The Resurrection and Immortality by William West - HTML preview

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(33) Proverbs 27:7 “The full soul (nehpheshs-mortal being) loathes an honeycomb; but to the hungry soul (nehpheshs-mortal being)" ever bitter thing is sweet.” How could the translators think an immaterial something could be full or could be hungry for honey?

·         “A sated man (nehphesh) loathes honey, but to a famished man (nehphesh) any bitter thing is sweet” New American Standard Bible.

·         He (nehphesh) who is full loathes honey, but to the hungry even what is bitter tastes sweet” New International Version. “Nehphesh” is in the Hebrew two times, but one of the two it was left out in the New International Version.

(34) Numbers 31:28 "And levy a tribute unto the Lord of the men of war which went out to battle: one soul (nehpheshs-mortal beings–used referring to man and animals) of five hundred, both of the persons, and of the beeves, and of the asses and of the sheep." Of about 870 times “nephesh” is in the Old Testament this and Job 12:10 are the only passages where the King James translators translated “nephesh” as “soul” when it has reference to animals, and is maybe that the only reason they did this time is that it has equal reference to people as it does to animals and they had no choice.

"So carefully has the translation of nehphesh been guarded in relation to animals as 'souls,' that we can't help but wonder if it were not done intentionally to conceal the fact that animals are souls as well as men." David J. Heinizman, "Man Became A Living Soul."

(35 to 870) It would be to long to quote all the 870 times the Hebrew word nehphesh is in the Old Testament with just over one-half being translated "soul," about 473 times in King James Version. Not once do any of them imply anything about life beyond the grave or about the soul being immortal. Nehphesh in the New International Version Old Testament is translated soul only 72 times out of the 870 times it is used, according to the this translation, 798 times nehphesh was not a “soul.”

A nehphesh could be:

·         Saved (Genesis 19:19; 1 Samuel 19:11; 2 Samuel 19:5)

·         Killed (Numbers 35:11; 35:15; 35:30)

·         Ransomed (Exodus 21:30)

·         Destroyed (Leviticus 23:30; Joshua 11:11)

·         Delivered (Joshua 2:13)

·         Sought to be killed (Judges 18:25)

·         Taken (Deuteronomy 19:21)

·         Forfeited (Joshua 2:14)

·         Risked (Judges 12:3; 1 Samuel 28:21)

·         Lost (Judges 1:25)

·         Jeopardized (Judges 5:18; 1 Samuel 19:50

     All 870 times have one thing in common, they are all associated with the activity of a living being including dying, and nehphesh never implies anything about life after the death of the living being, all the 870 are all speaking of living beings that will die, not of an immortal deathless something that is in a living being that is not deathless. None of the 870 times are an immortal inter part of a person; they are a mortal living being that can die, be killed, or be dead, (whether the living being is a person, animal or fish). Nehphesh is always associated with the activity of earthly breathing beings, both of person(s) and animal(s). It never implies anything about life beyond the grave. IT IS NEVER TRANSLATED "SPIRIT"

Although nehphesh—Strong’s Hebrew word #5315—“a breathing creature” is translated into about thirty-five words, thirty-four all have reference to a mortal being, animal, or person that is not deathless, none to an “immaterial invisible part of a person” that is deathless.

1.       How could nehphesh be a mortal breathing creature that will die in thirty-four of the words into which it is translated?

2.       And it is an immortal something that does not breath and that will not die in only one of the thirty-five words. Is it because this is the only word that they could use to put the Pagan immortal soul into the Bible, but were not able to translate it into an immortal invisible deathless something most of the times it was used?

     Can one word be rightly translated this way? How could the translators know when to translate this word as a mortal being that will die, and when the same word was to be changed to an immortal being that cannot die? No one reading some of the English translations of the Bible would have any way of knowing that all these words are translations (or mistranslations) of only one word. Did the translators do so because they wanted to make a person be an "immortal being," and more than a "living creatures?" In almost one half of the times nehphesh is used in the Old Testament, even the King James translators could not translate it "soul." When the all-knowing God used just one word, why did the translators use many words and change it as they wished to from a noun to pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, etc.? Did they think that for all the years from Adam unto Christ? God people could understand the one word God used, but now about forty words are needed to translate that one word? If one word were all that was needed from Adam unto the translation of the King James Version, why would God's one word not be enough today? Do the translators think they have improved the Hebrew Old Testament by changing the one word that God used into about thirty-five words, and changing this noun into about all parts of speech? The use of many words came when the Catholic Church brought in unconditional immortality, and they had to get it into the Bible. The Hebrew manuscripts still have just one word–nehphesh, which was the one word God inspired. Were the translators inspired to change it to many words? And changed from one part of speech into many parts of speech?

