don’t make a language I don’t know,’ she said to herself.

memorandum of it.’

It was like this.

Alice looked on with great interest as the King took an enormous memorandum-book out of his pocket, and began YKCOWREBBAJ

writing. A sudden thought struck her, and she took hold of the end of the pencil, which came some way over his shoul-sevot yhtils eht dna ,gillirb sawT‘

der, and began writing for him.

ebaw eht ni elbmig dna eryg diD

The poor King look puzzled and unhappy, and struggled

,sevogorob eht erew ysmim llA

with the pencil for some time without saying anything; but

.ebargtuo shtar emom eht dnA

Alice was too strong for him, and at last he panted out, ‘My dear! I really must get a thinner pencil. I can’t manage this She puzzled over this for some time, but at last a bright one a bit; it writes all manner of things that I don’t intend—’

thought struck her. ‘Why, it’s a Looking-glass book, of course!

‘What manner of things?’ said the Queen, looking over the And if I hold it up to a glass, the words will all go the right book (in which Alice had put ‘ The white knight is sliding way again.’

down the poker. He balances very badly’) ‘That’s not a memo-This was the poem that Alice read.

randum of your feelings!’

There was a book lying near Alice on the table, and while she sat watching the White King (for she was still a little 9

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll JABBERWOCKY

And as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Came whiffling through the tulgey wood, Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

And burbled as it came!

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

One, two! One, two! And through and through The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

‘Beware the Jabberwock, my son!

He left it dead, and with its head

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!

He went galumphing back.

Beware the Jujub bird, and shun

The frumious Bandersnatch!’

‘And has thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

O frabjous day! Calloh! Callay!’

Long time the manxome foe he sought—

He chortled in his joy.

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought.

’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.


Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll

‘It seems very pretty,’ she said when she had finished it,

‘but it’s rather hard to understand!’ (You see she didn’t like to CHAPTER II

confess, ever to herself, that she couldn’t make it out at all.)

‘Somehow it seems to fill my head with ideas—only I don’t The Garden of Live Flowers

exactly know what they are! However, somebody killed something: that’s clear, at any rate—’

‘I should see the garden far better,’ said Alice to herself, ‘if

‘But oh!’ thought Alice, suddenly jumping up, ‘if I don’t I could get to the top of that hill: and here’s a path that leads make haste I shall have to go back through the Looking-straight to it—at least, no, it doesn’t do that—’ (after going glass, before I’ve seen what the rest of the house is like! Let’s a few yards along the path, and turning several sharp cor-have a look at the garden first!’ She was out of the room in a ners), ‘but I suppose it will at last. But how curiously it twists!

moment, and ran down stairs—or, at least, it wasn’t exactly It’s more like a corkscrew than a path! Well, this turn goes to running, but a new invention of hers for getting down stairs the hill, I suppose—no, it doesn’t! This goes straight back to quickly and easily, as Alice said to herself. She just kept the the house! Well then, I’ll try it the other way.’

tips of her fingers on the hand-rail, and floated gently down And so she did: wandering up and down, and trying turn without even touching the stairs with her feet; then she floated after turn, but always coming back to the house, do what on through the hall, and would have gone straight out at the she would. Indeed, once, when she turned a corner rather door in the same way, if she hadn’t caught hold of the door-more quickly than usual, she ran against it before she could post. She was getting a little giddy with so much floating in stop herself.

the air, and was rather glad to find herself walking again in

‘It’s no use talking about it,’ Alice said, looking up at the the natural way.

house and pretending it was arguing with her. ‘I’m not going in again yet. I know I should have to get through the Look-11

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll ing-glass again—back into the old room—and there’d be an as the Tiger-lily only went on waving about, she spoke again, end of all my adventures!’

in a timid voice—almost in a whisper. ‘And can all the flow-So, resolutely turning her back upon the house, she set out ers talk?’

once more down the path, determined to keep straight on

‘As well as you can,’ said the Tiger-lily. ‘And a great deal till she got to the hill. For a few minutes all went on well, louder.’

and she was just saying, ‘I really shall do it this time—’ when

‘It isn’t manners for us to begin, you know,’ said the Rose, the path gave a sudden twist and shook itself (as she de-

‘and I really was wondering when you’d speak! Said I to myself, scribed it afterwards), and the next moment she found her-

“Her face has got some sense in it, thought it’s not a clever self actually walking in at the door.

one!” Still, you’re the right colour, and that goes a long way.’

