The Story of Switzerland by Lina Hug and Richard Stead - HTML preview

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Preface

ix

Table of Cantons

xiii

Table Showing Names, Areas, and Populations Of Cantons

xxiv

I.

The Lake Dwellers

1-12

Discovery of Lake Settlements—Dr. Ferdinand Keller's explorations—

Three distinct epochs—Daily life of the Lakemen—Lake Settlements

in East Yorkshire.

II.

The Helvetians

13-28

Extent of their territory—Their government and mode of life—

Orgetorix—Divico

beats

the

Roman

forces—Cæsar

routs

Helvetians—Vercingetorix—Valisians—Rhætians.

III.

Helvetia under the Romans

29-43

Cæsar's mode of dealing with Helvetia—Augustus—Helvetia

incorporated into Gaul—Vespasian—Alamanni and Burgundians—

Christianity introduced.

[Pg xiv]

IV.

The Ancestors of the Swiss Nation

44-57

The

Huns

and

their

ravages—Alamanni—Burgundians—"The

Nibelungenlied"—The

Franks

subdue

both

Alamanni

and

Burgundians—Irish monks preach in Switzerland.

V.

The Carolingians—Charlemagne

58-70

Pepin le Bref—Charlemagne—His connection with Zurich.

VI.

The Kingdom of Burgundy; the Duchy of Swabia; and the German

Empire

71-82

Division of Charlemagne's territory into three—Rudolf the Guelf—

Swabian Dukes—Genealogical tables.

VII.

Burgundy and Swabia under the German Emperors

85-94

Bertha, the "Spinning Queen"—Her son Conrad—Helvetia in close

connection with Germany—Henry III.—Struggle with the Papal

power.

VIII.

The Reign of the House of Zaeringen

95-100

Their origin—Freiburg and other towns founded—Bern founded—

Defeated by Savoy—The Crusades.

IX.

The Houses of Kyburg, Savoy, and Habsburg

101-117

Fall of the Zaerings—Kyburg dynasty—Growth of Feudalism—The

Hohenstaufen—Savoy—Rise of the Habsburgs—Rudolf.

[Pg xv]

X.

The Confederation, Or Eidgenossenschaft

118-130

The Forest Cantons—The Oath on the Rütli—Rudolf oppresses the

Waldstätten—Tell and the apple—Investigation as to the facts

relating to the foundation of the League.

XI.

The Battle of Morgarten

131-137

Attempt on Zurich by the Habsburgs—Albrecht—Gathering of the

Wald peoples—Austrian defeat.

XII.

The League of the Eight States

139-146

Lucerne joins the League—Zurich follows—War with Austria—Glarus

attached to the League as an inferior or protected State—Zug joins

the Union—Bern.

XIII.

Zurich an example of a Swiss Town in The Middle Ages

147-157

Abbey Church of our Lady—Influence of the Lady Abbess—Citizens

in three classes—They gradually gain freedom—Trade of the city—

Zurich a literary centre—Uprising of the working classes—A new

constitution.

XIV.

Bern Crushes the Nobility: Great Victory Of Laupen

158-166

Bern of a military bent—Forms a West Swiss Union—Siege of

Solothurn—Bern opposes the Habsburgs—Acquires Laupen—Victory

at Laupen—League of the Eight States completed.

XV.

The Battles of Sempach and Naefels

167-178

Opposition to Austria—Leopold III., Character of—His plans—Defeat

and death at Sempach—Winkelried—Battle of Naefels.

[Pg xvi]

XVI.

How Switzerland came to have Subject Lands

179-189

Acquisition of surrounding territories desirable—Appenzell—Valais—

Graubünden—Aargau—Quarrels with Milan.

XVII.

War between Zurich and Schwyz

190-199

Dispute concerning Toggenburg lands—Stüssi of Zurich and Von

Reding of Schwyz—Zurich worsted—Makes alliance with Austria—

France joins the alliance—Battle of St. Jacques.

XVIII.

Burgundian Wars

200-216

Charles the Bold—Louis XI. of France—Causes which led to the

war—Policy of Bern—Commencement of hostilities—Battle of

Grandson—Morat—Siege of Nancy and death of Charles.

XIX.

Meeting at Stanz, &c.