     Nehphesh is translated soul far fewer times in the New American Standard Version, and in most other translations, including the New King James Version, than it is in the King James Version. Were they going as far as they dared to in correcting the King James Version?

     The way soul is understood and used today in English (an inter undying part of a person) makes putting the word soul in a translation for the English people today be a false and deliberately misleading translation, for it makes it where today's English reader cannot know what God said, and will understand only what the prejudiced outlook the translators wanted their readers to understand when they know that most that read it would understand the word soul only as it is used today. Without much study of Bible words, which most Bible reader will never do, they cannot know what God said to them when they read the word soul, and they will think that the somewhat prejudice outlook of the translator is the word of God. God's word has been deliberately replaced with the teaching of man (Matthew 15:9) in a way that will have more influence on our conception of what our nature is and the nature of all living beings than any other question.

THE “SOUL” AND “EATING OF BLOOD”

    Is the immortal "soul" (nehphesh) in the blood? Is a part of a person that many say it lives after the death of the body in the blood of both men and animals? (Leviticus 17:10-15) In only six verses nehphesh is used ten times but the translators concealed this from their reads by translating nehphesh as both life and soul, always life the four times it was speaking of animals, and soul the six times it was speaking of a person; does this not show their reluctance to let us see what God said to us?

The same word (nehphesh) is translated soul six times and life four times in the King James Version in Leviticus 17:10-15.

·         Used referring to animals four times—nehphesh translated (1) life,  (2) life, (3) life, (4) life.

·         Used referring to man six times—nehphesh translated (1) soul, (2) soul, (3) soul, (4) soul, (5) soul, (6) soul.

Leviticus 17:10-15 in New Revised Standard Version

·         Used referring to animals four times—nehphesh translated (1) life,  (2) life, (3) life, (4) life.

·         Used referring to man six times—nehphesh translated (1) person, (2) person, (3) lives, (4) life, (5) person, (6) persons.

Leviticus 17:10-15 in New International Version

·         Used referring to animals four times—nehphesh translated (1) life,  (2) life, (3) life, (4) life.

·         Used referring to man six times—nehphesh translated (1) person, (2) person, (3) lives, (4) person, (5) life, (6) anyone.

     Leviticus 17:10-15 King James Version, "I will even set my face against that SOUL (person–nehphesh, used referring to man) that eats blood, and will cut him off from among his people. For the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your SOULS: (nehphesh, used referring to man) for it is the blood that makes an atonement for the SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man). Therefore I said unto the children of Israel, no SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) of you shall eat blood...For it is the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) of all flesh; the blood of it is for the LIFE (soul–nehphesh, used referring to animals) thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel, no SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh: for the LIFE (soul-nehphesh, used referring to animals) of all flesh is the blood thereof: whosoever eats it shall be cut off. And every SOUL (nehphesh, used referring to man) that eats that which died of itself...he shall wash his clothes, and bath himself in water" In this passage, the King James Version translated the same word "soul" all six times when it used referring to man, and "life" all four times when it used referring to animals. Can anyone not see how the translators picked when they wanted "nehphesh" to be "soul," and when they wanted "nehphesh" to be "life"? They could not let an immortal soul be in the blood, nor could they let animals have an immortal soul. Their theology said a man had to have a soul, but an animal could not, and they were not willing that their reader see that the word "nehphesh" is used referring to both, and that both do not have a soul but are a soul.

The vanishing use of soul in Leviticus 17:10-15.

  • In the King James Version nehphesh is translated "soul" six of the ten times it is used.
  • The New King James Version used "soul" only two of the ten times.
  • "Soul" is not used in the New Revised Standard Version, New International Version, The New American Bible, and others.