‘Oh, it’s too bad!’ she cried. Ì never saw such a house for

‘I don’t care about the colour,’ the Tiger-lily remarked. ‘If getting in the way! Never!’

only her petals curled up a little more, she’d be all right.’

However, there was the hill full in sight, so there was noth-Alice didn’t like being criticised, so she began asking ques-ing to be done but start again. This time she came upon a tions. ‘Aren’t you sometimes frightened at being planted out large flower-bed, with a border of daisies, and a willow-tree here, with nobody to take care of you?’

growing in the middle.

‘There’s the tree in the middle,’ said the Rose: ‘what else is

‘O Tiger-lily,’ said Alice, addressing herself to one that was it good for?’

waving gracefully about in the wind, ‘I wish you could talk!’

‘But what could it do, if any danger came?’ Alice asked.

‘We can talk,’ said the Tiger-lily: ‘when there’s anybody

‘It says “Bough-wough!” cried a Daisy: ‘that’s why its worth talking to.’

branches are called boughs!’

Alice was so astonished that she could not speak for a

‘Didn’t you know that?’ cried another Daisy, and here they minute: it quite seemed to take her breath away. At length, all began shouting together, till the air seemed quite full of 12

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll little shrill voices. ‘Silence, every one of you!’ cried the Ti-too soft—so that the flowers are always asleep.’

ger-lily, waving itself passionately from side to side, and trem-This sounded a very good reason, and Alice was quite pleased bling with excitement. ‘They know I can’t get at them!’ it to know it. ‘I never thought of that before!’ she said.

panted, bending its quivering head towards Alice, ‘or they

‘It’s my opinion that you never think at all,’ the Rose said wouldn’t dare to do it!’

in a rather severe tone.

‘Never mind!’ Alice said in a soothing tone, and stooping

‘I never saw anybody that looked stupider,’ a Violet said, so down to the daisies, who were just beginning again, she whis-suddenly, that Alice quite jumped; for it hadn’t spoken be-pered, ‘If you don’t hold your tongues, I’ll pick you!’


There was silence in a moment, and several of the pink

‘Hold your tongue!’ cried the Tiger-lily. ‘As if you ever saw daisies turned white.

anybody! You keep your head under the leaves, and snore

‘That’s right!’ said the Tiger-lily. ‘The daisies are worst of away there, till you know no more what’s going on in the all. When one speaks, they all begin together, and it’s enough world, than if you were a bud!’

to make one wither to hear the way they go on!’

‘Are there any more people in the garden besides me?’ Alice

‘How is it you can all talk so nicely?’ Alice said, hoping to said, not choosing to notice the Rose’s last remark.

get it into a better temper by a compliment. ‘I’ve been in

‘There’s one other flower in the garden that can move about many gardens before, but none of the flowers could talk.’

like you,’ said the Rose. ‘I wonder how you do it—’ (‘You’re

‘Put your hand down, and feel the ground,’ said the Tiger-always wondering,’ said the Tiger-lily), ‘but she’s more bushy lily. ‘Then you’ll know why.

than you are.’

Alice did so. ‘It’s very hard,’ she said, ‘but I don’t see what

‘Is she like me?’ Alice asked eagerly, for the thought crossed that has to do with it.’

her mind, ‘There’s another little girl in the garden, some-

‘In most gardens,’ the Tiger-lily said, ‘they make the beds where!’


Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll

‘Well, she has the same awkward shape as you,’ the Rose had indeed: when Alice first found her in the ashes, she had said, ‘but she’s redder—and her petals are shorter, I think.’

been only three inches high—and here she was, half a head

‘Her petals are done up close, almost like a dahlia,’ the taller than Alice herself!