217-229

Prestige gained by the League—Disputes respecting the admission

of Freiburg and Solothurn—Diet at Stanz—Nicolas von der Flüe—

Covenant of Stanz—Waldmann—His execution.

XX.

The League of the Thirteen Cantons Completed

230-242

Maximilian—Swabian War—Separation of Switzerland from the

Empire—Basel joins the League—Schaffhausen—Appenzell—Italian

wars—Siege of Novara—Battle of Marignano—St. Gall.

XXI.

The Great Councils, Landsgemeinde, and Diet, &c.

243-253

Two kinds of Canton—Constitution of Bern and of Zurich—

Landsgemeinde—Tagsatzung—Intellectual and literary life.

[Pg xvii]

XXII.

The Reformation in German Switzerland

254-268

Zwingli—His early life—His desire for a reformation—Appointed to

Zurich—A national Reformed Church established—Spread of the new

faith—The Kappeler Milchsuppe—Disputes between Luther and

Zwingli—Second quarrel with the Forest—Zwingli killed.

XXIII.

The Reformation in West Switzerland

269-278

Political condition of Vaud and Geneva—Charles III. and Geneva—

The "Ladle Squires"—Bonivard thrown into Chillon—Reformed faith

preached in French Switzerland by Farel—Treaty of St. Julien—

Operations in Savoy.

XXIV.

Geneva and Calvin

279-290

Calvin—His "Institutes"—His Confession of Faith—Banishment from

Geneva—His return—The Consistoire—The "Children of Geneva"—

Servetus burnt—The Academy founded—Calvin's death.

XXV.

The Catholic Reaction

291-302

Droit d'asile—Pfyffer—Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan—

Borromean League—Protestants driven from Locarno—Switzerland

an asylum for religious refugees—Effect of Swiss Reformation on

England—Revival of learning—Escalade of Geneva.

XXVI.

The Aristocratic Period

303-314

Thirty Years' War—Graubünden and its difficulties—Massacre in

Valtellina—Rohan—Jenatsch—Peasants'

Revolt—Treaty

with

France.

[Pg xviii]

XXVII.

Political Matters in the Eighteenth Century

315-323

Aristocracy

and

plebeians—French

League—Massacre

at

Greifensee—Davel's plot—Bern—Its three castes—Constitutional

struggles in Geneva—Affray in Neuchâtel.

XXVIII.

Switzerland and the Renaissance: Influence of Voltaire and

Rousseau

324-342

Voltaire—Residence at Ferney—No special influence on Geneva—

Rousseau—Madame de Staël—Swiss savants—Zurich a Poets'

Corner—Breitinger, Bodmer, Haller, Klopstock, &c.—Pestalozzi—

Lavater—The Helvetic Society.

XXIX.

The French Revolution and Switzerland

343-359

Swiss Guards massacred in Paris—Insurrection of Stäfa—Treaty of

Campo Formio—The Paris Helvetic Club—The "Lemanic Republic"—

Surrender of Bern—Helvetic Republic proclaimed—Opposition by

Schwyz, Stanz, &c.

XXX.

The "One and Undivided Helvetic Republic"

357-368

A levy ordered by France—Franco-Helvetic alliance—Austrian

occupation—Russian

occupation—Battle

of

Zurich—Suwarow's

extraordinary marches—Heavy French requisitions—Rengger and

Stapfer,—Centralists and Federalists—Napoleon as mediator.

XXXI.

The Mediation Act and Napoleon

369-381

Conference in Paris on Swiss matters—Mediation Act signed—The

Bockenkrieg—Six new cantons formed—Material and intellectual

progress—Extinction of Diet—The "Long Diet"—Congress of

Vienna—Completion of twenty-two cantons.

[Pg xix]

XXXII.

Switzerland under the Constitution of 1815-48

382-394

Dissatisfaction with results of Vienna Congress—The French

revolution of 1830—The "Day of Uster"—The Siebner Concordat—

Catholic League—Progress of education—Political refugees in

Switzerland—Louis Philippe—Louis Napoleon—Disturbances in

Zurich by the Anti-Nationalists—The Sonderbund War.

XXXIII.

Under the Constitution of 1848

395-407

New Federal Constitution—Federal Assembly—Federal Council—

Federal Tribunal—Powers of the individual cantons—Military

service—Neuchâtel

troubles—Federal

Pact

amended—The

Initiative—The Referendum.

