The Illustrated London Reading Book by Various - HTML preview

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Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield,
Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke: How jocund did they drive their team afield! How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke!


Let not Ambition mock their useful toil, Their homely joys, and destiny obscure; Nor Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile The short and simple annals of the poor. The boast of Heraldry, the pomp of Pow'r, And all that Beauty, all that Wealth e'er gave, Await alike th' inevitable hour--
The paths of glory lead but to the grave.

Nor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault, If Mem'ry o'er their tombs no trophies raise, Where through the long-drawn aisle, and fretted vault, The pealing anthem swells the note of praise.

Can storied urn or animated bust
Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath? Can Honour's voice provoke the silent dust, Or Flatt'ry sooth the dull, cold ear of Death?

Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid
Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire; Hands that the rod of empire might have sway'd, Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre.

But Knowledge to their eyes her ample page, Rich with the spoils of time, did ne'er unroll; Chill Penury repress'd their noble rage, And froze the genial current of the soul.

Full many a gem of purest ray serene The dark unfathom'd caves of ocean bear: Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, And waste its sweetness on the desert air.

Some village Hampden, that with dauntless breast The little tyrant of his fields withstood;
Some mute inglorious Milton, here may rest, Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood.

Th' applause of list'ning senates to command, The threats of pain and ruin to despise, To scatter plenty o'er a smiling land, And read their hist'ry in a nation's eyes,

Their lot forbade: nor circumscribed alone Their growing virtues, but their crimes confined; Forbade to wade through slaughter to a throne, And shut the gates of mercy on mankind;

The struggling pangs of conscious truth to hide, To quench the blushes of ingenuous shame, Or heap the shrine of Luxury and Pride With incense kindled at the Muse's flame. Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife Their sober wishes never learn'd to stray; Along the cool sequester'd vale of life They kept the noiseless tenour of their way.

Yet ev'n these bones from insult to protect,
Some frail memorial still erected nigh,
With uncouth rhymes and shapeless sculpture deck'd, Implores the passing tribute of a sigh.

Their names, their years, spelt by th' unletter'd Muse, The place of fame and elegy supply;
And many a holy text around she strews,
That teach the rustic moralist to die.

For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey, This pleasing anxious being e'er resign'd, Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day, Nor cast one longing, ling'ring look behind?

On some fond breast the parting soul relies, Some pious drops the closing eye requires; Ev'n from the tomb the voice of Nature cries, Ev'n in our ashes live their wonted fires.

For thee, who, mindful of th' unhonour'd dead, Dost in these lines their artless tale relate; If chance, by lonely Contemplation led, Some kindred spirit shall inquire thy fate,


Haply some hoary-headed swain may say, "Oft have we seen him at the peep of dawn, Brushing with hasty steps the dew away, To meet the sun upon the upland lawn.

"There, at the foot of yonder nodding beech, That wreathes its old fantastic roots so high, His listless length at noontide would he stretch, And pore upon the brook that bubbles by.

"Hard by yon wood, now smiling as in scorn, Mutt' ring his wayward fancies he would rove; Now drooping, woful, wan, like one forlorn, Or crazed with care, or cross'd in hopeless lore.

"One morn, I miss'd him on th' accustom'd hill, Along the heath, and near his fav'rite tree; Another came, nor yet beside the rill,
Nor up the lawn, nor at the wood was he;

"The next, with dirges due, in sad array,
Slow through the churchway path we saw him borne. Approach and read (for thou can'st read) the lay, Graved on the stone beneath yon aged thorn."

[Illustration: THE EPITAPH.]

Here rests his head upon the lap of Earth-- Youth to Fortune and to Fame unknown: Fair Science frown'd not on his humble birth, And Melancholy mark'd him for her own.

Large was his bounty, and his soul sincere, Heav'n did a recompense as largely send: He gave to Mis'ry all he had--a tear;
He gain'd from Heav'n, 'twas all he wish'd--a friend.

No farther seek his merits to disclose, Or draw his frailties from their dread abode; (There they alike in trembling hope repose) The bosom of his Father and his God.



* * * * *




[Illustration: Letter M.]

Marvellous indeed have been the productions of modern scientific investigations, but none surpass the wonder-working Electro-magnetic Telegraphic Machine; and when Shakspeare, in the exercise of his unbounded imagination, made _Puck_, in obedience to _Oberon's_ order to him--

"Be here again


Ere the leviathan can swim a league."




"I'll put a girdle round the earth

In forty minutes"--
how little did our immortal Bard think that this light fanciful offer of a "fairy" to "the King of the Fairies" would, in the nineteenth century, not only be substantially realised, but surpassed as follows:--

The electric telegraph would convey intelligence more than twenty-eight thousand times round the earth, while Puck, at his vaunted speed, was crawling round it only ONCE!

On every instrument there is a dial, on which are inscribed the names of the six or eight stations with which it usually communicates. When much business is to be transacted, a boy is necessary for each of these instruments; generally, however, one lad can, without practical difficulty, manage about three; but, as the whole of them are ready for work by night as well as by day, they are incessantly attended, in watches of eight hours each, by these satellite boys by day and by men at night.

As fast as the various messages for delivery, flying one after another from the ground-floor up the chimney, reach the level of the instruments, they are brought by the superintendent to the particular one by which they are to be communicated; and its boy, with the quickness characteristic of his age, then instantly sets to work.

His first process is by means of the electric current to sound a little bell, which simultaneously alarms all the stations on his line; and although the attention of the sentinel at each is thus attracted, yet it almost instantly evaporates from all excepting from that to the name of which he causes the electric needle to point, by which signal the clerk at that station instantly knows that the forthcoming question is addressed to _him_; and accordingly, by a corresponding signal, he announces to the London boy that he is ready to receive it. By means of a brass handle fixed to the dial, which the boy grasps in each hand, he now begins rapidly to spell off his information by certain twists of his wrists, each of which imparts to the needles on his dial, as well as to those on the dial of his distant correspondent, a convulsive movement designating the particular letter of the telegraphic alphabet required. By this arrangement he is enabled to transmit an ordinary-sized word in three seconds, or about twenty per minute. In the case of any accident to the wire of one of his needles, he can, by a different alphabet, transmit his message by a series of movements of the single needle, at the reduced rate of about eight or nine words per minute.

While a boy at one instrument is thus occupied in transmitting to--say Liverpool, a message, written by its London author in ink which is scarcely dry, another boy at the adjoining instrument is, by the reverse of the process, attentively reading the quivering movements of the needles of his dial, which, by a sort of St. Vitus's dance, are rapidly spelling to him a message, _via_ the wires of the South Western Railway, say from Gosport, which word by word he repeats aloud to an assistant, who, seated by his side, writes it down (he receives it about as fast as his attendant can conveniently write it); on a sheet of; paper, which, as soon as the message is concluded, descends to the "booking-office." When inscribed in due form, it is without delay despatched to its destination, by messenger, cab, or express, according to order.





* * * * *



How glorious is thy girdle cast O'er mountain, tower, and town,
Or mirror'd in the ocean vast-- A thousand fathoms down!

As fresh in yon horizon dark, As young thy beauties seem,
As when the eagle from the ark First sported in thy beam.

For faithful to its sacred page, Heaven still rebuilds thy span,
Nor let the type grow pale with age, That first spoke peace to man.



[Illustration: A LUNAR RAINBOW.]

The moon sometimes exhibits the extraordinary phenomenon of an iris or rainbow, by the refraction of her rays in drops of rain during the night-time. This appearance is said to occur only at the time of full moon, and to be indicative of stormy and rainy weather. One is described in the _Philosophical Transactions_ as having been seen in 1810, during a thick rain; but, subsequent to that time, the same person gives an account of one which perhaps was the most extraordinary of which we have any record. It became visible about nine o'clock, and continued, though with very different degrees of brilliancy, until past two. At first, though a strongly marked bow, it was without colour, but afterwards became extremely vivid, the red, green, and purple being the most strongly marked. About twelve it was the most splendid in appearance. The wind was very high at the time, and a drizzling rain falling occasionally.


At summer eve, when Heaven's ethereal bow Spans with bright arch the glittering hills below, Why to yon mountain turns the musing eye, Whose sunbright summit mingles with the sky? Why do those cliffs of shadowy tint appear More sweet than all the landscape smiling near? 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view, And robes the mountain in its azure hue. Thus, with delight, we linger to survey,
The promised joys of life's unmeasured way; Thus from afar each dim-discovered scene More pleasing seems than all the past hath been; And every form that fancy can repair
From dark oblivion, glows divinely there.
Auspicious Hope! in thy sweet garden, grow Wreaths for each toil, a charm for every woe. Won by their sweets, in nature's languid hour, The way-worn pilgrim seeks thy summer bower; Then, as the wild bee murmurs on the wing, What peaceful dreams thy handmaid spirits bring! What viewless forms th' Eolian organ play, And sweep the furrow'd lines of anxious care away! Angel of life! thy glittering wings explore
Earth's loneliest bounds and ocean's wildest shore. Lo! to the wintry winds the pilot yields
His bark, careering o'er unfathom'd fields; Now on Atlantic waves he rides afar
Where Andes, giant of the western star,
With meteor-standard to the winds unfurl'd, Looks from his throne of clouds o'er half the world. Poor child of danger, nursling of the storm, Sad are the woes that wreck thy manly form! Rocks, waves, and winds the shatter'd bark delay-- Thy heart is sad, thy home is far away.
But Hope can here her moonlight vigils keep, And sing to charm the spirit of the deep.
Swift as yon streamer lights the starry pole, Her visions warm the watchman's pensive soul. His native hills that rise in happier climes; The grot that heard his song of other times; His cottage home, his bark of slender sail, His glassy lake, and broomwood-blossom'd vale, Rush in his thought; he sweeps before the wind, And treads the shore he sigh'd to leave behind!

_Pleasures of Hope._


* * * * *




[Illustration: Letter H.]

Hartlepool Lighthouse is a handsome structure of white freestone--the building itself being fifty feet in height; but, owing to the additional height of the cliff, the light is exhibited at an elevation of nearly eighty-five feet above high-water mark. On the eastern side of the building is placed a balcony, supporting a lantern, from which a small red light is exhibited, to indicate that state of the tide which will admit of the entrance of ships into the harbour; the corresponding signal in the daytime being a red ball hoisted to the top of the flag-staff. The lighthouse is furnished with an anemometer and tidal gauge; and its appointments are altogether of the most complete description. It is chiefly, however, with regard to the system adopted in the lighting arrangements that novelty presents itself.

The main object, in the instance of a light placed as a beacon to warn mariners of their proximity to a dangerous coast, is to obtain the greatest possible intensity and amount of penetrating power. A naked or simple light is therefore seldom, if ever employed; but whether it proceed from the combustion of oil or gas, it is equally necessary that it should be combined with some arrangement of optical apparatus, in order that the rays emitted may be collected, and projected in such a direction as to render them available to the object in view; and in all cases a highly-polished metal surface is employed as a reflector.


In the Hartlepool Lighthouse the illuminative medium is _gas_. The optical apparatus embraces three-fourths of the circumference of the circle which encloses the light, and the whole of the rays emanating from that part of the light opposed to the optical arrangement are reflected or refracted (as the case may be), so that they are projected from the lighthouse in such a direction as to be visible from the surface of the ocean.

[Illustration: Letter C.]