Tiger-lily interrupted: ‘not tumbled about anyhow, like

‘It’s the fresh air that does it,’ said the Rose: ‘wonderfully yours.’

fine air it is, out here.’

‘But that’s not your fault,’ the Rose added kindly: ‘you’re

‘I think I’ll go and meet her,’ said Alice, for, though the beginning to fade, you know—and then one can’t help one’s flowers were interesting enough, she felt that it would be far petals getting a little untidy.’

grander to have a talk with a real Queen.

Alice didn’t like this idea at all: so, to change the subject,

‘You can’t possibly do that,’ said the Rose: ‘ I should advise she asked ‘Does she ever come out here?’

you to walk the other way.’

‘I daresay you’ll see her soon,’ said the Rose. ‘She’s one of This sounded nonsense to Alice, so she said nothing, but the thorny kind.’

set off at once towards the Red Queen. To her surprise, she

‘Where does she wear the thorns?’ Alice asked with some lost sight of her in a moment, and found herself walking in curiosity.

at the front-door again.

‘Why all round her head, of course,’ the Rose replied. ‘I A little provoked, she drew back, and after looking every-was wondering you hadn’t got some too. I thought it was the where for the queen (whom she spied out at last, a long way regular rule.’

off ), she thought she would try the plan, this time, of walk-

‘She’s coming!’ cried the Larkspur. ‘I hear her footstep, ing in the opposite direction.

thump, thump, thump, along the gravel-walk!’

It succeeded beautifully. She had not been walking a minute Alice looked round eagerly, and found that it was the Red before she found herself face to face with the Red Queen, Queen. ‘She’s grown a good deal!’ was her first remark. She and full in sight of the hill she had been so long aiming at.


Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll

‘Where do you come from?’ said the Red Queen. ‘And where Alice didn’t dare to argue the point, but went on: ‘—and I are you going? Look up, speak nicely, and don’t twiddle your thought I’d try and find my way to the top of that hill—’

fingers all the time.’

‘When you say “hill,”’ the Queen interrupted, ‘ I could show Alice attended to all these directions, and explained, as well you hills, in comparison with which you’d call that a valley.’

as she could, that she had lost her way.

‘No, I shouldn’t,’ said Alice, surprised into contradicting

‘I don’t know what you mean by your way,’ said the Queen: her at last: ‘a hill can’t be a valley, you know. That would be

‘all the ways about here belong to me—but why did you nonsense—’

come out here at all?’ she added in a kinder tone. ‘Curtsey The Red Queen shook her head, ‘You may call it “non-while you’re thinking what to say, it saves time.’

sense” if you like,’ she said, ‘but I’ve heard nonsense, com-Alice wondered a little at this, but she was too much in awe pared with which that would be as sensible as a dictionary!’

of the Queen to disbelieve it. ‘I’ll try it when I go home,’ she Alice curtseyed again, as she was afraid from the Queen’s thought to herself. ‘the next time I’m a little late for dinner.’

tone that she was a little offended: and they walked on in

‘It’s time for you to answer now,’ the Queen said, looking silence till they got to the top of the little hill.

at her watch: ‘open your mouth a little wider when you For some minutes Alice stood without speaking, looking speak, and always say “your Majesty.”’

out in all directions over the country—and a most curious

‘I only wanted to see what the garden was like, your Maj-country it was. There were a number of tiny little brooks esty—’

running straight across it from side to side, and the ground

‘That’s right,’ said the Queen, patting her on the head, between was divided up into squares by a number of little which Alice didn’t like at all, ‘though, when you say “gar-green hedges, that reached from brook to brook.

den,”— I’ve seen gardens, compared with which this would

‘I declare it’s marked out just like a large chessboard!’ Alice be a wilderness.’

said at last. ‘There ought to be some men moving about 15

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll somewhere—and so there are!’ She added in a tone of de-the other things round them never changed their places at light, and her heart began to beat quick with excitement as all: however fast they went, they never seemed to pass any-she went on. ‘It’s a great huge game of chess that’s being thing. ‘I wonder if all the things move along with us?’ thought played—all over the world—if this IS the world at all, you poor puzzled Alice. And the Queen seemed to guess her know. Oh, what fun it is! How I wish I was one of them! I thoughts, for she cried, ‘Faster! Don’t try to talk!’