XXXIV.

Industry, Commerce, Railways, Education. The "Right of Asylum"

408-421

Extent of trade—Exports and imports—Railways—Education—Keller

the poet—The Geneva Convention—International Postal Union—

International Labour Congress—Switzerland as a political asylum—

Franco-German War—Summary of population statistics.

Genealogical Tables

83, 84

Index

423

[Pg xxi]

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

The Illustration titled UPPER FALL OF THE REICHENBACH

(MEYRINGEN) in the list of Illustrations actually is THE STANDARD-

BEARERS OF SCHWYZ, URI, UNTERWALDEN AND ZÜRICH. The

original text has the wrong description in the list of illustrations.

PAGE


 
 LAKE DWELLINGS, ZURICH LAKE, FROM A DESIGN BY
 DR.

FERDINAND KELLER

Frontispiece


 
 MAP, SHOWING LAKE SETTLEMENTS AROUND ZURICH

LAKE, BY MR. HEIERLI

2


 
 (1) DECORATION ON SWORD HILT; (2 AND 3), STONE CELTS

FOUND

IN

SWISS

LAKE

DWELLINGS

(COPIED

BY

PERMISSION
 FROM "HARPER'S MAGAZINE")

4


 
 (1) VESSEL; (2) SPECIMENS OF WOVEN FABRICS FOUND IN

SWISS

LAKE

DWELLINGS

(COPIED

BY

PERMISSION

FROM
 "HARPER'S MAGAZINE")

7


 
 SPECIMENS OF POTTERY FOUND IN SWISS LAKE

DWELLINGS (COPIED BY PERMISSION FROM "HARPER'S

MAGAZINE")

10


 
 JOHANNISSTEIN,

WITH

RUINS

OF

CASTLE

OF

"HOHENRHÆTIA," NEAR THUSIS, GRAUBÜNDEN

16


 
 HOUSE (FORMERLY CHAPEL) IN ROMAUNSH STYLE, AT

SCHULS, LOWER ENGADINE, GRAUBÜNDEN

27

[Pg xxii]

SILVER COIN, VERCINGETORIX (DR. IMHOOF, WINTERTHUR)

29


 
 GOLD COIN, VESPASIAN [VESPASIANUS IMPERATOR-

AETERNITAS] (DR. IMHOOF)

34


 
 GOLD COIN OF SIXTEENTH CENTURY [ST. FELIX, ST.

REGULA-SANCTUS CAROLUS] (DR. IMHOOF)

42


 
 THE EIGER

52


 
 GREAT

MINSTER

AND

WASSERKIRCHE,

ZURICH

(APPENZELLER, ZURICH)

67


 
 FURKA PASS

79


 
 CATHEDRAL (EXTERIOR), LAUSANNE

92


 
 CHÂTEAU DE VUFFLENS, VAUD (FOURTEENTH CENTURY)

102


 
 BRONZE

FIGURES

FROM

MAXIMILIAN

MONUMENT,

INNSBRUCK (ARTHUR OF THE ROUND TABLE,
 BRITAIN;

THEODOBERT, DUKE OF BURGUNDY; ERNEST, DUKE OF

AUSTRIA; THEODORIC, KING OF THE OSTROGOTHS)

106


 
 THE OLD HABSBURG CASTLE, CANTON AARGAU

112


 
 THALER OF THE THREE CANTONS (URI, SCHWYZ, AND

UNTERWALDEN)

120


 
 MAP OF OLD SWITZERLAND

138


 
 UPPER FALL OF THE REICHENBACH (MEYRINGEN)

160


 
 PORCH OF BERN MINSTER, WITH STATUE OF RUDOLF VON

ERLACH

165


 
 WINKELRIED'S MONUMENT, STANZ

174


 
 ARMS OF URI

189


 
 ST. JACQUES MONUMENT, BASEL, BY SCHLÖTH

196


 
 ARMS OF SCHWYZ

198


 
 ELIZABETH, WIFE OF ALBERT II.; MARIA OF BURGUNDY;

ELEANOR

OF

PORTUGAL;

KUNIGUNDE,
 SISTER

OF

MAXIMILIAN (FROM MAXIMILIAN MONUMENT, INNSBRUCK)

201

[Pg xxiii]

MAP OF GRANDSON

210


 
 OLD WEAPONS AND ARMOUR IN ZURICH ARSENAL

214


 
 INNER

COURT

OF

THE

ABBEY

OF

OUR

LADY.