Can anything (says Plato) be more delightful than the hearing or the speaking of truth? For this reason it is that there is no conversation so agreeable that of a man of integrity, who hears without any intention to betray, and speaks without any intention to deceive. As an advocate was pleading the cause of his client in Rome, before one of the praetors, he could only produce a single witness in a point where the law required the testimony of two persons; upon which the advocate insisted on the integrity of the person whom he had produced, but the praetor told him that where the law required two witnesses he would not accept of one, though it were Cato himself. Such a speech, from a person who sat at the head of a court of justice, while Cato was still living, shows us, more than a thousand examples, the high reputation this great man had gained among his contemporaries on account of his sincerity.


2. As I was sitting (says an ancient writer) with some senators of Bruges, before the gate of the Senate-House, a certain beggar presented himself to us, and with sighs and tears, and many lamentable gestures, expressed to us his miserable poverty, and asked our alms, telling us at the same time, that he had about him a private maim and a secret mischief, which very shame restrained him from discovering to the eyes of men. We all pitying the case of the poor man, gave him each of us something, and departed. One, however, amongst us took an opportunity to send his servant after him, with orders to inquire of him what that private infirmity might be which he found such cause to be ashamed of, and was so loth to discover. The servant overtook him, and delivered his commission: and after having diligently viewed his face, breast, arms, legs, and finding all his limbs in apparent soundness, "Why, friend," said he, "I see nothing whereof you have any such reason to complain." "Alas! sir," said the beggar, "the disease which afflicts me is far different from what you conceive, and is such as you cannot discern; yet it is an evil which hath crept over my whole body: it has passed through my very veins and marrow in such a manner that there is no member of my body that is able to work for my daily bread. This disease is by some called idleness, and by others sloth." The servant, hearing this singular apology, left him in great anger, and returned to his master with the above account; but before the company could send again to make further inquiry after him, the beggar had very prudently withdrawn himself.

3. Action, we are assured, keeps the soul in constant health; but idleness corrupts and rusts the mind; for a man of great abilities may by negligence and idleness become so mean and despicable as to be an incumbrance to society and a burthen to himself. When the Roman historians described an extraordinary man, it generally entered into his character, as an essential, that he was _incredibili industria, diligentia singulari_--of incredible industry, of singular diligence and application. And Cato, in Sallust, informs the Senate, that it was not so much the arms as the industry of their ancestors, which advanced the grandeur of Rome, and made her mistress of the world.



* * * * *



The group in the Pacific Ocean called the Gambier Islands are but thinly inhabited, but possess a good harbour. Captain Beechey, in his "Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Straits," tells us that several of the islands, especially the largest, have a fertile appearance. The Captain gives an interesting account of his interview with some of the natives, who approached the ship in rafts, carrying from sixteen to twenty men each, as represented in the Engraving.


"We were much pleased," says the Captain, "with the manner of lowering their matting sail, diverging on different courses, and working their paddles, in the use of which they had great power, and were well skilled, plying them together, or, to use a nautical phrase, 'keeping stroke.' They had no other weapons but long poles, and were quite naked, with the exception of a banana leaf cut into strips, and tied about their loins; and one or two persons wore white turbans." They timidly approached both the ship and the barge, but would upset any small boats within their reach; not, however, from any malicious intention, but from thoughtlessness and inquisitiveness. Captain Beechey approached them in the gig, and gave them several presents, for which they, in return, threw him some bundles of paste, tied up in large leaves, which was the common food of the natives. They tempted the Captain and his crew with cocoa-nuts and roots, and invited their approach by performing ludicrous dances; but, as soon as the visitors were within reach, all was confusion. A scuffle ensued, and on a gun being fired over their heads, all but four instantly plunged into the sea. The inhabitants of these islands are stated to be well-made, with upright and graceful figures. Tattooing seems to be very commonly practised, and some of the patterns are described as being very elegant.

* * * * *



"He is the freeman whom the truth makes free," Who first of all the bands of Satan breaks;
Who breaks the bands of sin, and for his soul,
In spite of fools, consulteth seriously;
In spite of fashion, perseveres in good;
In spite of wealth or poverty, upright;
Who does as reason, not as fancy bids;
Who hears Temptation sing, and yet turns not Aside; sees Sin bedeck her flowery bed,
And yet will not go up; feels at his heart
The sword unsheathed, yet will not sell the truth; Who, having power, has not the will to hurt;
Who feels ashamed to be, or have a slave,
Whom nought makes blush but sin, fears nought but God; Who, finally, in strong integrity
Of soul, 'midst want, or riches, or disgrace
Uplifted, calmly sat, and heard the waves
Of stormy Folly breaking at his feet,
Nor shrill with praise, nor hoarse with foal reproach, And both despised sincerely; seeking this
Alone, the approbation of his God,
Which still with conscience witness'd to his peace. This, this is freedom, such as Angels use,
And kindred to the liberty of God!



* * * * *



The adventurous spirit of Englishmen has caused them to fit out no less than sixty expeditions within the last three centuries and a half, with the sole object of discovering a north-west passage to India. Without attempting even to enumerate these baffled essays, we will at once carry our young readers to these dreary regions--dreary, merely because their capabilities are unsuited to the necessities which are obvious to all, yet performing their allotted office in the economy of the world, and manifesting the majesty and the glory of our great Creator.


Winter in the Arctic Circle is winter indeed: there is no sun to gladden with his beams the hearts of the voyagers; but all is wrapt in darkness, day and night, save when the moon chances to obtrude her faint rays, only to make visible the desolation of the scene. The approach of winter is strongly marked. Snow begins to fall in August, and the ground is covered to the depth of two or three feet before October. As the cold augments, the air bears its moisture in the form of a frozen fog, the icicles of which are so sharp as to be painful to the skin. The surface of the sea steams like a lime-kiln, caused by the water being still warmer than the superincumbent atmosphere. The mist at last clears, the water having become frozen, and darkness settles on the land. All is silence, broken only by the bark of the Arctic fox, or by the loud explosion of bursting rocks, as the frost penetrates their bosoms.

The crews of exploring vessels, which are frozen firmly in the ice in winter, spend almost the whole of their time in their ships, which in Sir James Ross's expedition (in 1848-49) were well warmed and ventilated. Where there has not been sufficient warmth, their provisions--even brandy--became so frozen as to require to be cut by a hatchet. The mercury in a barometer has frozen so that it might be beaten on an anvil.

As Sir James Ross went in search of Sir John Franklin, he adopted various methods of letting him know (if alive) of assistance being at hand. Provisions were deposited in several marked places; and on the excursions to make these deposits, they underwent terrible fatigue, as well as suffered severely from what is termed "snow blindness." But the greatest display of ingenuity was in capturing a number of white foxes, and fastening copper collars round their necks, on which was engraved a notice of the position of the ships and provisions. It was possible that these animals, which are known to travel very far in search of food, might be captured by the missing voyagers, who would thus be enabled to avail themselves of the assistance intended for them by their noble countrymen. The little foxes, in their desire to escape, sometimes tried to gnaw the bars of their traps; but the cold was so intense, that their tongues froze to the iron, and so their captors had to kill them, to release them from their misery, for they were never wantonly destroyed.

The great Painter of the Universe has not forgotten the embellishment of the Pole. One of the most beautiful phenomena in nature is the Aurora Borealis, or northern lights. It generally assumes the form of an arch, darting flashes of lilac, yellow, or white light towards the heights of heaven. Some travellers state that the aurora are accompanied by a crackling or hissing noise; but Captain Lyon, who listened for hours, says that this is not the case, and that it is merely that the
imagination cannot picture these sudden bursts of light as unaccompanied by noise.

We will now bid farewell to winter, for with returning summer comes the open sea, and the vessels leave their wintry bed. This, however, is attended with much difficulty and danger. Canals have to be cut in the ice, through which to lead the ships to a less obstructed ocean; and, after this had been done in Sir James Ross's case, the ships were hemmed in by a pack of ice, fifty miles in circumference, and were carried along, utterly helpless, at the rate of eight or ten miles daily, for upwards of 250 miles--the navigators fearing the adverse winds might drive them on the rocky coast of Baffin's Bay. At length the wind changed, and carried them clear of ice and icebergs (detached masses of ice, sometimes several hundred feet in height) to the open sea, and back to their native land.

With all its dreariness, we owe much to the ice-bound Pole; to it we are indebted for the cooling breeze and the howling tempest--the beneficent tempest, in spite of all its desolation and woe. Evil and good in nature are comparative: the same thing does what is called harm in one sense, but incalculable good in another. So the tempest, that causes the wreck, and makes widows of happy wives and orphans of joyous children, sets in motion air that would else be stagnant, and become the breath of pestilence and the grave.



* * * * *




[Illustration: Letter A.]

All the Crown Jewels, or Regalia, used by the Sovereign on great state occasions, are kept in the Tower of London, where they have been for nearly two centuries. The first express mention made of the Regalia being kept in this palatial fortress, occurs in the reign of Henry III., previously to which they were deposited either in the Treasury of the Temple, or in some religious house dependent upon the Crown. Seldom, however, did the jewels remain in the Tower for any length of time, for they were repeatedly pledged to meet the exigences of the Sovereign. An inventory of the jewels in the Tower, made by order of James I., is of great length; although Henry III., during the Lincolnshire rebellion, in 1536, greatly reduced the value and number of the Royal store. In the reign of Charles II., a desperate attempt was made by Colonel Blood and his accomplices to possess themselves of the Royal Jewels.

The Regalia were originally kept in a small building on the south side of the White Tower; but, in the reign of Charles I., they were
transferred to a strong chamber in the Martin Tower, afterwards called the Jewel Tower. Here they remained until the fire in 1840; when being threatened with destruction from the flames which were raging near them, they were carried away by the warders, and placed for safety in the house of the Governor. In 1841 they were removed to the new Jewel-House, which is much more commodious than the old vaulted chamber in which they were previously shown.

[Illustration: QUEEN'S CROWN.]

The QUEEN'S, or IMPERIAL CROWN was made for the coronation of her present Majesty. It is composed of a cap of purple velvet, enclosed by hoops of silver, richly dight with gems, in the form shown in our Illustration. The arches rise almost to a point instead of being depressed, are covered with pearls, and are surmounted by an orb of brilliants. Upon this is placed a Maltese or cross pattee of
brilliants. Four crosses and four _fleurs-de-lis_ surmount the circlet, all composed of diamonds, the front cross containing the "inestimable sapphire," of the purest and deepest azure, more than two inches long, and an inch broad; and, in the circlet beneath it, is a rock ruby, of enormous size and exquisite colour, _said_ to have been worn by the Black Prince at the battle of Cressy, and by Henry V. at the battle of Agincourt. The circlet is enriched with diamonds, emeralds, sapphires, and rubies. This crown was altered from the one constructed expressly for the coronation of King George IV.: the superb diadem then weighed 5-1/2 lb., and was worn by the King on his return in procession from the Abbey to the Hall at Westminster.

[Illustration: OLD IMPERIAL CROWN.]

The OLD IMPERIAL CROWN (St. Edward's) is the one whose form is so familiar to us from its frequent representation on the coin of the realm, the Royal arms, &c. It was made for the coronation of Charles II., to replace the one broken up and sold during the Civil Wars, which was said to have been worn by Edward the Confessor. It is of gold, and consists of two arches crossing at the top, and rising from a rim or circlet of gold, over a cap of crimson velvet, lined with white taffeta, and turned up with ermine. The base of the arches on each side is covered by a cross pattee; between the crosses are four _fleurs-de-lis_ of gold, which rise out of the circle: the whole of these are splendidly enriched with pearls and precious stones. On the top, at the intersection of the arches, which are somewhat depressed, are a mound and cross of gold the latter richly jewelled, and adorned with three pearls, one on the top, and one pendent at each limb.
[Illustration: PRINCE OF WALES'S CROWN.]