     Leviticus 17:10-15 New Revised Standard Version, "If anyone of the house of Israel or of the aliens who reside among them eats any blood, I will set my face against that PERSON (nehphesh) who eats blood, and will cut that PERSON (nehphesh) off from the people. For the LIFE (nehphesh) of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you for making atonement for your LIVES (nehphesh) on the altar, for, as LIFE, (nehphesh) it is the blood that makes atonement. Therefore I have said to the people of Israel: No PERSON (nehphesh) among you shall eat blood...For the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature-its blood is its LIFE; (nehphesh) therefore I have said to the people of Israel: You shall not eat the blood of any creature, for the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature is its blood; whoever eats it shall be cut off. All PERSONS, (nehphesh) citizens or aliens, who eat what dies of itself...shall wash their clothes, and bathe themselves in water"

     Leviticus 17:10-15 New International Version, "Any Israelite or any alien living among them who eats any blood-I will set my face against that PERSON (nehphesh) who eats blood and will cut HIM (nehphesh) off from his people. For the LIFE (nehphesh) of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for YOURSELVES (nehphesh) on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonements for one's LIFE (nehphesh). Therefore I say to the Israelites, 'None of YOU (nehphesh) may eat blood, nor may an alien living among you eat blood'...because the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature is its blood. That is why I have said to the Israelites, You must not eat the blood of any creature, because the LIFE (nehphesh) of every creature is its blood; anyone who eats it must be cut off. ANYONE (nehphesh), whether native-born or alien, who eats anything found dead or torn by wild animals must wash his clothes and bathe with water'."

·         "No soul (nehphesh) shall eat blood" Leviticus 17:12. No person–an immortal soul eating blood?

  • "The life (soulnehphesh) of all flesh is the blood" Leviticus 17:11. They would not translate it to say, “The soul of all flesh is the blood.”
  • "No dead body (soulnehphesh)" A dead immortal soul? The same word that is translated soul and life is translated dead body (Numbers 6:6, also Numbers 5:2; 6:11; 9:6; 9:10). These passages would make no sense if nehphesh were a no substance immortal something in a person that cannot be dead. It would also make animals have the same no substance immortal deathless something in them. It is life that is in the blood, not an immortal, immaterial, invisible soul in the blood as the word "soul" is used today.

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THE DYING USE OF "SOUL"

     IN THE OLD TESTAMENT: In translations that were made by those who believe a person has an immortal soul, why is the use of the word "soul" becoming used less? Nehphesh is used in the Old Testament 870 times.

TRANSLATED SOUL ONLY

  • 473 times out of 870 times – King James Version in 1611.
  • 289 times out of 870 times– New King James Version in 1982. Soul is used 184 times less in the Old Testament than it is in the King James Version.
  • 118 times out of 870 times – Amplified Bible in 1954.
  • 142 times out of 870 times – The Message in 1993.
  • 254 times out of 870 times – New American Standard Bible in 1960.
  • 115 times out of 870 times – New International Version in 1973.
  • 136 times out of 870 times – New International Version in 1984 update.
  • 95 times out of 870 times – New International Version in 2010 update.
  • 96 times out of 870 times – New International Reader's Version in 1996.
  • 73 times out of 870 times – Today's New International Version in 2001.
  • 44 times out of 870 times – New Living Translation in 1996.
  • 48 times out of 870 times – Holman Christian Standard Bible in 1999.
  • 26 times out of 870 times – Contemporary English Version in 1995.
  • 0 times out of 878 times – Common English Bible in 2011.
    • Most of the times that nehphesh was not translated "soul" it was translated "life," "person," "heart," or the noun was changed to a pronoun (he, him, she, her, etc.) that is related to a person, and has no reference to an immortal part of a person.

IN THE NEW TESTAMENT: The Greek work translated soul (psukee) is used 106 times.

TRANSLATED SOUL ONLY

  • 55 times out of 106 times in the King James Version in 1611.
  • 27 times out of 106 times in the New King James Version in 1982. Soul is used 28 times less in the New King James Version than it is in the King James Version.
  • 39 times out of 106 times – Amplified Bible in 1954.
  • 43 times out of 106 times – New American Standard Bible in 1960.
  • 23 times out of 106 times – New International Version in 1984 and 2010 update.
  • 23 times out of 106 times – Today's New International Version in 2001.
  • 29 times out of 106 times – New Living Translation in 1996.
  • 20 times out of 106 times – New International Reader's Version in 1996.
  • 23 times out of 106 times – Holman Christian Standard Bible in 1999.
  • 22 times out of 106 times – Contemporary English Version in 1995.
  • 7 times out of 106 times – Common English Bible in 2011.
  • 0 times out of 106 times – Christian Bible in 1991.