LUTH
 CHAPTER OF ZURICH

220


 
 ARMS OF UNTERWALDEN

229


 
 MARBLE RELIEVI, MAXIMILIAN MONUMENT, INNSBRUCK

231


 
 CITY WALLS OF MURTEN

235


 
 CUSTOM-HOUSE, FREIBURG

240


 
 SARNEN, BERN

244


 
 CITY WALLS, LUCERNE

246


 
 ULRICH ZWINGLI

256


 
 MINSTER, BERN

270


 
 THALER OF 1564 (ST. GALL)

289


 
 HIGH ALTAR, CHUR CATHEDRAL

306


 
 ROUSSEAU

329


 
 PESTALOZZI

330


 
 HALLER

333


 
 LAVATER

340


 
 THE LION OF LUCERNE

344


 
 LA HARPE

348


 
 REDING

354


 
 DILIGENCE CROSSING THE SIMPLON PASS

362


 
 INTERLAKEN, FROM THE FELSENEGG

386


 
 POLYTECHNIKUM AT ZURICH

397


 
 VIEW OF SION

404


 
 LAW COURTS AT LAUSANNE

407


 
 "VICTIMS OF THE WORK," ST. GOTHARD TUNNEL, FROM A

BAS-RELIEF

BY

VELA

(BY

SPECIAL
 PERMISSION

OF

SCULPTOR)

411


 
 PORTRAIT OF GOTFRIED KELLER, THE POET

413


 
 INTERIOR OF LAUSANNE CATHEDRAL

419

[Pg xxiv]

TABLE

SHOWING NAMES (GERMAN AND FRENCH), AREAS,

AND POPULATIONS OF CANTONS.

Area in Square

Population (approximate) Dec. 1,

German Name.

French Name.

Miles.

1888.

1. Aargau

Argovie

543

193,000

2. Appenzell

Appenzell

{Rhodes

{Ausser Rhoden

100

54,000

Extérieures

{Rhodes

{Inner Rhoden

60

13,000

Intérieures

3. Basel Stadt

Bâle-Ville

14

74,000

" Land

" Campagne

163

62,000

4. Bern

Berne

2,660

539,000

5. Freiburg

Fribourg

644

119,000

6. St. Gallen

St. Gall

779

229,000

7. Genf

Genève (Geneva)

109

107,000

8. Glarus

Glaris

267

33,000

9. Graubünden

Grisons

2,774

96,000

10. Luzern

Lucerne

579

135,000

11. Neuenburg

Neuchâtel

312

109,000

12. Schaffhausen

Schaffhouse

116

37,000

13. Schwyz

Schwyz (Schwytz)

351

50,000

14. Solothurn

Soleure

303

85,000

Tessin (Italian,

15. Tessin

1,095

127,000

Ticino)

16. Thurgau

Thurgovie

381

105,000

17. Unterwalden {Obdem

Unterwalden {Le

183

15,000

Wald

Haut

{Mid dem "

{Le Bas 112

12,000

18. Uri

Uri

415

17,000

19. Wallis

Valais

2,026

102,000

20. Waadt

Vaud

1,244

251,000

21. Zug

Zoug

92

23,000

22. Zürich

Zurich

665

332,000

Total

15,987

2,920,723[1]

FOOTNOTES:

[1]

This grand total of the population, on Dec. 1, 1888, is taken from the

provisional Census Tables issued by the Swiss Government in 1889.

[Pg 1]

THE STORY OF SWITZERLAND.

I.

THE LAKE DWELLERS.

Who first lived in this country of ours? What and what manner of men

were they who first settled on its virgin soil and made it "home"?

These questions naturally present themselves every now and then to

most thoughtful people. And the man with any pretensions to culture

feels an interest in the history of other countries besides his own.