The PRINCE OF WALES'S CROWN is of pure gold, unadorned with jewels. On occasions of state, it is placed before the seat occupied by the
Heir-Apparent to the throne in the House of Lords.

[Illustration: QUEEN'S DIADEM.]


[Illustration: TEMPORAL SCEPTRE.]

The QUEEN'S DIADEM was made for the coronation of Marie d'Este, consort of James II., it is adorned with large diamonds, and the upper edge of the circlet is bordered with pearls.

The TEMPORAL SCEPTRE of Queen Victoria is of gold, 2 feet 9 inch in length; the staff is very plain, but the pommel is ornamented with rubies, emeralds, and diamonds. The _fleurs-de-lis_ with which this sceptre was originally adorned have been replaced by golden leaves, bearing the rose, shamrock, and thistle. The cross is variously jewelled, and has in the centre a large table diamond.

[Illustration: SPIRITUAL SCEPTRE.]

Her Majesty's SPIRITUAL SCEPTRE, Rod of Equity, or Sceptre with the Dove, is also of gold, 3 feet 7 inches long, set with diamonds and other precious stones. It is surmounted by an orb, banded with rose diamonds, bearing a cross, on which is the figure of a dove with expanded wings.

The QUEEN'S IVORY SCEPTRE was made for Maria d'Este, consort of James II. It is mounted in gold, and terminated by a golden cross, bearing a dove of white onyx.

[Illustration: AMPULLA.]

The ampulla is an antique vessel of pure gold, used for containing the holy oil at coronations. It resembles an eagle with expanded wings, and is finely chased: the head screws off at the middle of the neck for pouring in the oil; and the neck being hollow to the beak the latter serves as a spout, through which the consecrated oil is poured into

[Illustration: ANOINTING SPOON.]

The ANOINTING SPOON, which is also of pure gold: it has four pearls in the broadest part of the handle, and the bowl of the spoon is finely chased within and without; by its extreme thinness, it appears to be ancient.

[Illustration: QUEEN'S CORONATION BRACELETS.] The ARMILLAE, or BRACELETS, are of solid fine gold, chased, 1-1/2 inch in breadth, edged with rows of pearls. They open by a hinge, and are enamelled with the rose, _fleur-de-lis_, and harp.

[Illustration: IMPERIAL ORB.]

The IMPERIAL ORB, or MOUND, is an emblem of sovereignty, said to have been derived from Imperial Rome, and to have been first adorned with the cross by Constantine, on his conversion to Christianity. It first appears among the Royal insignia of England on the coins of Edward the Confessor. This orb is a ball of gold, 6 inches in diameter, encompassed with a band of gold, set with emeralds, rubies, and pearls. On the top is a remarkably fine amethyst, nearly 1-1/2 inch high, which serves as the foot or pedestal of a rich cross of gold, 32 inches high, encrusted with diamonds; having in the centre, on one side, a sapphire, and an emerald on the other; four large pearls at the angles of the cross, a large pearl at the end of each limb, and three at the base; the height of the orb and cross being 11 inches.

The QUEEN'S ORB is of smaller dimensions than the preceding, but of similar materials and fashion.




[Illustration: STATE SALT-CELLARS.]

The SALT-CELLARS are of singular form and rich workmanship. The most noticeable is--the _Golden Salt-cellar of State,_ which is of pure gold, richly adorned with jewels, and grotesque figures in chased work. Its form is castellated: and the receptacles for the salt are formed by the removal of the tops of the turrets.

In the same chamber with the Crowns, Sceptres, and other Regalia used in the ceremonial of the Coronation, is a very interesting collection of plate, formerly used at Coronation festivals; together with fonts, &c. Amongst these are

The QUEEN'S BAPTISMAL FONT, which is of silver, gilt, tastefully chased, and surmounted by two figures emblematical of the baptismal rite: this font was formerly used at the christening of the Royal family; but a new font of more picturesque design, has lately be n manufactured for her Majesty.


There are, besides, in the collection, a large Silver Wine Fountain, presented by the corporation of Plymouth to Charles II.; two massive Coronation Tankards, of gold; a Banqueting Dish, and other dishes and spoons of gold, used at Coronation festivals; besides a
beautifully-wrought service of Sacramental Plate, employed at the Coronation, and used also in the Chapel of St. Peter in the Tower.

* * * * *




[Illustration: Letter I.]

I ask'd an aged man, a man of cares,
Wrinkled and curved, and white with hoary hairs: "Time is the warp of life," he said; "Oh tell The young, the fair, the gay, to weave 't well!" I ask'd the ancient, venerable dead--
Sages who wrote, and warriors who bled: From the cold grave a hollow murmur flow'd-- "Time sow'd the seed we reap in this abode!" I ask'd a dying sinner, ere the tide
Of life had left his veins: "Time?" he replied, "I've lost it! Ah, the treasure!" and he died. I ask'd the golden sun and silver spheres, Those bright chronometers of days and years: They answer'd: "Time is but a meteor's glare," And bade me for Eternity prepare.
I ask'd the Seasons, in their annual round, Which beautify or desolate the ground;
And they replied (no oracle more wise):
"'Tis Folly's blank, and Wisdom's highest prize!" I ask'd a spirit lost, but oh! the shriek
That pierced my soul! I shudder while I speak. It cried, "A particle! a speck! a mite
Of endless years--duration infinite!"
Of things inanimate, my dial I
Consulted, and it made me this reply:
"Time is the season fair of living well--
The path of glory, or the path of hell."
I ask'd my Bible, and methinks it said:
"Time is the present hour--the past is fled: Live! live to-day; to-morrow never yet
On any human being rose or set."
I ask'd old Father Time himself at last,
But in a moment he flew swiftly past--
His chariot was a cloud, the viewless wind His noiseless steeds, which left no trace behind. I ask'd the mighty Angel who shall stand One foot on sea, and one on solid land;
"By Heaven!" he cried, "I swear the mystery's o'er; Time was," he cried, "but time shall be no more!"



* * * * *




[Illustration: Letter F.]

Fine writing, according to Mr. Addison, consists of sentiments which are natural without being obvious. There cannot be a juster and more concise definition of fine writing.

Sentiments which are merely natural affect not the mind with any pleasure, and seem not worthy to engage our attention. The pleasantries of a waterman, the observations of a peasant, the ribaldry of a porter or hackney-coachman; all these are natural and disagreeable. What an insipid comedy should we make of the chit-chit of the tea-table, copied faithfully and at full length! Nothing can please persons of taste but nature drawn with all her graces and ornament--_la belle nature_; or, if we copy low life, the strokes must be strong and remarkable, and must convey a lively image to the mind. The absurd _naivete_ of Sancho Panza is represented in such inimitable colours by Cervantes, that it entertains as much as the picture of the most magnanimous hero or softest lover.

The case is the same with orators, philosophers, critics, or any author who speaks in his own person without introducing other speakers or actors. If his language be not elegant, his observations uncommon, his sense strong and masculine, he will in vain boast his nature and simplicity. He may be correct, but he never will be agreeable. 'Tis the unhappiness of such authors that they are never blamed nor censured. The good fortune of a book and that of a man are not the same. The secret deceiving path of life, which Horace talks of--_fallentis semita vitae_--may be the happiest, lot of the one, but is the greatest misfortune that the other can possibly fall into.

On the other hand, productions which are merely surprising, without being natural, can never give any lasting entertainment to the mind. To draw chimaeras is not, properly speaking, to copy or imitate. The justness of the representation is lost, and the mind is displeased to find a picture which bears no resemblance to any original. Nor are such excessive refinements more agreeable in the epistolary or philosophic style, than in the epic or tragic. Too much ornament is a fault in every kind of production. Uncommon expressions, strong flashes of wit, pointed similes, and epigrammatic turns, especially when laid too thick, are a disfigurement rather than any embellishment of discourse. As the eye, in surveying a Gothic building, is distracted by the multiplicity of ornaments, and loses the whole by its minute attention to the parts; so the mind, in perusing a work overstocked with wit, is fatigued and disgusted with the constant endeavour to shine and surprise. This is the case where a writer over-abounds in wit, even though that wit should be just and agreeable. But it commonly happens to such writers, that they seek for their favourite ornaments even where the subject affords them not; and by that means have twenty insipid conceits for one thought that is really beautiful.

There is no subject in critical learning more copious than this of the just mixture of simplicity and refinement in writing; and, therefore, not to wander in too large a field, I shall confine myself to a few general observations on that head.

First, I observe, "That though excesses of both kinds are to be avoided, and though a proper medium ought to be studied in all productions; yet this medium lies not in a point, but admits of a very considerable latitude." Consider the wide distance, in this respect, between Mr. Pope and Lucretius. These seem to lie in the two greatest extremes of refinement and simplicity which a poet can indulge himself in, without being guilty of any blameable excess. All this interval may be filled with poets, who may differ from each other, but may be equally admirable, each in his peculiar style and manner. Corneille and Congreve, who carry their wit and refinement somewhat farther than Mr. Pope (if poets of so different a kind can be compared together), and Sophocles and Terence, who are more simple than Lucretius, seem to have gone out of that medium wherein the most perfect productions are to be found, and are guilty of some excess in these opposite characters. Of all the great poets, Virgil and Racine, in my opinion, lie nearest the centre, and are the farthest removed from both the extremities.

My second observation on this head is, "That it is very difficult, if not impossible, to explain by words wherein the just medium betwixt the excesses of simplicity and refinement consists, or to give any rule by which we can know precisely the bounds betwixt the fault and the beauty." A critic may not only discourse very judiciously on this head without instructing his readers, but even without understanding the matter perfectly himself. There is not in the world a finer piece of criticism than Fontenelle's "Dissertation on Pastorals;" wherein, by a number of reflections and philosophical reasonings, he endeavours to fix the just medium which is suitable to that species of writing. But let any one read the pastorals of that author, and he will be convinced, that this judicious critic, notwithstanding his fine reasonings, had a false taste, and fixed the point of perfection much nearer the extreme of refinement than pastoral poetry will admit of. The sentiments of his shepherds are better suited to the toilets of Paris than to the forests of Arcadia. But this it is impossible to discover from his critical reasonings. He blames all excessive painting and ornament, as much as Virgil could have done had he written a dissertation on this species of poetry. However different the tastes of men may be, their general discourses on these subjects are commonly the same. No criticism can be very instructive which descends not to particulars, and is not full of examples and illustrations. 'Tis allowed on all hands, that beauty, as well as virtue, lies always in a medium; but where this medium is placed is the great question, and can never be sufficiently explained by general reasonings.

I shall deliver it as a third observation on this subject, "That we ought to be more on our guard against the excess of refinement than that of simplicity; and that because the former excess is both less beautiful and more dangerous than the latter."

It is a certain rule that wit and passion are entirely inconsistent. When the affections are moved, there is no place for the imagination. The mind of man being naturally limited, it is impossible all his faculties can operate at once; and the more any one predominates, the less room is there for the others to exert their vigour. For this reason a greater degree of simplicity is required in all compositions, where men and actions and passions are painted, than in such as consist of reflections and observations. And as the former species of writing is the more engaging and beautiful, one may safely, upon this account, give the preference to the extreme of simplicity above that of refinement.