wouldn’t mind being a Pawn, if only I might join—though Not that Alice had any idea of doing that. She felt as if she of course I should like to be a Queen, best.’

would never be able to talk again, she was getting so much She glanced rather shyly at the real Queen as she said this, out of breath: and still the Queen cried ‘Faster! Faster!’ and but her companion only smiled pleasantly, and said, ‘That’s dragged her along. ‘Are we nearly there?’ Alice managed to easily managed. You can be the White Queen’s Pawn, if you pant out at last.

like, as Lily’s too young to play; and you’re in the Second

‘Nearly there!’ the Queen repeated. ‘Why, we passed it ten Square to began with: when you get to the Eighth Square minutes ago! Faster!’ And they ran on for a time in silence, you’ll be a Queen—’ Just at this moment, somehow or other, with the wind whistling in Alice’s ears, and almost blowing they began to run.

her hair off her head, she fancied.

Alice never could quite make out, in thinking it over after-

‘Now! Now!’ cried the Queen. ‘Faster! Faster!’ And they wards, how it was that they began: all she remembers is, went so fast that at last they seemed to skim through the air, that they were running hand in hand, and the Queen went hardly touching the ground with their feet, till suddenly, so fast that it was all she could do to keep up with her: and just as Alice was getting quite exhausted, they stopped, and still the Queen kept crying ‘Faster! Faster!’ but Alice felt she she found herself sitting on the ground, breathless and giddy.

could not go faster, though she had not breath left to say so.

The Queen propped her up against a tree, and said kindly, The most curious part of the thing was, that the trees and

‘You may rest a little now.’


Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll Alice looked round her in great surprise. ‘Why, I do be-pocket, marked in inches, and began measuring the ground, lieve we’ve been under this tree the whole time! Everything’s and sticking little pegs in here and there.

just as it was!’

‘At the end of two yards,’ she said, putting in a peg to mark

‘Of course it is,’ said the Queen, ‘what would you have it?’

the distance, ‘I shall give you your directions—have another

‘Well, in our country,’ said Alice, still panting a little, ‘you’d biscuit?’

generally get to somewhere else—if you ran very fast for a

‘No, thank you,’ said Alice,: ‘one’s quite enough!’

long time, as we’ve been doing.’

‘Thirst quenched, I hope?’ said the Queen.

‘A slow sort of country!’ said the Queen. ‘Now, here, you Alice did not know what to say to this, but luckily the see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same Queen did not wait for an answer, but went on. ‘At the end place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at of three yards I shall repeat them—for fear of your forget-least twice as fast as that!’

ting them. At then end of four, I shall say good-bye. And at

‘I’d rather not try, please!’ said Alice. ‘I’m quite content to then end of five, I shall go!’

stay here—only I am so hot and thirsty!’

She had got all the pegs put in by this time, and Alice looked

‘I know what you’d like!’ the Queen said good-naturedly, on with great interest as she returned to the tree, and then taking a little box out of her pocket. ‘Have a biscuit?’

began slowly walking down the row.

Alice thought it would not be civil to say ‘No,’ though it At the two-yard peg she faced round, and said, ‘A pawn wasn’t at all what she wanted. So she took it, and ate it as goes two squares in its first move, you know. So you’ll go well as she could: and it was very dry; and she thought she very quickly through the Third Square—by railway, I should had never been so nearly choked in all her life.

think—and you’ll find yourself in the Fourth Square in no

‘While you’re refreshing yourself,’ said the Queen, ‘I’ll just time. Well, that square belongs to Tweedledum and take the measurements.’ And she took a ribbon out of her Tweedledee—the Fifth is mostly water—the Sixth belongs 17

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll to Humpty Dumpty—But you make no remark?’

a Pawn, and that it would soon be time for her to move.