But however interesting these questions as to primary colonizations

may be, they are usually exactly the most difficult of answer that the

history of a country presents. Now and then indeed we may know

tolerably well the story of some early Greek immigration, or we may

possess full accounts of the modern settlement of a Pitcairn Island;

but in far the greater number of instances we can but dimly surmise

or rashly guess who and what were the earliest inhabitants of any

given region.

[Pg 2]

MAP Showing the Chief Lake Settlements in or near LAKE

ZURICH,

By Prof. T. Heierli, Zurich.

[Pg 3]

In the case of Switzerland, however, we are particularly fortunate.

"Every schoolboy" has heard of the wonderful discoveries made on

the shores of the beautiful Swiss lakes during the last few years, and

the same schoolboy even understands, if somewhat hazily, the

importance attaching to these discoveries. Nevertheless, some short

account of the earliest inhabitants of the rugged Helvetia must occupy

this first chapter. And to the general reader some little information as

to what was found, and how it was found, on the lake shores, may not

come amiss.

In the winter of 1853, the waters of Zurich lake sank so low that a

wide stretch of mud was laid bare along the shores. The people of

Meilen, a large village some twelve miles from the town of Zurich,

took advantage of this unusual state of things to effect certain

improvements, and during the operations the workmen's tools struck

against some obstacles, which proved to be great wooden props, or

piles. These piles, the tops of which were but a few inches below the

surface of the mud, were found to be planted in rows and squares,

and the number of them seemed to be enormous. And then there

were picked out of the mud large numbers of bones, antlers,

weapons, implements of various kinds, and what not. Dr. Ferdinand

Keller, a great authority on Helvetian antiquities, was sent from Zurich

to examine the spot, and he pronounced it to be a lake settlement,

probably of some very ancient Celtic tribe. Many marks of a

prehistoric occupation had previously been found, but hitherto no

traces of dwellings. Naturally the news of this important discovery of

lake habitations caused a great sensation, and gave a great impulse

to archæological studies. Dr. Keller called these early settlers Pfahl-

bauer, or pile-builders, from their peculiar mode of building their

houses.

[Pg 4]

(1) DECORATION ON SWORD HILT; (2 AND 3) STONE CELTS,

FOUND IN SWISS LAKE DWELLINGS.

(Copied by permission from "Harper's Magazine.")

[Pg 5]

During the course of the last thirty years, over two hundred of these

aquatic villages have been discovered—on the shores of the lakes of

Constance, Geneva, Zurich, Neuchâtel, Bienne, Morat, and other

smaller lakes, and on certain rivers and swampy spots which had

once been lakes or quasi-lakes. The Alpine lakes, however, with their

steep and often inaccessible banks, show no trace of lake

settlements.

The lake dwellings are mostly[2] placed on piles driven some 10 feet into the bed of the lake, and as many as thirty or forty thousand of

these piles have been found in a single settlement. The houses

themselves were made of hurdlework, and thatched with straw or

rushes. Layers of wattles and clay alternating formed the floors, and

the walls seem to have been rendered more weather-proof by a

covering of clay, or else of bulrushes or straw. A railing of wickerwork

ran round each hut, partly no doubt to keep off the wash of the lake,

and partly as a protection to the children. Light bridges, or gangways

easily moved, connected the huts with each other and with the shore.

Each house contained two rooms at least, and some of the dwellings

measured as much as 27 feet by 22 feet. Hearthstones blackened by

fire often remain to show where the kitchens had been. Mats of bast,

straw, and reeds abound in the settlements, and show that the

lakemen had their notions of cosiness and comfort. Large crescent-

shaped

[Pg 6]

talismans, carved on one side, were hung over the entrances to the

huts, showing pretty clearly that the moon-goddess was worshipped.

The prehistoric collections in the public museums at Zurich, Berne,

Bienne, Neuchâtel, and Geneva, not to speak of private collections,

are very extensive and very fine, containing tools, handsome

weapons, knives of most exquisite shape and carving, women's

ornaments, some of them of the most elegant kind. A "lady of the

lake" in full dress would seem to have made an imposing show. An

undergarment of fine linen was girded at the waist by a broad belt of

inlaid or embossed bronze work. Over the shoulders was thrown a

woollen cloak fastened with bronze clasps, or pins, whilst neck, arms,

and ankles were decked with a great store of trinkets—necklaces,

anklets, bracelets, rings, spangles, and so forth. The whole was set