We may also observe, that those compositions which we read the oftenest, and which every man of taste has got by heart, have the recommendation of simplicity, and have nothing surprising in the thought when divested of that elegance of expression and harmony of numbers with which it is cloathed. If the merit of the composition lies in a point of wit, it may strike at first; but the mind anticipates the thought in the second perusal, and is no longer affected by it. When I read an epigram of Martial, the first line recalls the whole; and I have no pleasure in repeating to myself what I know already. But each line, each word in Catullus has its merit; and I am never tired with the perusal of him. It is sufficient to rim over Cowley once; but Parnel, after the fiftieth reading, is fresh as at the first. Besides, it is with books as with women, where a certain plainness of manner and of dress is more engaging than that glare of paint and airs and apparel which may dazzle the eye but reaches not the affections. Terence is a modest and bashful beauty, to whom we grant every thing, because he assumes nothing, and whose purity and nature make a durable though not a violent impression upon us.

But refinement, as it is the less beautiful, so it is the more dangerous extreme, and what we are the aptest to fall into. Simplicity passes for dulness when it is not accompanied with great elegance and propriety. On the contrary, there is something surprising in a blaze of wit and conceit. Ordinary readers are mightily struck with it, and falsely imagine it to be the most difficult, as well as most excellent way of writing. Seneca abounds with agreeable faults, says Quinctilian--_abundat dulcibus vitiis_; and for that reason is the more dangerous and the more apt to pervert the taste of the young and inconsiderate.

I shall add, that the excess of refinement is now more to be guarded against than ever; because it is the extreme which men are the most apt to fall into, after learning has made great progress, and after eminent writers have appeared in every species of composition. The endeavour to please by novelty leads men wide of simplicity and nature, and fills their writings with affectation and conceit. It was thus that the age of Claudius and Nero became so much inferior to that of Augustus in taste and genius; and perhaps there are at present some symptoms of a like degeneracy of taste, in France as well as in England.



* * * * *



The celebrated patriot, John Hampden, was descended from an ancient family in Buckinghamshire, where he was born in 1594. On leaving the University, he entered the inns of court, where he made considerable progress in the study of the law. He was chosen to serve in the Parliament which assembled at Westminster, February, 1626, and served in all the succeeding Parliaments in the reign of Charles I. That Monarch having quarrelled with his Parliament, was obliged to have recourse to the open exercise of his prerogative in order to supply himself with money. From the nobility he desired assistance; from the City of London he required a loan of L100,000. The former contributed but slowly; the latter at length gave a flat denial. To equip a fleet, an apportionment was made, by order of the Council, amongst all the maritime towns, each of which was required, with the assistance of the adjoining counties, to furnish a certain number of vessels or amount of shipping. The City of London was rated at twenty ships. And this was the first appearance in the present reign of ship-money--a taxation which had once been imposed by Elizabeth, on a great emergency, but which, revived and carried further by Charles, produced the most violent discontent.


In 1636, John Hampden became universally known by his intrepid opposition to the ship-money, as an illegal tax. Upon this he was prosecuted, and his conduct throughout the transaction gained him great credit and reputation. When the Long Parliament began, the eyes of all were fixed upon him as the father of his country. On the 3rd of January, 1642, the King ordered articles of high treason, and other
misdemeanours, to be prepared against Lord Kimbolton, Mr. Hampden, and four other members of the House of Commons, and went to the House to seize them, but they had retired. Mr. Hampden afterwards made a celebrated speech in the House to clear himself from the charge brought against him.

In the beginning of the civil war Hampden commanded a regiment of foot, and did good service at the battle of Edgehill; but he received a mortal wound in an engagement with Prince Rupert, in Chalgrave-field, in Oxfordshire, and died in 1648. Hampden is said to have possessed in a high degree talents for gaining and preserving popular influence, and great courage, industry, and strength of mind, which procured him great ascendancy over other men.

* * * * *




[Illustration: Letter H.]

Her father loved me; oft invited me;
Still question'd me the story of my life,
From year to year: the battles, sieges, fortunes,
That I have past.
I ran it through, even from my boyish days
To the very moment that he bade me tell it.
Wherein I spake of most disastrous chances,
Of moving incidents by flood and field,
Of hair-breadth 'scapes in the imminent deadly breach, Of being taken by the insolent foe,
And sold to slavery; of my redemption thence,
And 'portance in my travels' history;
Wherein of antres vast, and deserts idle,
Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads touch heaven, It was my hint to speak--such was the process;
And of the cannibals that each other eat--
The Anthropophagi--and men whose heads
Do grow beneath their shoulders. These things to bear Would Desdemona seriously incline:
still the house affairs would draw her thence;
Which ever as she could with haste dispatch,
She'd come again, and with a greedy ear
Devour up my discourse; which I observing,
Took once a pliant hour, and found good means To draw from her a prayer of earnest heart,
That I would all my pilgrimage relate,
Whereof by parcels she had something heard
But not intentively: I did consent;
And often did beguile her of her tears,
When I did speak of some distressful stroke
That my youth suffer'd. My story being done,
She gave me for my pains a world of sighs;
She swore--in faith 'twas strange, 'twas passing strange; 'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful;
She wish'd she had not heard it; yet she wish'd That Heaven had made her such a man: she thank'd me; And bade me if I had a friend that loved her,
I should but teach him how to tell my story,
And that would woo her. Upon this hint I spake; She loved me for the dangers I had pass'd,
And I loved her that she did pity them.
This only is the witchcraft I have used:
Here comes the lady; let her witness it.



* * * * *




[Illustration: Letter V.]

Verily duty to parents is of the first consequence; and would you, my young friends, recommend yourselves to the favour of your God and Father, would you imitate the example of your adorable Redeemer, and be made an inheritor of his precious promises; would you enjoy the peace and comforts of this life, and the good esteem of your fellow-creatures--Reverence your parents; and be it your constant endeavour, as it will be your greatest satisfaction, to witness your high sense of, and to make some returns for the obligations you owe to them, by every act of filial obedience and love.

Let their commands be ever sacred in your ears, and implicitly obeyed, where they do not contradict the commands of God: pretend not to be wiser than they, who have had so much more experience than yourselves; and despise them not, if haply you should be so blest as to have gained a degree of knowledge or of fortune superior to them. Let your carriage towards them be always respectful, reverent, and submissive; let your words be always affectionate and humble, and especially beware of pert and ill-seeming replies; of angry, discontented, and peevish looks. Never imagine, if they thwart your wills, or oppose your inclinations, that this ariseth from any thing but love to you: solicitous as they have ever been for your welfare, always consider the same tender solicitude as exerting itself, even in cases most opposite to your desires; and let the remembrance of what they have done and suffered for you, ever preserve you from acts of disobedience, and from paining those good hearts which have already felt so much for you, their children.

The Emperor of China, on certain days of the year, pays a visit to his mother, who is seated on a throne to receive him; and four times on his feet, and as often on his knees, he makes her a profound obeisance, bowing his head even to the ground.

Sir Thomas More seems to have emulated this beautiful example; for, being Lord Chancellor of England at the same time that his father was a Judge of the King's Bench, he would always, on his entering Westminster Hall, go first to the King's Bench, and ask his father's blessing before he went to sit in the Court of Chancery, as if to secure success in the great decisions of his high and important office.



* * * * *




[Illustration: Letter W.]

When the widowed Mary, Queen of Scots, left France, where she had dwelt since her fifth year--where she had shared in the education of the French King's own daughters, in one of the convents of the kingdom, and been the idol of the French Court and people, it is said that, as the coast of the happy land faded from her view, she continued to exclaim, "Farewell, France! farewell, dear France--I shall never see thee more!" And her first view of Scotland only increased the poignancy of these touching regrets. So little pains had been taken to "cover over the nakedness and poverty of the land," that tears sprang into her eyes, when, fresh from the elegant luxurious Court of Paris, she saw the wretched ponies, with bare, wooden saddles, or dirty and ragged trappings, which had been provided to carry her and her ladies from the water-side to Holyrood. And then the palace itself; how different from the palaces in which she had lived in France! Dismal and small, it consisted only of what is now the north wing. The state-room and the bed-chamber which were used by her yet remain, with the old furniture, and much of the needle-work there is said to have been the work of her hands. During her long and melancholy imprisonment in England, the art of needle-work and reading were almost her only mode of relieving the dreary hours.

From the moment Mary of Scotland took the fatal resolution of throwing herself upon the supposed kindness and generosity of Elizabeth, her fate was sealed, and it was that of captivity, only to be ended by death. She was immediately cut off from all communication with her subjects, except such as it was deemed proper to allow; and was moved about from place to place, the better to ensure her safety. The hapless victim again and again implored Elizabeth to deal generously and justly with her. "I came," said she, in one of her letters, "of mine own accord; let me depart again with yours: and if God permit my cause to succeed, I shall be bound to you for it." But her rival was unrelenting, and, in fact, increased the rigours of her confinement. Whilst a prisoner at Chatsworth, she had been permitted the indulgence of air and exercise; and the bower of Queen Mary is still shown in the noble grounds of that place, as a favourite resort of the unfortunate captive. But even this absolutely necessary indulgence was afterwards denied; she was wholly confined to the Castle of Fotheringay, and a standing order was issued that "she should be shot if she attempted to escape, or if others attempted to rescue her."


Burns, in his "Lament of Mary, Queen of Scots," touchingly expresses the weary feelings that must have existed in the breast of the Royal captive:--

"Oh, soon to me may summer suns Nae mair light up the morn!
Nae mair to me the autumn winds Wave o'er the yellow corn!
And in the narrow house of death, Let winter round me rave;
And the next flowers that deck the spring, Bloom on my peaceful grave."

* * * * *



In the year 1850, a vast line of railway was completed from Chester to Holyhead, for the conveyance of the Royal mails, of goods and passengers, and of her Majesty's troops and artillery, between London and Dublin--Holyhead being the most desirable point at which to effect this communication with Ireland. Upon this railway are two stupendous bridges, which are the most perfect examples of engineering skill ever executed in England, or in any other country.

The first of these bridges carries the railway across the river Conway, close to the ancient castle built by Edward I. in order to bridle his new subjects, the Welsh.

The Conway bridge consists of a tube, or long, huge chest, the ends of which rest upon stone piers, built to correspond with the architecture of the old castle. The tube is made of wrought-iron plates, varying in thickness from a quarter of an inch to one inch, riveted together, and strengthened by irons in the form of the letter T; and, to give additional strength to the whole, a series of cells is formed at the bottom and top of the tube, between an inner ceiling and floor and the exterior plates; the iron plates which form the cells being riveted and held in their places by angle irons. The space between the sides of the tube is 14 feet; and the height of the whole, inclusive of the cells, is 22 feet 3-1/2 inches at the ends, and 25 feet 6 inches at the centre. The total length of the tube is 412 feet. One end of the tube is fixed to the masonry of the pier; but the other is so arranged as to allow for the expansion of the metal by changes of the temperature of the atmosphere, and it therefore, rests upon eleven rollers of iron, running upon a bed-plate; and, that the whole weight of the tube may not be carried by these rollers, six girders are carried over the tube, and riveted to the upper parts of its sides, which rest upon twelve balls of gun-metal running in grooves, which are fixed to iron beams let into the masonry.