   IN BOTH THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT: The Hebrew word translated soul (nehphesh) is used over 870 times in the Old Treatment, and the Greek word translated soul (psukee) is used 106 times, both together about 976 times.

TRANSLATED SOUL ONLY

  • 530 times out of 976 times – King James Version in 1611.
  • 341 times out of 976 times–New King James Version in 1982. Soul is used 189 times less in the New King James Version than it is in the King James Version.
  • 200 times out of 976 times– Amplified Bible in 1954.
  • 301 times out of 976 times – New American Standard Bible in 1960.
  • 140 times out of 976 times – New International Version in 1973.
  • 136 times out of 976 times – New International Version in 1984 update.
  • 95 times out of 976 times – New International Version in 2010 update.
  • 96 times out of 976 times – Today's New International Version in 2001.
  • 39 times out of 976 times – New International reader's Version in 1996.
  • 177 times out of 976 times – The Message in 1993.
  • 73 times out of 976 times – New Living Translation in 1996.
  • 58 times out of 976 times – Holman Christian Standard Bible in 1999.
  • 58 times out of 976 times – Contemporary English Version in 1995.
  • 7 times out of 976 times – Common English Bible in 2011.

     Most, if not all these translators believe in an immortal soul, but have been reducing the times these words are translated "soul" and replacing it with "life," "person," "heart," or changed it to pronouns that are related to a person. The way soul has been mostly removed in most translations, and replaced with life or person, the translators are saying the English word soul is not a true translation of the Hebrew.

WHY THE USE OF SOUL IS DYING

      In many passages the psukee does thing that only this earthly body can do, things that an immortal soul that has no substance could not do. “And He told them a parable, saying, "The land of a rich man was very productive. And he began reasoning to himself, saying, 'What shall I do, since I have no place to store my crops?' Then he said, 'This is what I will do: I will tear down my barns and build larger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. And I will say to my soul (psukee), Soul (psukee), you have many goods laid up for many years to come; take your ease, eat, drink and be merry.’ But God said to him, ‘You fool! This very night your soul (psukee) is required of you'" Luke 12:19-21.

     The New International Version removed “soul.” “And I'll say to myself (Greek psukeelife), ‘you (Greek psukeelife) have plenty of good things laid up for many years. Take life easy; eat drink and be merry.’ But, God said to him, ‘You fool! This very night your life (Greekpsukee) will be demanded from you.’”

     It is obvious that an immaterial, invisible, no substance soul would have no use for the things the rich man stored in his barns, it would not be able to eat and drink the thing stored in barns, that this was not speaking of an immaterial soul with without any substance, but was speaking of an earthly person that can eat and drink of the substance was stored and would be able to use the things stored, and it was life that would be required of the earthly person, not life from an immortal soul that could not die; when a persons life was required who would use the things he had stored? Translators put Plato’s “immortal soul” into the Bible by mistranslating, but many transitions are taking much of their mistranslating out.

      The Hebrew noun, nehphesh has been changed to many different pronouns, but all the pronouns have a reference to an earthly being, not to a no substance inter part of a person. Most of the 473 times nehphesh was translated soul in the King James Version it has been translated life or person, or changed to many different pronouns in many translations. Nehphesh did not mean an immaterial invisible something in a person in the Old Testament; how could the translators think it was right to change one noun into many pronouns?

    The Hebrew people in the Old Testament that were reading their Scriptures would have had no way to make a distinction in the life (soulnehphesh) of animals or men. Even today in the Hebrew Old Testament there is no distinction between a person and or an animal being a soula living creature, but translators have changed this. Only in the English translations is there a distinction, and this distinction is because man has changed God's word. God used the same word to describe both persons and animals. If this one word proves one is now immortal, it proves both are. Man says animals do not have a soul but people do. God says both people and animals are a soul.

     Summary: About one third of the words translated soul, nehphesh in the Old Testament, and psukee in the New Testament are associated with the destruction and death of the soul (life, nehphesh). This is an insoluble problem for those that believe today's theology, which says the soul cannot die.