‘I—I didn’t know I had to make one—just then,’ Alice faltered out.

‘You should have said,’ ‘“It’s extremely kind of you to tell me all this”—however, we’ll suppose it said—the Seventh CHAPTER III

Square is all forest—however, one of the Knights will show you the way—and in the Eighth Square we shall be Queens Looking-Glass Insects

together, and it’s all feasting and fun!’ Alice got up and curtseyed, and sat down again.

Of course the first thing to do was to make a grand survey At the next peg the Queen turned again, and this time she of the country she was going to travel through. ‘It’s some-said, ‘Speak in French when you can’t think of the English thing very like learning geography,’ thought Alice, as she for a thing —turn out your toes as you walk—and remem-stood on tiptoe in hopes of being able to see a little further.

ber who you are!’ She did not wait for Alice to curtsey this

‘Principal rivers—there are none. Principal mountains—I’m time, but walked on quickly to the next peg, where she turned on the only one, but I don’t think it’s got any name. Princi-for a moment to say ‘good-bye,’ and then hurried on to the pal towns—why, what are those creatures, making honey last.

down there? They can’t be bees—nobody ever saw bees a How it happened, Alice never knew, but exactly as she came mile off, you know—’and for some time she stood silent, to the last peg, she was gone. Whether she vanished into the watching one of them that was bustling about among the air, or whether she ran quickly into the wood (‘and she can flowers, poking its proboscis into them, ‘just as if it was a run very fast!’ thought Alice), there was no way of guessing, regular bee,’ thought Alice.

but she was gone, and Alice began to remember that she was However, this was anything but a regular bee: in fact it was 18

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll an elephant—as Alice soon found out, though the idea quite to fill the carriage.

took her breath away at first. ‘And what enormous flowers

‘Now then! Show your ticket, child!’ the Guard went on, they must be!’ was her next idea. ‘Something like cottages looking angrily at Alice. And a great many voices all said with the roofs taken off, and stalks put to them—and what together (‘like the chorus of a song,’ thought Alice), ‘Don’t quantities of honey they must make! I think I’ll go down keep him waiting, child! Why, his time is worth a thousand and—no, I won’t just yet, ‘ she went on, checking herself pounds a minute!’

just as she was beginning to run down the hill, and trying to

‘I’m afraid I haven’t got one,’ Alice said in a frightened find some excuse for turning shy so suddenly. ‘It’ll never do tone: ‘there wasn’t a ticket-office where I came from.’ And to go down among them without a good long branch to again the chorus of voices went on. ‘There wasn’t room for brush them away—and what fun it’ll be when they ask me one where she came from. The land there is worth a thou-how I like my walk. I shall say—“Oh, I like it well enough—”’

sand pounds an inch!’

(here came the favourite little toss of the head), ‘“only it was

‘Don’t make excuses,’ said the Guard: ‘you should have so dusty and hot, and the elephants did tease so!”’

bought one from the engine-driver.’ And once more the cho-

‘I think I’ll go down the other way,’ she said after a pause: rus of voices went on with ‘The man that drives the engine.

‘and perhaps I may visit the elephants later on. Besides, I do Why, the smoke alone is worth a thousand pounds a puff!’

so want to get into the Third Square!’

Alice thought to herself, ‘Then there’s no use in speaking.’

So with this excuse she ran down the hill and jumped over The voices didn’t join in this time, as she hadn’t spoken, but the first of the six little brooks.

to her great surprise, they all thought in chorus (I hope you

‘Tickets, please!’ said the Guard, putting his head in at the understand what thinking in chorus means—for I must con-window. In a moment everybody was holding out a ticket: fess that I don’t), ‘Better say nothing at all. Language is worth they were about the same size as the people, and quite seemed a thousand pounds a word!’


Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll

‘I shall dream about a thousand pounds tonight, I know I extremely small voice, close to her ear, said, ‘You might make shall!’ thought Alice.

a joke on that—something about “horse” and “hoarse,” you All this time the Guard was looking at her, first through a know.’

telescope, then through a microscope, and then through an Then a very gentle voice in the distance said, ‘She must be opera-glass. At last he said, ‘You’re travelling the wrong way,’

labelled “Lass, with care,” you know—’

and shut up the window and went away.