The second of these vast railway bridges crosses the Menai Straits, which separate Caernarvon from the island of Anglesey. It is constructed a good hundred feet above high-water level, to enable large vessels to sail beneath it; and in building it, neither scaffolding nor centering was used.

The abutments on either side of the Straits are huge piles of masonry. That on the Anglesey side is 143 feet high, and 173 feet long. The wing walls of both terminate in splendid pedestals, and on each are two colossal lions, of Egyptian design; each being 25 feet long, 12 feet high though crouched, 9 feet abaft the body, and each paw 2 feet 1 inches. Each weighs 30 tons. The towers for supporting the tube are of a like magnitude with the entire work. The great Britannia Tower, in the centre of the Straits, is 62 feet by 52 feet at its base; its total height from the bottom, 230 feet; it contains 148,625 cubic feet of limestone, and 144,625 of sandstone; it weighs 20,000 tons; and there are 387 tons of cast iron built into it in the shape of beams and girders. It sustains the four ends of the four long iron tubes which span the Straits from shore to shore. The total quantity of stone contained in the bridge is 1,500,000 cubic feet. The side towers stand at a clear distance of 460 feet from the great central tower; and, again, the abutments stand at a distance from the side towers of 230 feet, giving the entire bridge a total length of 1849 feet,
corresponding with the date of the year of its construction. The side or land towers are each 62 feet by 52 feet at the base, and 190 feet high; they contain 210 tons of cast iron.


The length of the great tube is exactly 470 feet, being 12 feet longer than the clear space between the towers, and the greatest span ever yet attempted. The greatest height of the tube is in the centre--30 feet, and diminishing towards the end to 22 feet. Each tube consists of sides, top and bottom, all formed of long, narrow wrought-iron plates, varying in length from 12 feet downward. These plates are of the same manufacture as those for making boilers, varying in thickness from three-eighths to three-fourths of an inch. Some of them weigh nearly 7 cwt., and are amongst the largest it is possible to roll with any existing machinery. The connexion between top, bottom, and sides is made much more substantial by triangular pieces of thick plate, riveted in across the corners, to enable the tube to resist the cross or twisting strain to which it will be exposed from the heavy and long-continued gales of wind that, sweeping up the Channel, will assail it in its lofty and unprotected position. The rivets, of which there are 2,000,000--each tube containing 327,000--are more than an inch in diameter. They are placed in rows, and were put in the holes red hot, and beaten with heavy hammers. In cooling, they contracted strongly, and drew the plates together so powerfully that it required a force of from 1 to 6 tons to each rivet, to cause the plates to slide over each other. The weight of wrought iron in the great tube is 1600 tons.

Each of these vast bridge tubes was constructed on the shore, then floated to the base of the piers, or bridge towers, and raised to its proper elevation by hydraulic machinery, the largest in the world, and the most powerful ever constructed. For the Britannia Bridge, this consisted of two vast presses, one of which has power equal to that of 30,000 men, and it lifted the largest tube six feet in half an hour.

The Britannia tubes being in two lines, are passages for the up and down trains across the Straits. Each of the tubes has been compared to the Burlington Arcade, in Piccadilly; and the labour of placing this tube upon the piers has been assimilated to that of raising the Arcade upon the summit of the spire of St. James's Church, if surrounded with water.

Each line of tube is 1513 feet in length; far surpassing in size any piece of wrought-iron work ever before put together; and its weight is 5000 tons, being nearly equal to that of two 120-gun ships, having on board, ready for sea, guns, provisions, and crew. The plate-iron covering of the tubes is not thicker than the hide of an elephant, and scarcely thicker than the bark of an oak-tree; whilst one of the large tubes, if placed on its end in St. Paul's churchyard, would reach 107 feet higher than the cross of the cathedral.



* * * * *



Ye mariners of England!
Who guard our native seas,
Whose flag has braved a thousand years The battle and the breeze,
Your glorious standard launch again, To match another foe,
And sweep through the deep
While the stormy tempests blow;
While the battle rages long and loud, And the stormy tempests blow.

The spirits of your fathers
Shall start from every wave!
For the deck it was their field of fame, And Ocean was their grave;
Where Blake and mighty Nelson fell, Your manly hearts shall glow,
As ye sweep through the deep, While the stormy tempests blow;
While the battle rages long and loud, And the stormy tempests blow.

Britannia needs no bulwarks,
No towers along the steep;
Her march is o'er the mountain waves, Her home is on the deep:
With thunders from her native oak, She quells the floods below,
As they roar on the shore,
When the stormy tempests blow;
When the battle rages long and loud, And the stormy tempests blow.

The meteor-flag of England
Shall yet terrific burn,
Till danger's troubled night depart, And the star of peace return.
Then, then, ye ocean-warriors! Our song and feast shall flow
To the fame of your name,
When the storm has ceased to blow;
When the fiery fight is heard no more, And the storm has ceased to blow.



* * * * *



"I knew" (says the pleasing writer of "Letters from Sierra Leone") "that the long-looked-for vessel had at length furled her sails and dropped anchor in the bay. She was from England, and I waited, expecting every minute to feast my eyes upon at least one letter; but I remembered how unreasonable it was to suppose that any person would come up with letters to this lonely place at so late an hour, and that it behoved me to exercise the grace of patience until next day. However, between ten and eleven o'clock, a loud shouting and knocking aroused the household, and the door was opened to a trusty Kroo messenger, who, although one of a tribe who would visit any of its members in their own country with death, who could 'savey white man's book,' seemed to comprehend something of our feelings at receiving letters, as I overheard him exclaim, with evident glee, 'Ah! massa! here de right book come at last.' Every thing, whether a brown-paper parcel, a newspaper, an official despatch, a private letter or note is here denominated a 'book,' and this man understood well that newspapers are never received so gladly amongst 'books' from England as letters." The Kaffir, in the Engraving, was sketched from one employed to convey letters in the South African settlements; he carries his document in a split at the end of a cane.


It is a singular sight in India to see the catamarans which put off from some parts of the coast, as soon as ships come in sight, either to bear on board or to convey from thence letters or messages. These frail vessels are composed of thin cocoa-tree logs, lashed together, and big enough to carry one, or, at most, two persons. In one of these a small sail is fixed, and the navigator steers with a little paddle; the float itself is almost entirely sunk in the water, so that the effect is very singular--a sail sweeping along the surface with a man behind it, and apparently nothing to support them. Those which have no sails are consequently invisible and the men have the appearance of treading the water and performing evolutions with a racket. In very rough weather the men lash themselves to their little rafts but in ordinary seas they seem, though frequently washed off, to regard such accidents as mere trifles, being naked all but a wax cloth cap in which they keep any letters they may have to convey to ships in the roads, and swimming like fish. Their only danger is from sharks, which are said to abound. These cannot hurt them while on their floats; but woe be to them if they catch them while separated from that defence. Yet, even then, the case is not quite hopeless, since the shark can only attack them from below; and a rapid dive, if not in very deep water, will sometimes save them.

* * * * *






[Illustration: Letter C.]

Come, gentle Spring, ethereal mildness, come, And from the bosom of yon dropping cloud, While music wakes around, veil'd in a shower Of shadowing roses, on our plains descend.

* * * * *

Hail! Source of Being! Universal Soul
Of heaven and earth! Essential Presence, hail; To Thee I bend the knee; to Thee my thought Continual climb; who, with a master hand. Hast the great whole into perfection touch'd. By Thee the various vegetative tribes,
Wrapt in a filmy net, and clad with leaves, Draw the live ether, and imbibe the dew: By Thee disposed into congenial soils,
Stands each attractive plant, and sucks and swells The juicy tide--a twining mass of tubes.
At thy command the vernal sun awakes
The torpid sap, detruded to the root
By wintry winds, that now in fluent dance, And lively fermentation, mounting, spreads All this innumerous-colour'd scene of things. As rising from the vegetable world
My theme ascends, with equal wing ascend My panting Muse! And hark! how loud the woods Invite you forth in all your gayest trim. Lend me your song, ye nightingales! oh, pour The mazy running soul of melody
Into my varied verse! while I deduce From the first note the hollow cuckoo sings, The symphony of spring, and touch a theme Unknown to fame, the passion of the groves.

[Illustration: SPRING.]




[Illustration: Letter F.]

From bright'ning fields of ether fair disclosed, Child of the Sun, refulgent Summer comes, In pride of youth, and felt through nature's depth: He comes attended by the sultry hours,
And ever-fanning breezes on his way;
While from his ardent look the turning Spring Averts his blushing face, and earth and skies, All-smiling, to his hot dominion leaves.

* * * * *

Cheer'd by the milder beam, the sprightly youth Speeds to the well-known pool, whose crystal depth A sandy bottom shows. Awhile he stands
Gazing the inverted landscape, half afraid
To meditate the blue profound below;
Then plunges headlong down the circling flood. His ebon tresses, and his rosy cheek,
Instant emerge: and through the obedient wave, At each short breathing by his lip repell'd, With arms and legs according well, he makes, As humour leads, an easy-winding path;
While from his polish'd sides a dewy light Effuses on the pleased spectators round.

This is the purest exercise of health.
The kind refresher of the Summer heats: Nor, when cold Winter keens the brightening flood, Would I, weak-shivering, linger on the brink. Thus life redoubles, and is oft preserved
By the bold swimmer, in the swift elapse Of accident disastrous.
[Illustration: SUMMER.]



[Illustration: Letter C.]

Crown'd with the sickle and the wheaten sheaf, While Autumn nodding o'er the yellow plain Comes jovial on, the Doric reed once more, Well pleased, I tune. Whatever the wintry frost Nitrous prepared, the various-blossom'd Spring Put in white promised forth, and Summer suns Concocted strong, rush boundless now to view, Full, perfect all, and swell my glorious theme.

* * * * *

Hence from the busy, joy-resounding fields In cheerful error let us tread the maze Of Autumn, unconfined; and taste, revived, The breath of orchard big with bending fruit. Obedient to the breeze and beating ray, From the deep-loaded bough a mellow shower Incessant melts away. The juicy pear
Lies in a soft profusion scatter'd round. A various sweetness swells the gentle race, By Nature's all-refining hand prepared; Of tempered sun, and water, earth, and air, In ever-changing composition mix'd.
Such, falling frequent through the chiller night, The fragrant stores, the wide projected heaps Of apples, which the lusty-handed year, Innumerous, o'er the blushing orchard shakes.

[Illustration: AUTUMN.]




[Illustration: Letter S.]

See, Winter comes to rule the varied year,
Sullen and sad, with all his rising train--
Vapours, and clouds, and storms. Be these my theme, These--that exalt the soul to solemn thought And heavenly musing. Welcome, kindred glooms; Congenial horrors, hail: with frequent foot, Pleased have I, in my cheerful morn of life, When nursed by careless solitude I lived,
And sung of nature with unceasing joy;
Pleased have I wander'd through your rough domain, Trod the pure virgin snows, myself as pure; Heard the winds roar, and the big torrent burst, Or seen the deep-fermenting tempest brew'd In the grim evening sky.

* * * * *

Nature! great parent! whose unceasing hand Rolls round the seasons of the changeful year, How mighty, how majestic are thy works! With what a pleasing dread they swell the soul, That sees astonish'd, and astonish'd sings! Ye, too, ye winds! that now begin to blow With boisterous sweep, I raise my voice to you. Where are your stores, ye powerful beings, say, Where your aerial magazines reserved
To swell the brooding terrors of the storm? In what far distant region of the sky,
Hush'd in deep silence, sleep ye when 'tis calm?