 

    Since the word “soul” has a meaning in English that in not in the Hebrew word “nehphesh” or the Greek word “psuche” the question is, “Is soul a true translation,” or was it the translators putting their Platonic and Hellenized philosophy into the Bible? The doctrine of an immortal soul did not exist when the Old Testament was written and nehphesh would not be understood to be a “soul” not unto the Geek doctrine was brought into the church by the so called “church fathers,” and by the dark age Catholic Church. The translators of the King James Version still believed this doctrine and changed the word of God in this and many places, but think goodness most translations have now partly corrected this change.

     INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPEDIA: "Not, however, to dwell on the fact that many peoples have no clear conception of an immaterial 'soul' in the modern sense (the Egyptians, e. g. distinguished several parts, the Ka, the Ba, etc., which survived death; often the surviving self is simply a ghostly resemblance of the earthly self, nourished with food, offerings, etc.), there is the more serious consideration that the state into which the surviving part is supposed to enter as death is anything but a state which can be described as 'life,' or worthy to be dignified with the name 'immortality.' It is a state peculiar to 'death;' in most cases, shadowy, inert, feeble, dependent, joyless; a state to be dreaded and shrunk from, not one to be hoped for. If, on the other hand, as in the hope of immortality among the nobler heathen, it is conceived of, as for some, a state of happiness-the clog of the body being shaken off-this yields the idea, which has passed into so much of our modern thinking, of an 'immortality of the soul,' of an imperishableness of the spiritual part, sometimes supposed to extend backward as well as forward; an inherent indestructibility." From the article "Immortal; Immortality." Also from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, "We are influenced always more or less by the Greek, Platonic idea that the body dies, yet the soul is immortal. Such an idea is utterly contrary to the Israelite consciousness and is nowhere found in the Old Testament" From the article "Death," page 812. Also from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, "Soul, like spirit, has various shades of meaning in the O.T., which may be summarized as follows: 'Soul,' 'living being,' 'life,' 'self,' 'person,' 'desire,' 'appetite,' 'emotion' and 'passion'...NEHPHESH OR SOUL, CAN ONLY DENOTE THE INDIVIDUAL LIFE WITH A MATERIAL ORGANIZATION OR BODY." page 2837. "For the Hebrews a person was a unity, not to be divided into body, soul, and spirit as the Greeks did," page 592.

     JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA: "The belief that the soul continues its existence after the dissolution of the body is a matter of philosophical or theological speculation rather than of simple faith, AND IS ACCORDINGLY, NOWHERE TAUGHT IN THE HOLY SCRIPTURE...The belief in the immortality of the soul came to the Jews from contact with Greek thought and chiefly through the philosophy of Plato, its principal exponent, who was led to it through Orphic and Dleusinian mysteries in which Babylonian and Egyptian views were strangely blended," "Immortality of the Soul," 1925. The concept of punishment after death is not in the Old Testament. The Law given through Moses deals only with punishment in this life and has no provisions for punishment after death. From their contact with pagan philosophy, the pagan immortal soul teaching had made some inroads with some Jews by the time of Christ. Paul warned about this Philosophy (Colossians 2:8).

     C. R. GRESHAM: Commenting on 1 Corinthians 15:51-52 said, "Paul is pointing out that the resurrection truth which he is revealing was partially, if not wholly, hidden to past generations. We must take this seriously and not read New Testament revelation back into the Old Testament accounts…It is generally conceived that there is little about resurrection or after-life in what the Jews called the Torah...and the Former Prophets...Death is seen as the end, the destruction of human existence," page 25. "Man's soul is primarily his vitality, his life, not some separate part of a person that has independent existence and an immortal nature, God's spirit (His breath, His power) creates and sustains all living things (Ps 33:6; 104:29-30), even the human spirit (Zech 12:1), but never is man's soul or spirit seen as an immortal part of man surviving death," page 40. "The widespread misunderstanding that the New Testament teaches the immortality of the soul...If one recognizes that death and eternal life in the New Testament are always bound up the Christ-event, then it becomes clear that for the first Christians the soul is not intrinsically immortal, but rather became so only through the resurrection of Jesus Christ," page 275. "What The Bible Says About Resurrection" The College Press, 1983, (Christian Church).

     INTERPRETER’S DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE: “No biblical text authorizes the statement that the soul is separated from the body at the moment of death” Volume one, Article “Death,” page 802, 1960. “The word ‘soul’ in English…coming from philosophical Greek (Platonism)…In the OT it never means the immortal soul, but it is essentially the life principle, or the living being, or the self as the subject of appetite, and emotion.” Volume 4, Article “Soul,” 1960.