And after that other voices went on (What a number of

‘So young a child,’ said the gentleman sitting opposite to people there are in the carriage!’ thought Alice), saying, ‘She her (he was dressed in white paper), ‘ought to know which must go by post, as she’s got a head on her—’ ‘She must be way she’s going, even if she doesn’t know her own name!’

sent as a message by the telegraph—’ ‘She must draw the A Goat, that was sitting next to the gentleman in white, train herself the rest of the way—’ and so on.

shut his eyes and said in a loud voice, ‘She ought to know But the gentleman dressed in white paper leaned forwards her way to the ticket-office, even if she doesn’t know her and whispered in her ear, ‘Never mind what they all say, my alphabet!’

dear, but take a return-ticket every time the train stops.’

There was a Beetle sitting next to the Goat (it was a very

‘Indeed I shan’t!’ Alice said rather impatiently. ‘I don’t be-queer carriage-full of passengers altogether), and, as the rule long to this railway journey at all—I was in a wood just now seemed to be that they should all speak in turn, he went on

—and I wish I could get back there.’

with ‘She’ll have to go back from here as luggage!’

‘You might make a joke on that,’ said the little voice close Alice couldn’t see who was sitting beyond the Beetle, but a to her ear: ‘something about “you would if you could,” you hoarse voice spoke next. ‘Change engines—’ it said, and know.’

was obliged to leave off.

‘Don’t tease so,’ said Alice, looking about in vain to see

‘It sounds like a horse,’ Alice thought to herself. And an where the voice came from; ‘if you’re so anxious to have a 20

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll joke made, why don’t you make one yourself?’

over.’ Everybody seemed satisfied with this, though Alice The little voice sighed deeply: it was very unhappy, evi-felt a little nervous at the idea of trains jumping at all. ‘How-dently, and Alice would have said something pitying to com-ever, it’ll take us into the Fourth Square, that’s some comfort it, ‘If it would only sigh like other people!’ she thought.

fort!’ she said to herself. In another moment she felt the But this was such a wonderfully small sigh, that she wouldn’t carriage rise straight up into the air, and in her fright she have heard it at all, if it hadn’t come quite close to her ear.

caught at the thing nearest to her hand. which happened to The consequence of this was that it tickled her ear very much, be the Goat’s beard.

and quite took off her thoughts from the unhappiness of the But the beard seemed to melt away as she touched it, and poor little creature.

she found herself sitting quietly under a tree—while the Gnat

‘I know you are a friend, the little voice went on; ‘a dear (for that was the insect she had been talking to) was balanc-friend, and an old friend. And you won’t hurt me, though I ing itself on a twig just over her head, and fanning her with am an insect.’

its wings.

‘What kind of insect?’ Alice inquired a little anxiously. What It certainly was a very large Gnat: ‘about the size of a she really wanted to know was, whether it could sting or chicken,’ Alice thought. Still, she couldn’t feel nervous with not, but she thought this wouldn’t be quite a civil question it, after they had been talking together so long.

to ask.

‘—then you don’t like all insects?’ the Gnat went on, as

‘What, then you don’t—’ the little voice began, when it quietly as if nothing had happened.

was drowned by a shrill scream from the engine, and every-

‘I like them when they can talk,’ Alice said. ‘None of them body jumped up in alarm, Alice among the rest.

ever talk, where I come from.’

The Horse, who had put his head out of the window, qui-

‘What sort of insects do you rejoice in, where you come etly drew it in and said, ‘It’s only a brook we have to jump from?’ the Gnat inquired.


Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll

‘I don’t rejoice in insects at all,’ Alice explained, ‘because Alice looked up at the Rocking-horse-fly with great interI’m rather afraid of them—at least the large kinds. But I can est, and made up her mind that it must have been just re-tell you the names of some of them.’

painted, it looked so bright and sticky; and then she went

‘Of course they answer to their names?’ the Gnat remarked on.