* * * * *

'Tis done; dread Winter spreads his latest glooms, And reigns tremendous o'er the conquer'd year. How dead the vegetable kingdom lies!
How dumb the tuneful! Horror wide extends
His desolate domain. Behold, fond man!
See here thy pictured life! Pass some few years Thy flowering spring, thy summer's ardent strength, And sober autumn fading into age,
The pale concluding winter comes at last
The shuts the scene. Ah! whither now are fled Those dreams of greatness? those unsolid hopes Of happiness? those longings after fame?
Those restless cares? those busy bustling days? Those gay-spent festive nights? those veering thoughts, Lost between good and ill, that shared thy life? All now are vanish'd; virtue sole survives,
Immortal, never-failing friend of man--
His guide to happiness on high.



* * * * *




[Illustration: Letter T.]

There are few who have not felt the charms of music, and acknowledged its expressions to be intelligible to the heart. It is a language of delightful sensations, that is far more eloquent than words: it breathes to the ear the clearest intimations; but how it was learned, to what origin we owe it, or what is the meaning of some of its most affecting strains, we know not.

We feel plainly that music touches and gently agitates the agreeable and sublime passions; that it wraps us in melancholy, and elevates us to joy; that it dissolves and inflames; that it melts us into tenderness, and rouses into rage: but its strokes are so fine and delicate, that, like a tragedy, even the passions that are wounded please; its sorrows are charming, and its rage heroic and delightful. As people feel the particular passions with different degrees of force, their taste of harmony must proportionably vary. Music, then, is a language directed to the passions; but the rudest passions put on a new nature, and become pleasing in harmony: let me add, also, that it awakens some passions which we perceive not in ordinary life. Particularly the most elevated sensation of music arises from a confused perception of ideal or visionary beauty and rapture, which is sufficiently perceivable to fire the imagination, but not clear enough to become an object of knowledge. This shadowy beauty the mind attempts, with a languishing curiosity, to collect into a distinct object of view and comprehension; but it sinks and escapes, like the dissolving ideas of a delightful dream, that are neither within the reach of the memory, nor yet totally fled. The noblest charm of music, then, though real and affecting, seems too confused and fluid to be collected into a distinct idea.

Harmony is always understood by the crowd, and almost always mistaken by musicians. The present Italian taste for music is exactly correspondent to the taste for tragi-comedy, that about a century ago gained ground upon the stage. The musicians of the present day are charmed at the union they form between the grave and the fantastic, and at the surprising transitions they make between extremes, while every hearer who has the least remainder of the taste of nature left, is shocked at the strange jargon. If the same taste should prevail in painting, we must soon expect to see the woman's head, a horse's body, and a fish's tail, united by soft gradations, greatly admired at our public exhibitions. Musical gentlemen should take particular care to preserve in its full vigour and sensibility their original natural taste, which alone feels and discovers the true beauty of music.

If Milton, Shakspeare, or Dryden had been born with the same genius and inspiration for music as for poetry, and had passed through the practical part without corrupting the natural taste, or blending with it any prepossession in favour of sleights and dexterities of hand, then would their notes be tuned to passions and to sentiments as natural and expressive as the tones and modulations of the voice in discourse. The music and the thought would not make different expressions; the hearers would only think impetuously; and the effect of the music would be to give the ideas a tumultuous violence and divine impulse upon the mind. Any person conversant with the classic poets, sees instantly that the passionate power of music I speak of, was perfectly understood and practised by the ancients--that the Muses of the Greeks always sung, and their song was the echo of the subject, which swelled their poetry into enthusiasm and rapture. An inquiry into the nature and merits of the ancient music, and a comparison thereof with modern composition, by a person of poetic genius and an admirer of harmony, who is free from the shackles of practice, and the prejudices of the mode, aided by the countenance of a few men of rank, of elevated and true taste, would probably lay the present half-Gothic mode of music in ruins, like those towers of whose little laboured ornaments it is an exact picture, and restore the Grecian taste of passionate harmony once more to the delight and wonder of mankind. But as from the disposition of things, and the force of fashion, we cannot hope in our time to rescue the sacred lyre, and see it put into the hands of men of genius, I can only recall you to your own natural feeling of harmony and observe to you, that its emotions are not found in the laboured, fantastic, and surprising compositions that form the modern style of music: but you meet them in some few pieces that are the growth of wild unvitiated taste; you discover them in the swelling sounds that wrap us in imaginary grandeur; in those plaintive notes that make us in love with woe; in the tones that utter the lover's sighs, and fluctuate the breast with gentle pain; in the noble strokes that coil up the courage and fury of the soul, or that lull it in confused visions of joy; in short, in those affecting strains that find their way to the inmost recesses of the heart,

Untwisting all the chains that tie The hidden soul of harmony.--_Milton_.





Say ye--oppress'd by some fantastic woes, Some jarring nerve that baffles your repose, Who press the downy couch while slaves advance With timid eye to read the distant glance; Who with sad pray'rs the weary doctor tease, To name the nameless, ever new disease; Who with mock patience dire complaint endure, Which real pain, and that alone, can cure: How would ye bear in real pain to lie,
Despised, neglected, left alone to die?
How would ye bear to draw your latest breath, Where all that's wretched paves the way for death?

Such is that room which one rude beam divides, And naked rafters form the sloping sides; Where the vile bands that bind the thatch are seen, And lath and mud are all that lie between, Save one dull pane that coarsely patch'd gives way To the rude tempest, yet excludes the day: There, on a matted flock with dust o'erspread, The drooping wretch reclines his languid head! For him no hand the cordial cup supplies, Nor wipes the tear which stagnates in his eyes; No friends, with soft discourse, his pangs beguile. Nor promise hope till sickness wears a smile.



[Illustration: GEORGE CRABBE.]


* * * * *




[Illustration: Letter T.]

Thou, who didst put to flight
Primeval silence, when the morning stars, Exulting, shouted o'er the rising ball:
O Thou! whose word from solid darkness struck That spark, the sun, strike wisdom from my soul; My soul which flies to thee, her trust her treasure, As misers to their gold, while others rest: Through this opaque of nature and of soul, This double night, transmit one pitying ray, To lighten and to cheer. Oh, lead my mind, (A mind that fain would wander from its woe,) Lead it through various scenes of life and death, And from each scene the noblest truths inspire. Nor less inspire my conduct, than my song; Teach my best reason, reason; my best will Teach rectitude; and fix my firm resolve
Wisdom to wed, and pay her long arrear; Nor let the phial of thy vengeance, pour'd On this devoted head, be pour'd in vain.

The bell strikes One. We take no note of time But from its loss; to give it then a tongue
Is wise in man. As if an angel spoke,
I feel the solemn sound. If heard aright,
It is the knell of my departed hours.
Where are they? with the years beyond the flood! It is the signal that demands dispatch:
How much is to be done! My hopes and fears Start up alarm'd, and o'er life's narrow verge Look down--on what? A fathomless abyss! A dread eternity! How surely mine!
And can eternity belong to me,
Poor pensioner on the bounties of an hour? How poor, how rich, how abject, how august, How complicate, how wonderful is man!
How passing wonder He who made him such! Who center'd in our make such strange extremes-- From different natures, marvellously mix'd: Connexion exquisite! of distant worlds
Distinguish'd link in being's endless chain! Midway from nothing to the Deity;
A beam ethereal--sullied and absorpt!
Though sullied and dishonour'd, still divine! Dim miniature of greatness absolute!
An heir of glory! a frail child of dust!
Helpless immortal! insect infinite!
A worm! a god! I tremble at myself,
And in myself am lost. At home a stranger. Thought wanders up and down, surprised, aghast, And wondering at her own. How reason reels! Oh, what a miracle to man is man!
Triumphantly distress'd! what joy! what dread Alternately transported and alarm'd!
What can preserve my life, or what destroy? An angel's arm can't snatch me from the grave; Legions of angels can't confine me there.
'Tis past conjecture; all things rise in proof.
While o'er my limbs sleep's soft dominion spread, What though my soul fantastic measures trod O'er fairy fields, or mourn'd along the gloom
Of pathless woods, or down the craggy steep Hurl'd headlong, swam with pain the mantled pool, Or scaled the cliff, or danced on hollow winds With antic shapes, wild natives of the brain!
Her ceaseless flight, though devious, speaks her nature Of subtler essence than the trodden clod:
Active, aerial, towering, unconfined,
Unfetter'd with her gross companion's fall.
Even silent night proclaims my soul immortal: Even silent night proclaims eternal day!
For human weal Heaven husbands all events; Dull sleep instructs, nor sport vain dreams in vain.



* * * * *




[Illustration: Letter N.]


Nay, shrink not from that word "Farewell!" As if 'twere friendship's final knell--

Such fears may prove but vain:
So changeful is life's fleeting day,
Whene'er we sever, Hope may say, We part to meet again!

E'en the last parting earth can know, Brings not unutterable woe

To souls that heav'nward soar: For humble Faith, with steadfast eye, Points to a brighter world on high, Where hearts, that here at parting sigh, May meet--to part no more!





* * * * *

[We have considered that it would be useful to the young reader to have a ready means of reference, in the READING BOOK itself, to all unusual words of one syllable, and all the words of two syllables and above, that occur in the various lessons. In the following pages will be found, properly accentuated, all the more difficult polysyllables, with their meanings, derived from Johnson, Walker, and other competent authorities.]

* * * * *


ABA'NDON, _v.a._ give up; resign, or quit; forsake; leave


ABI'LITY, _s._ capacity; qualification; power


A'BJECT, _a._ mean; being of no hope or regard; destitute


ABLU'TION, _s._ the act of cleansing or washing clean; water used in washing


ABO'LISH, _v.a._ make void; put an end to; destroy


ABO'UND, _v.n._ have in great plenty; be in great plenty


ABRE'AST, _ad._ side by side


ABRU'PTLY, _ad._ hastily; suddenly; without the due forms of preparation


A'BSOLUTE, _a._ positive; certain; unlimited


A'BSTRACT, _s._ the smaller quantity containing the virtue or power of the greater


ABSTRU'SE, _a._ hidden; difficult


ABU'NDANT, _a._ plentiful

ABU'TMENT, _s._ that which borders upon another ACA'DEMY, _s._ (from _Academus_, an Athenian, who founded a public school at Athens, which after him was called Academia, _Latin_), place of education; an assembly or society of men, uniting for the promotion of some art

A'CCENT, _s._ the sound of a syllable; a modification of the voice expressive of the passions or sentiments; the marks made upon syllables to regulate their pronunciation

A'CCIDENT, _s._ that which happens unforeseen; chance


ACCO'MPANY, _v.n._ associate with; become a companion to


ACCO'MPLICE, _s._ an associate; partner


ACCO'MPLISHMENT, _s._ ornament of mind or body; acquirement


ACCO'ST, _v.a._ speak to; address; salute


ACCO'UNT, _s._ the state or result of a computation--as, the _account_ stands thus between us; narrative; value


ACCO'UTRE, _v.a._ dress; equip


A'CCURACY, _s._ exactness; nicety


ACCU'STOM, _v._ to habituate; to inure


ACQUI'RE, _v.a._ gain; obtain; attain


A'CRID, _a._ having a hot biting taste; bitter


A'CRIMONY, _s._ sharpness; severity; bitterness of thought or language


ACRO'POLIS, _s._ a citadel; the highest part of a city


ACTI'VITY, _s._ quickness; nimbleness


ACU'TE, _a._ sharp, not blunt; sharp, not dull; not stupid; vigorous; powerful in operation