     The belief of Socrates and Plato was that when the soul is freed from the person it was in that it would live forever in a better place without the person that it had been in. This Greek philosophy was what most of the church fathers had been taught and believed, the background from which they came. Tertullian, one of the first of the church fathers to teach this philosophy was truthful about from where he had learned it. He said, "For some things are known even by nature: the immortality of the soul, for instance, is held by many...I may use, therefore, the opinion of a Plato, when he declares, 'Every soul is immortal'" Ante-Nicene Fathers, Volume 3, page 1916. By the time of the translation of the King James Version this heathen doctrine was believed by the Roman Catholic Church and most Protestants, but had been changed from believing that all souls are freed and go on to a much better place to a few souls go to a better place, but most souls, after being freed from the person it was in by the death of the person, will go to eternal torment in Hell; the “Hell” part had to be added to what was believed by Plato, or the Catholic Church with it’s priest would not have been needed, after the death of the persons the souls was trapped in all souls would have gone to the same better place without there help.

     The Hebrew word “nehphesh” and the Greek word “psuche” were the only words the translators could use to put the immortal soul they believed in into the Bible; but they found only 530 times out of 976 times these two words were used that was suitable to use to add this philosophy. Later translations have been little by little removing it.

     Neither “nehphesh” nor “psuche” are used with the qualifying words immoral, undying, endless, or everlasting, but in today’s preaching these words are continually added to “soul.”

     The Egyptians might have been the first to believe in the dual nature of a person. They believed that death was a door to a new form of life, which may be higher or lower, depending on how good or bad a person was. They believed the body was evil and a prison to the soul. They built the pyramids and other tombs and put the things in them they thought would be needed in the next life. Death was a friend to them that freed the soul of the evil body; but it was the Greeks (Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato) who adopted this Egyptian belief of the dual nature of a person and developed the philosophy of the immortal soul. Many church fathers were schooled in and believed in this Greek philosophy, and were only partly converted. They, after greatly expanding on the teaching of Plato, brought the Greek philosophy into the church in the apostasy. Unconditional immortality is the foundation of the doctrine of Hell. If a person had an unseen immortal soul in them that would not die when they died, there had to be a place to put the "souls" which were evil but could not die. The "souls" that were in the saved had to be put somewhere; therefore, the doctrine of a soul going to Heaven or Hell immediately after the person died without a resurrection or a judgment came into being, and the New Testament teaching of the resurrection of the dead became unneeded and of little or no importance.

     In the Greek philosophy a soul never dies; only the body dies, freeing the soul to a higher life. Christ taught the resurrection of man, not the Greek "immaterial, invisible part of man" (W. E. Vine) that never dies. The Greeks did not believe in or need a resurrection, or a savior, or redeemer; these would not fit into their belief. They believed in an immortal soul; therefore, there could be no death. The Greek philosophy of an immortal soul was opposed and opposite to the teaching of Christ on the resurrection. The immortal soul doctrine was believed by most pagan religions in the time of Paul, and when he was before Agrippa, he asked, "Why is it considered incredible among you people if God does raise the dead?" (Acts 26:8 New American Standard Version). To Plato and Agrippa, the resurrection of the dead would have been a step backward. It would put the soul that was freed from its prison of a body back into the prison it had been freed from.

·        The Greek and heathen belief that the immortal soul is indestructible, demands that the soul cannot die, but must be alive forever somewhere.

·        The resurrection as taught by Christ demands that a person be dead, if not, there cannot be a resurrection.

     The resurrection is a calling back to life the whole person God created, not a calling back to life, as Plato taught, a deathless something that is difference than the whole person that it had been in, an immaterial living soul that had been in a dead person when the person was alive, but has gone on to wherever it is believed souls go after it leave the person it was once in. If the Greek doctrine of an immortal soul that cannot die, which is believed by many today were true, then the resurrection of Christ and our resurrection would be pointless even if it were possible to raise from the dead a soul that is not dead.