‘And there’s the Dragon-fly.’

‘I never knew them do it.’

‘Look on the branch above your head,’ said the Gnat, ‘and

‘What’s the use of their having names the Gnat said, ‘if there you’ll find a snap-dragon-fly. Its body is made of plum-they won’t answer to them?’

pudding, its wings of holly-leaves, and its head is a raisin

‘No use to them,’ said Alice; ‘but it’s useful to the people burning in brandy.’

who name them, I suppose. If not, why do things have names

‘And what does it live on?’

at all?’

‘Frumenty and mince pie,’ the Gnat replied; ‘and it makes

‘I can’t say,’ the Gnat replied. ‘Further on, in the wood its nest in a Christmas box.’

down there, they’ve got no names—however, go on with

‘And then there’s the Butterfly,’ Alice went on, after she your list of insects: you’re wasting time.’

had taken a good look at the insect with its head on fire, and

‘Well, there’s the Horse-fly,’ Alice began, counting off the had thought to herself, ‘I wonder if that’s the reason insects names on her fingers.

are so fond of flying into candles—because they want to

‘All right,’ said the Gnat: ‘half way up that bush, you’ll see turn into Snap-dragon-flies!’

a Rocking-horse-fly, if you look. It’s made entirely of wood,

‘Crawling at your feet,’ said the Gnat (Alice drew her feet and gets about by swinging itself from branch to branch.’

back in some alarm), ‘you may observe a Bread-and-Butter-

‘What does it live on?’ Alice asked, with great curiosity.

fly. Its wings are thin slices of Bread-and-butter, its body is a

‘Sap and sawdust,’ said the Gnat. ‘Go on with the list.’

crust, and its head is a lump of sugar.’


Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll

‘And what does it live on?’

would never think of excusing me lessons for that. If she

‘Weak tea with cream in it.’

couldn’t remember my name, she’d call me “Miss!” as the A new difficulty came into Alice’s head. ‘Supposing it servants do.’

couldn’t find any?’ she suggested.

‘Well. if she said “Miss,” and didn’t say anything more,’ the

‘Then it would die, of course.’

Gnat remarked, ‘of course you’d miss your lessons. That’s a

‘But that must happen very often,’ Alice remarked thought-joke. I wish you had made it.’


‘Why do you wish I had made it?’ Alice asked. ‘It’s a very

‘It always happens,’ said the Gnat.

bad one.’

After this, Alice was silent for a minute or two, pondering.

But the Gnat only sighed deeply, while two large tears came The Gnat amused itself meanwhile by humming round and rolling down its cheeks.

round her head: at last it settled again and remarked, ‘I sup-

‘You shouldn’t make jokes,’ Alice said, ‘if it makes you so pose you don’t want to lose your name?’


‘No, indeed,’ Alice said, a little anxiously.

Then came another of those melancholy little sighs, and

‘And yet I don’t know,’ the Gnat went on in a careless tone: this time the poor Gnat really seemed to have sighed itself

‘only think how convenient it would be if you could manage away, for, when Alice looked up, there was nothing what-to go home without it! For instance, if the governess wanted ever to be seen on the twig, and, as she was getting quite to call you to your lessons, she would call out “come here—,” chilly with sitting still so long, she got up and walked on.

and there she would have to leave off, because there wouldn’t She very soon came to an open field, with a wood on the be any name for her to call, and of course you wouldn’t have other side of it: it looked much darker than the last wood, to go, you know.’

and Alice felt a little timid about going into it. However, on

‘That would never do, I’m sure,’ said Alice: ‘the governess second thoughts, she made up her mind to go on: ‘for I 23

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll certainly won’t go back,’ she thought to herself, and this was She stood silent for a minute, thinking: then she suddenly the only way to the Eighth Square.

began again. ‘Then it really has happened, after all! And now,

‘This must be the wood, she said thoughtfully to herself, who am I? I will remember, if I can! I’m determined to do

‘where things have no names. I wonder what’ll become of it!’ But being determined didn’t help much, and all she could my name when I go in? I shouldn’t like to lose it at all—

say, after a great deal of puzzling, was, ‘L, I know it begins because they’d have to give me another, and it would be with L!’