ADAMA'NTINE, _a._ made of adamant; having the qualities of adamant, viz. hardness, indissolubility


ADA'PT, _v.a._ admit, justify; yield; permit


ADIEU', _ad._ used elliptically for _a Dieu je vous commende_, at the parting of friends; farewell


A'DMIRABLE, _a._ to be admired; of power to excite wonder ADMIRA'TION, _s._ wonder


ADMI'T, _v.a._ suffer to enter; allow

ADO'PT, _v.a._ take a son by choice; make him a son who is not so by birth; place any person or thing in a nearer relation than they have by nature or something else

ADRO'ITNESS, _s._ dexterity; readiness


ADU'LT, _s._ a person above the age of boyhood or girlhood


ADVA'NCE, _v.a._ improve; forward; propose


ADVA'NTAGE, _s._ superiority; opportunity


ADVE'NTURE, _s._ chance; hazard; an enterprise in which something must be left to hazard


ADVE'NTURER, _s._ he that puts himself into the hands of chance


ADVE'NTUROUS, _a._ bold; daring; courageous; inclined to adventures


ADVE'RSITY, _s._ affliction; calamity; misfortune; the public misery


ADVE'RTISEMENT, _s._ something advertised; the public notice of a thing


A'DVOCATE, _s._ he that pleads a cause

AE'OLIAN, _a._ an epithet applied to lyric poetry, because Sappho and Alcaeus were natives of Lesbos in Aeolia, and wrote in the Aeolic dialect

AE'RIAL, _a._ belonging to the air; lofty


AFFABI'LITY, _s._ civility; condescension; easiness of manners


AFFE'CT, _v.a._ act upon; produce effect in any other thing; move the passions; aim at; aspire to


AFFECTA'TION, _s._ an elaborate appearance; false pretence


AFFE'CTION, _s._ state of being affected by any cause or agent; love; kindness; good-will to some person; passionate regard


AFFE'CTIONATE, _a._ full of affection; fond; tender; warm; benevolent


AFFI'NITY, _s._ connection with AGGRE'SSION, _s._ first act of injury


A'GONY, _s._ the pangs of death; any violent pain in body or mind


AGRE'EABLE, _a._ suitable to; pleasing


A'GRICULTURE, _s._ the science of making land productive


A'LABASTER, _s._ a kind of soft marble, easier to cut and less durable than the other kinds


ALA'RUM, _s._ notice of any approaching danger; any tumult or disturbance


A'LIEN, _s._ foreigner; stranger


A'LKALI, _s._ any substance which, when mingled with acid, produces effervescence and fermentation


ALLEGO'RY, _s._ a figurative discourse, in which something is contained other than is literally understood


ALLE'VIATE, _v.a._ make light; ease; soften


ALLO'W, _v.a._ permit; give leave


A'LPHABET, _s._ the order of the letters, or elements of speech


ALTERA'TION, _s._ the act of changing; the change made


A'LTITUDE, _s._ height of place; space measured upward


AL'TOGETHER, _ad._ completely; without exception


AMA'LGAMATE, _v.a._ to unite metals with silver


AMA'ZEMENT, _s._ height of admiration; astonishment


AMBI'GUOUS, _a._ using doubtful expressions; doubtful; having two meanings


AMBI'TION, _s._ the desire of preferment or honour; the desire of anything great or excellent


AMBI'TIOUS, _a._ fond of power; desirous of power


AME'RICAN, _s._ native of America


A'METHYST, _s._ a precious stone of a violet colour A'MIABLE, _a._ kind; gentle; good natured; loving; not selfish


AMMUNI'TION, _s._ military stores, applied to artillery


AMPHITHE'ATRE, _s._ a building in a circular or oval form, having its area encompassed with rows of seats one above another


AMPU'LLA, _s._ (pronounced _am-poo-la_) a vessel of pure gold, used for containing the holy oil at coronations


AMU'SE, _v.a._ entertain with tranquillity; draw on from time to time


ANA'LOGY, _s._ resemblance between things with regard to some circumstances or effects


ANATO'MICAL, _a._ relating or belonging to anatomy


ANA'TOMY, _s._ the art of dissecting the body; the doctrine of the structure of the body


A'NCESTOR, _s._ one from whom a person descends


A'NCIENT, _a._ old; past; former


A'NECDOTE, _s._ something yet unpublished; biographical history; personal history


ANEMO'METER, _s._ an instrument to measure the force of the wind


ANGE'LIC, _a._ resembling angels; belonging to angels


A'NIMAL, _s._ a living creature


ANIMA'LCULE, _s._ a small animal, generally applied to those which cannot be seen without a microscope


ANIMO'SITY, _s._ vehemence of hatred; passionate malignity


ANNIHILATE, _v.a._ reduce to nothing; destroy


ANNO'Y, _v.a._ incommode; vex; tease; molest


A'NNUAL, _a._ that comes yearly


A'NTELOPE, _s._ a goat with curled or wreathed horns


ANTHROPO'PHAGI, _s._ man-eaters; cannibals


ANTI'CIPATE, _v.a._ take an impression of something which is not yet as if it really was


A'NTIQUARY, _s._ a man studious of antiquity


ANTI'QUE, _a._ ancient; old; odd; of old fashion


ANTI'QUITY, _s._ old times; remains of old times


A'NTRE, _s._ a cavern


ANXI'ETY, _s._ perplexity; lowness of spirits


ANXIOUS, _a._ disturbed about some uncertain event


A'PATHY, _s._ exemption from feeling or passion


APO'CALYPSE, _s._ the Book of Revelations


APO'LOGY, _s._ defence; excuse


APO'STLE, _s._ a person sent with commands, particularly applied to those whom our Saviour deputed to preach the Gospel


APOSTO'LIC, _a._ delivered or taught by the Apostles


APPARA'TUS, _s._ tools; furniture; show; instruments


APPE'AR, _v.n._ be visible; in sight


APPEARANCE, _s._ the act of coming into sight; phenomenon; apparition; presence


APPE'NDAGE, _s._ something added to another thing without being necessary to its essence


A'PPETITE _s._ hunger; violent longing


APPLA'USE _s._ approbation loudly expressed; praise


APPLICATION, _s._ close study; intenseness of thought; attention; the act of applying; the act of applying anything to another.


APPORTIONMENT, _s._ dividing into portions


APPRECIATE, _v.a._ set a price on anything; esteem


APPRO'ACH, _v n._ draw near; somewhat resemble


APPROBATION, _s._ the act of approving, or expressing himself pleased, or satisfied; support


APPRO'PRIATENESS, _s._ a fitness to be appropriated


APPROPRIATION, _s._ the application of something to a certain purpose


AQUA'TIC, _a._ that inhabits the water; that grows in the water


A'QUEDUCT, _s._ a conveyance, tunnel, or way made for carrying water


ARA'TOO, _s._ a bird of the parrot kind


AR'BALIST, _s._ a naturalist who make trees his study


A'RBITRABY, _o._ despotic; absolute; depending on no rule


ARBU'TUS, _s._ a strawberry tree


ARCA'DE, _s._ a continued arch; a walk arched over


ARCHBI'SHOP, _s._ a bishop of the first class, who superintends the conduct of other bishops


ARCHITE'CTURE, _s._ the art or science of building


A'RCTIC, _a._ northern; lying under the Arctos or Bear


A'RDUOUS, _a._ lofty; difficult


ARI'SE, _v.n._ mount upward; get up; proceed


ARMI'LLA, _s._ a bracelet, or jewel worn on the arm


A'RMY, _s._ collection of armed men; a great number


AROMA'TIC, _a._ spicy; fragrant; strong-scented


ARRI'VE, _v.n._ reach any place; happen


ARRA'NGE, _v.a._ put in the proper order for any purpose


ARRA'NGEMENT, _s._ the act of putting In proper order, the state of being put in order


ARRA'Y, _s._ order, chiefly of war; dress


A'RROGANCE, _s._ the act or quality of taking much upon one's self


A'RROW, _s._ the pointed weapon which is shot from a bow


A'RTICLE, _s._ a part of speech; a single clause of an account; term ARTI'CULATE, _v.a._ form words; speak as a man; draw up in articles; make terms


A'RTIFICE, _s._ trick; fraud; stratagem; art; trade


ARTIFI'CIAL, _a._ made by art; not natural


ARTI'LLERY, _s._ weapons of war; cannon; great ordinance


A'RTISAN, _s._ professor of any art


ASCE'NDANCY, _s._ influence; power


ASPE'RSE, _v.a._ bespatter with censure or calumny


A'SPIC, _s._ the name of a small serpent


ASSA'ILANT, _s._ one that assails


ASSE'MBLY, _s._ a company met together


ASSE'RT, _v.a._ to declare positively; maintain; to defend either by words or actions; claim


ASSIDU'ITY, _s._ diligence


ASSI'MILATE, _v.a._ bring to a likeness; turn to its own nature by digestion


ASSISTANCE, _s._ help


ASSISTANT, _s._ a helper


ASSI'ZE, _s._ a jury; any court of justice; the ordinance or statute


ASSO'CIATE, _s._ a partner; a confederate; a companion


ASSU'RE, _v.a._ give confidence by a firm promise


ASTO'NISHMENT, _s._ amazement


ASTRO'NOMY, _s._ the science of the motions, distances, &c. of the stars


A'THEISM, _s._ the disbelief of a god


ATHE'NIAN, _s._ a native of Athens


A'TMOSPHERE, _s._ the air that encompasses the solid earth on all sides


ATRO'CIOUS, _a._ wicked in a high degree; enormous ATTA'CH, _v.a._ arrest; fix one's interest; win; lay hold on


ATTA'CK, _v.a._ to make an assault


ATTA'IN, _v.a._ gain; procure; reach


ATTAINMENT, _s._ an acquisition; an accomplishment


ATTE'MPT, _v.a._ venture upon; try; endeavour


ATTE'NDANT, _s._ one that attends; one that is present at anything


ATTENTION, _s._ the act of attending; the act of bending the mind upon it


ATTE'NTIVE, _a._ regardful; full of attention


ATTI'RE, _s._ clothing; dress; equipment


A'TTITUDE, _s._ position; expression


ATTRA'CT, _v.a._ draw to something; allure; invite


ATTRA'CTIVE, _a._ having the power to draw anything; inviting


ATTRIBUTE, _v.a._ to ascribe; to yield as due; to impute as a cause


AU'DITOR, _s._ a hearer


AURO'RA-BOREA'LIS, _a._ electrical light streaming in the night from the north; the northern lights or streamers


AUSTE'RITY, _s._ severity; cruelty


AUTHENTIC, _a._ genuine


AU'THOR, _s._ the first beginner or mover of anything; a writer in general


AUTHO'RITY, _s._ power; rule; influence; support; legal power


AU'TUMN, _s._ the season of the year between summer and winter


AVAILABLE, _a._ profitable; powerful; advantageous


AVALA'NCHE, _s._ immense mass of snow or ice


A'VERAGE, _s._ a middle proportion AVI'DITY, _s._ eagerness; voracity; greediness