PLATO and SOCRATES -- versus -- CHRIST

Immortality --------- versus - A resurrection to life

Death a friend ------ versus - Death is "the last enemy"

Plato: The soul is       | If there is no resurrection

Immortal, therefore only | death is the end of

"It" is alive after death| all life 1 Corinthians 15:14-23

Plato: Only the body dies| "Then they also that are

Freeing soul to a higher | fallen asleep in Christ

Life without a body      | have perished"

Only some inter part of  | A person (who in Christ) will be

A person is immortal     | immortal, not just part of a person

All the dead are alive   | Christ is "the first born from the dead"

     Plato's immortal soul and Christ's resurrection are not compatible, both cannot be. One can be true, but not both; they are alien and complete opposite to each other. THE IMMORTAL SOUL DOCTRINE OF PLATO IS A TOTAL REJECTION OF THE TEACHING OF CHRIST ON THE RESURRECTION OF A PERSON TO LIFE. TO BELIEVE PLATO IS TO REJECT CHRIST.

·        Plato argued for an immortal, immaterial soul that was better off after the death of the person it was in.

·        Paul taught the resurrection of the dead person.

o   THE TWO ARE COMPLETED INCOMPATIBLE; IT IS DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND WHY MANY THAT SAY THEY BELIEVE THE BIBLE CHOOSE PLATO’S PAGAN PHILOSOPHY OVER THE BIBLE.

     Paul and Plato used the same Greek words, but not in the same way. Immortal, immortality, indestructible, never dying was used by Plato, and are used by many today to describe the soul that lives after the death of the person it once was in, but in the Old or New Testament these words are never used referring to any lost person, or to any part of a person after the person is dead. The expression "immortal soul" is very common in the writing of the pagan philosophers and today's preachers, but is not found in the Bible.

PAUL USED  |PLATO AND MANY TODAY SAY THE SOUL

Die        |cannot die

Death      |no death

Destroyed  |cannot be destroyed

Corruption |is incorruptible

Mortal     |is immortal

Perish     |cannot perish

     HENRY CONSTABLE: "In the very terms in which the punishment of the wicked is asserted in the New Testament. Where the latter says the soul shall die, Plato says it shall not die; where the latter says it shall be destroyed, Plato says it shall not be destroyed; where the latter says it shall perish and suffer corruption, Plato says it shall not perish and is incorruptible. The phrases are the very same, only that what Plato denies of all souls alike, the New Testament asserts of some of the souls of men. But the discussion of the question was not confined to the school of Plato or to his times. Every school of philosophy took it up, whether to confirm Plato's view, or to deny it, or to heap ridicule upon it. All the phrases we have been discussing from the New Testament had been explained, turned over and over, handled with all the power of the masters of language, presented in every phase, so that of their sense there could be no doubt, nor could there be any one ignorant of their sense before Jesus spoke, or an Evangelist or Apostle wrote. The subject had not died out before the days of Christ. It never could and never will die out. In every city of the Roman world were schools of Grecian taught in the days of the Apostles. In every school the question before us was discussed in the phrases and language of the New Testament" "Duration and Nature of Future Punishment," 1871.

      CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: "Plato established the basic Western tradition on this topic by defining the soul as the spiritual part of the human that survived death" 1991.

     Some believe that in the afterlife we will be nothing more than a collection of disembodied spirits or souls that will be just as alive and just the same from the day of birth of the birth of the persons they were in as these souls will ever be. Death and the resurrection are out of step with the belief of Plato.

     That there is something in a person and that something being deathless is a philosophy of man that Paul warned about (Colossians 2:8). An immortal soul was copied from heathen philosophy and superstition. Those who believe we now have "an immortal soul" get their belief from Greek philosophy, but are inconstant and self-contradicting; they say the soul cannot die, but it needs a Savior anyway. If we were born with an immortal soul, it would have no need for Christ to save it from the death it cannot die. Christianity did not destroy the pagan doctrine of Egypt and Greece; by the Dark Age it had adopted it.

     Death is the enemy (1 Corinthians 15:26). It is the destruction of the life given by God. It is not the liberator of an immortal soul, as Plato believed it to be. It is death, which must be conquered by the resurrection. When we understand that death is really death, not another kind of life for an immortal something that is in a person, something that has no substance, the resurrection is all-important. Without a resurrection we can do what we want for this life is all there is (1 Corinthians 15:32). Our only hope is the resurrection, and without it there will be no life of any kind for us after death. Plato's immortal, deathless soul needs no resurrection, IT CANNOT BE RESURRECTED. "Set your hope perfectly on the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ" (1 Peter 1:12). It is at the resurrection that we "shall receive the crown of glory that fades not away" (1 Peter 5:4).