almost certain to be an ugly one. But then the fun would be Just then a Fawn came wandering by: it looked at Alice trying to find the creature that had got my old name! That’s with its large gentle eyes, but didn’t seem at all frightened.

just like the advertisements, you know, when people lose

‘Here then! Here then!’ Alice said, as she held out her hand dogs—” Answers to the name of ‘Dash:’ had on a brass collar”

and tried to stroke it; but it only started back a little, and just fancy calling everything you met “Alice,” till one of them then stood looking at her again.

answered! Only they wouldn’t answer at all, if they were wise.’

‘What do you call yourself?’ the Fawn said at last. Such a She was rambling on in this way when she reached the soft sweet voice it had!

wood: it looked very cool and shady. ‘Well, at any rate it’s a

‘I wish I knew!’ thought poor Alice. She answered, rather great comfort,’ she said as she stepped under the trees, ‘after sadly, ‘Nothing, just now.’

being so hot, to get into the—into what?’ she went on, rather

‘Think again,’ it said: ‘that won’t do.’

surprised at not being able to think of the word. ‘I mean to Alice thought, but nothing came of it. ‘Please, would you get under the—under the—under this, you know!’ putting tell me what you call yourself?’ she said timidly. ‘I think that her hand on the trunk of the tree. ‘What does it call itself, I might help a little.’

wonder? I do believe it’s got no name—why, to be sure it

‘I’ll tell you, if you’ll move a little further on,’ the Fawn hasn’t!’

said. ‘I can’t remember here.’


Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll So they walked on together though the wood, Alice with Tweedledee.’

her arms clasped lovingly round the soft neck of the Fawn,

‘I do believe,’ said Alice at last, ‘that they live in the same till they came out into another open field, and here the Fawn house! I wonder I never thought of that before—But I can’t gave a sudden bound into the air, and shook itself free from stay there long. I’ll just call and say “how d’you do?” and ask Alice’s arms. ‘I’m a Fawn!’ it cried out in a voice of delight, them the way out of the wood. If I could only get to the

‘and, dear me! you’re a human child!’ A sudden look of alarm Eighth Square before it gets dark!’ So she wandered on, talk-came into its beautiful brown eyes, and in another moment ing to herself as she went, till, on turning a sharp corner, she it had darted away at full speed.

came upon two fat little men, so suddenly that she could not Alice stood looking after it, almost ready to cry with vexa-help starting back, but in another moment she recovered tion at having lost her dear little fellow-traveller so suddenly.

herself, feeling sure that they must be

‘However, I know my name now.’ she said, ‘that’s some comfort. Alice—Alice—I won’t forget it again. And now, which of these finger-posts ought I to follow, I wonder?’

It was not a very difficult question to answer, as there was CHAPTER IV

only one road through the wood, and the two finger-posts both pointed along it. ‘I’ll settle it,’ Alice said to herself, TWEEDLEDUM AND TWEEDLEDEE

‘when the road divides and they point different ways.’

But this did not seem likely to happen. She went on and They were standing under a tree, each with an arm round on, a long way, but wherever the road divided there were the other’s neck, and Alice knew which was which in a mo-sure to be two finger-posts pointing the same way, one marked ment, because one of them had ‘ Dum’ embroidered on his

To Tweedledum’s House’ and the other ‘ To the House of collar, and the other ‘ Dee.’ ‘I suppose they’ve each got 25

Through the Looking Glass - Lewis Carroll

Tweedle” round at the back of the collar,’ she said to herself.

They stood so still that she quite forgot they were alive, Just then flew down a monstrous crow, and she was just looking round to see if the word “Tweedle” As black as a tar-barrel;

was written at the back of each collar, when she was startled Which frightened both the heroes so, by a voice coming from the one marked ‘ Dum.’

They quite forgot their quarrel.’

‘If you think we’re wax-works,’ he said, ‘you ought to pay, you know. Wax-works weren’t made to be looked at for noth-