  1. "Be patient; therefore, brethren, until the coming of the Lord" (James 4:7-8). As the farmer is patient unto the harvest to receive his reward, the believers are to be patient unto the coming of Christ to receive their reward.
  2. "It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body" (1 Corinthians 15:43). It is not the spiritual body living in the natural body that will go to Heaven at the death of the natural body. "We (not a soul) shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible" (1 Corinthians 15:52).
  3. "Beloved, now are we children of God, and it is not yet made manifest what we shall be. We know that, if he shall be manifested, we shall be like him; for we shall see him even as he is" (1 John 3:2).
  4. The wrath of God will be "in the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God" (Romans 2:5), not wrath at death before the Judgment Day, and not eternal wrath after the Judgment Day is over. On that day, it will be rendered "to them that by patience in well doing seek for glory and honor and incorruption, eternal life" (Romans 2:8), not to the souls that are believed to be in all on the day of the death of the person. The judgment will be "in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men" (Romans 2:16), not at death. It is the Judgment Day when "we (not souls) shall all stand before the judgment-seat of God" (Romans 14:10). It is the day that the Lord will judge all, "Wherefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord comes who will both bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and make manifest the counsels of the hearts" (1 Corinthians 4:5, also, Ephesians 4:30).
  5. "And to wait for his Son from heaven" (1 Thessalonians 1:10). Death will not take anyone to Heaven without waiting for the second coming of Jesus.
  6. When the Lord shall descend from Heaven, them that have fallen asleep in Jesus, "the dead in Christ shall rise first; then we that are alive, that are left, shall together with them be caught up in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord" (1 Thessalonians 4:17). Their hope is to be raised from their sleep at the coming of Christ, not come back from living in Heaven or Abraham's bosom.
  7. Paul says he will receive a "crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give to me at that day; and not to me only, but also to all them that have loved his appearing." (2 Timothy 4:8).

·         The Bible speaks of “us,” “we,” and “you” that shall be with the Lord after the judgment day, the person will be resurrected, not a soul that once was in us, but it has gone on to be with the Lord without us.

     The Bible teaching, "The wages of sin is death" leaves no lost souls alive after the judgment and second death to be put anywhere. The teaching of Christ, that life (everlasting life or immortality) will be given only to those who obey Him, makes Hell impossible. Unless Christ gives eternal life (immortality) to the lost, they cannot live forever anywhere. The Greek teaching of an immortal soul must be made to stand, and the teaching of Christ that He will give life only to those who come to Him must be removed, or there cannot be a Hell.

     Socrates drinks hemlock and died with a smile on his face because he thought he was freeing his soul to leave his body and live with the gods, to live free of being in him. Christ "sweats as it was great drops of blood" (Luke 22:44). Death is the enemy of man. It destroys him, and only the resurrection frees us from death, and gives us back the life death takes. In death there is no life in Heaven or life in any other place for us before the resurrection. The resurrection is not just a coming back from Heaven to be judged and then going back to Heaven, it is our only hope of life after our death. Without the resurrection "then they also that are fallen asleep in Christ have perished" (1 Corinthians 15:18). The Greek philosophy that found its way into the Church says the souls that have left the persons they were in have not perished, but are freed to live with God in Heaven, that souls are alive without the need of a resurrection. As the results of the pagan immortal soul doctrine came Hellfire, Purgatory, worship of Mary and saints, etc. The Protestant Reformation was largely a reaction to medieval superstitious beliefs and Purgatory, an intermediate state of temporal punishment where souls that were not good enough to go to Heaven, and not bad enough to go to Hell; in the Church in the Dark Age, this was almost all the souls that had left the dead persons they were in. The priests would have the loved ones pay for souls to shorten the time the souls of the dead persons were in Purgatory. Selling indulgences and paying to reduce the time the deathless souls that had left the dead loved ones would spend in Purgatory was rejected by the Reformation, as was many other superstitious beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church; but the Greek dual nature of a person and the doctrine of Hell were retained. Calvin believed the soul did not sleep, but went to Heaven or Hell as soon as it left the person.

The Westminster Confession says, "The souls of the righteous...are received unto the highest heavens...the soul of the wicked are cast into Hell."