AVO'ID, _v.a._ shun; shift off; quit


AWA'KE, _v.a._ rouse out of sleep; put into new action


AW'KWARD, _a._ clumsy; inelegant; unready


A'ZURE, _s._ blue; faint blue




BA'CCHANALS, _s._ the drunken feasts of Bacchus; fabulous personages who assisted at the festivals of Bacchus


BALCO'NY, _s._ a frame before the window of a room


BALLO'ON, _s._ a large hollow ball of silk, filled with gas, which makes it rise in the air


BA'NDIT, _s._ a man outlawed


BA'NISH, _v.a._ condemn to leave one's country; drive away


BA'NISHMENT, _s._ the act of banishing another; the state of being banished


BARBA'RIAN, _s._ a savage; a man uncivilized


BA'RBAROUS, _a._ savage; ignorant; cruel


BA'RREN, _a._ unfruitful; sterile; scanty


BARRIC'ADE, _v.a._ stop up a passage; hinder by stoppage


BASA'LT, _s._ a variety of trap rock


BASA'LTIC, _a._ relating to basalt


BASTI'LE, _s._ (pronounced _basteel_) a jail; formerly the state prison of France


BA'TTER, _v.a._ beat; shatter; beat down


BA'TTLE, _s._ a fight; an encounter between opposite enemies


BEA'CON, _s._ something raised on an eminence to direct BEA'RABLE, _a._ that which is capable of being borne


BEAU'TY, _s._ a particular grace or feature; a beautiful person


BECO'ME, _v.a._ befit; be suitable to the person


BEDE'CK, _v.a._ to deck; to adorn; to grace


BE'DSTEAD, _s._ the frame on which the bed is placed


BEHI'ND, _ad._ out of sight; not yet in view; remaining


BEHO'VE, _v.n._ to be fit


BELI'EVE, _v.n._ to have a firm persuasion of anything


BENEFA'CTOR, _s._ one that does good


BE'NEFIT, _s._ a kindness; a favour conferred; an advantage


BENE'VOLENT, _a._ kind; having good-will


BENI'GHT, _v.a._ involve in darkness; surprise with the coming on of night


BENI'GNANT, _a._ kind; generous; liberal


BE'NISON, _s._ a blessing


BENU'MB, _v.a._ make torpid; stupify


BESIE'GE, _v.a._ to beleaguer; to lay siege to


BESPRE'NT, _v. def._ besprinkled


BESTO'W, _v.a._ give; confer upon; lay up


BETWE'EN, _prep._ in the middle space; from one to another; noting difference of one from another


BI'LBERRY, _s._ the fruit of a plant so called


BO'ATMAN, _s._ he that manages a boat


BO'DY, _s._ material substance of an animal; matter; person; collective mass; main part; main army


BO'RDER, _s._ edge; edge of a country; a bank raised round a garden and set with flowers


BO'UNTEOUS, _a._ liberal; kind; generous


BOUQUE'T, _s._ (pronounced _boo-kay_) a nosegay


BOWSPRI'T, _s._ (a sea term) the mast that runs out at the bow of a ship


BRA'CELET, _s._ an ornament for the arms


BRA'CH, _s._ a she hound


BRA'CKISH, _a._ salt; somewhat salt


BRI'LLIANCY, _s._ brightness; lustre


BRI'LLIANT, _s._ a diamond of the finest cut


BRI'LLIANT, _a._ shining; sparkling; full of lustre


BU'BBLE, _s._ a small bladder of water; anything which wants solidity and firmness


BU'LKY, _a._ of great size or stature


BU'LWARK, _s._ a fortification; a security


BUO'YANCY, _s._ the quality of floating


BU'RDENSOME, _a._ grievous


BU'RIAL, _s._ interment; the act of putting anything under earth or water


BU'RY, _v.a._ inter; put in the grave; conceal


BU'TTRESS, _s._ a prop; a wall built to support another


CA'DENCE, _s._ the fall of the voice; state of sinking, decline


CALA'MITY, _s._ misfortune; cause of misery; distress


CA'LCULATE, _v.a._ reckon; adjust


CAL'CULA'TION, _s._ a practice or manner of reckoning; a reckoning


CA'LEDO'NIANS, _s._ the ancient inhabitants of Scotland


CAMPA'IGN, _s._ a large, open, level tract of land; the time for which any army keeps the field


CA'NADA, _s._ a province of the British possessions in America


CANA'L, _s._ any course of water made by art; a passage through which any of the juices of the body flow


CANA'RY, _s._ an excellent singing-bird--so called from its native place, the Canary Islands


CA'NNIBAL, _s._ a savage that eats his fellow-men taken in war


CA'PABLE, _a._ susceptible; intelligent; qualified for; able to receive; capacious; able to understand


CAPA'CIOUS, _a._ wide; large


CAPA'CITY, _s._ power; ability; state; condition; character


CAPERCA'ILZIE, _s._ (pronounced _cap-per-kail-zeh_) cock of the wood


CA'PITAL, _s._ the upper part of a pillar; the chief city of a nation or kingdom


CA'PITAL, _a._ applied to letters--large, such as are written at the beginning or heads of books


CA'PTAIN, _s._ a chief commander


CA'PTIVE, _s._ a prisoner


CAPTI'VITY, _s._ imprisonment; subjection by the fate of war; bondage; slavery; servitude


CA'PTURE, _v.a._ take prisoner; bring into a condition of servitude


CA'RAVAN, _s._ a conveyance; a troop or body of merchants or pilgrims, as they travel in the East


CARE'ER, _s._ a course; full speed; course of action


CA'RGO, _s._ the lading of a ship


CARNI'VOROUS, _a._ flesh-eating


CA'ROB, _s._ a plant bearing a nutritious fruit so called


CA'RRIAGE, _s._ the act of carrying or transporting; vehicle; conduct


CA'RRION, _s._ the carcase of something not proper for food CA'RRONA'DE, _s._ a short iron cannon


CA'RRY, _v.a._ convey from a place; transport; bring forward; bear


CAR'TILAGE, _s._ a smooth and solid body, softer than a bone, but harder than a ligament


CARTILA'GINOUS, _a._ consisting of cartilages


CA'RTRIDGE, _s._ a case of paper or parchment filled with gunpowder, used for greater expedition in loading


CASCA'DE, _s._ a cataract; a waterfall


CA'STELLATED, _a._ that which is turretted or built in the form of a castle


CATAMARA'N, _s._ a rude species of boat


CA'TARACT, _s._ a waterfall


CATA'STROPHE, _s._ a final event


CATHE'DRAL, _s._ the head church of a diocese


CA'VALRY, _s._ horse soldiery


CA'VERN, _s._ a hollow place in the ground


CA'VIL, _s._ a false or frivolous objection


CA'VITY, _s._ a hole; a hollow place


CE'DAR, _s._ a kind of tree; it is evergreen, and produces flowers


CE'LEBRATE, _v.a._ praise; commend; mention in a set or solemn manner


CELE'BRITY, _s._ transaction publicly splendid


CELE'RITY, _s._ quickness


CELE'STIAL, _a._ heavenly


CE'METERY, _s._ a place where the dead are deposited


CE'NTRE, _s._ the middle


CE'NTURY, _s._ a hundred years


CEREMO'NIOUS, _a._ full of ceremony CE'REMONY, _s._ form in religion; form of civility


CE'RTAIN, _a._ sure; unquestionable; regular; particular kind


CHAO'TIC, _a._ confused


CHA'PTER, _s._ a division of a book; the place in which assemblies of the clergy are held


CHARACTERI'SE, _v.a._ to give a character of the particular quality of any man


CHARACTERI'STIC, _s._ that which constitutes the character


CHARACTERI'STICALLY, _ad._ constituting the character


CHA'RITY, _s._ kindness; love; good-will; relief given to the poor


CHA'TEAU, _s._ (pronounced _shat-oh_) a castle


CHA'TTER, _v.a._ make a noise by collision of the teeth; talk idly or carelessly


CHE'RUB, _s._ a celestial spirit, next in order to the seraphim


CHRI'STENDOM, _s._ the collective body of Christianity


CHRI'STIAN, _s._ a professor of the religion of Christ


CHRO'NICLE, _s._ a register of events in order of time; a history


CHRO'NICLER, _s._ a writer of chronicles; a historian


CHRONO'METER, _s._ an instrument for the exact measuring of time


CI'PHER, _s._ a figure, as 1, 2


CI'RCUIT, _s._ a circular band


CI'RCUIT, _s._ ring; round; stated journey repeated at intervals


CIRCU'MFERENCE, _s._ the space enclosed in a circle


CIRCUMSCRI'BE, _v.a._ enclose in certain lines or boundaries; bound; Limit


CI'RCUMSTANCE, _s._ something relative to a fact; incident; event


CI'STERN, _s._ a receptacle of water for domestic uses; reservoir CI'STUS, _s._ rock-rose


CI'TADEL, _s._ a fortress; a place of defence


CI'TIZEN, _s._ a freeman of a city; townsman


CI'TY, _s._ a corporate town that hath a bishop


CI'VIL, _a._ political; not foreign; gentle; well bred; polite


CIVI'LITY, _s._ politeness; complaisance


CI'VILIZA'TION, _s._ civilising manners


CI'VILIZE, _v.a._ reclaim from savageness and brutality


CLA'MOUR, _s._ noise; tumult; disturbance


CLA'RION, _s._ a trumpet


CLI'MATE, _s._ a region, or tract of land, differing from another by the temperature of the air


CLU'STER, _s._ a bunch


CO'GNIZANCE, _s._ trial; a badge by which one is known


COLLE'CT, _v.a._ gather together; bring into one place; gain from observation


COLLO'QUIAL, _a._ that relates to common conversation


COLO'NIAL, _a._ that which relates to a colony


CO'LONIST, _s._ one that colonises; one that dwells in a colony


COLO'SSAL, _a._ of enormous magnitude; large


CO'LOUR, _s._ the appearance of bodies to the eye only; hue; appearance


CO'LUMN, _s._ a round pillar; a long file or row of troops; half a page, when divided into two equal parts by a line passing down the middle


COLU'MNAR, _a._ formed in columns


COMBINA'TION, _s._ a union; a joining together


CO'MFORTABLE, _a._ admitting comfort; dispensing comfort COMMA'NDER, _s._ a general; chief; leader


COMMEMORA'TION, _s._ an act of public celebration


COMME'NCE, _v.a._ to begin


CO'MMERCE, _s._ intercourse; exchange of one thing for another; trade


COMME'RCIAL, _a._ that which relates to commerce


CO'MMINUTE, _v.a._ to grind; to pulverise


COMMO'DITY, _s._ wares; merchandise


COMMONWE'ALTH, _s._ a polity; an established form of civilized life; public; republic


COMMU'NICATE, _v.a._ impart knowledge; reveal


COMMU'NITY, _s._ the commonwealth; the body politic; common possession


COMPA'NION, _s._ a partner; an associate


CO'MPANY, _s._ persons assembled together; a band; a subdivision of a regiment of foot


CO'MPARABLE, _a._ capable of being compared; of equal regard


COMPA'RE, _v.n._ make one thing the measure of another; find a likeness of one thing with another


COMPA'RISON, _s._ the act of comparing; state of being compared; comparative estimate


COMPE'TE, _v.a._ to vie; to contend; to strive; to endeavour to outstrip


COMPLA'INT, _s._ representation of pains or injuries; malady; remonstrance against


COMPLAI'SANCE, _s._ civility; desire of pleasing


COMPLE'TION, _s._ accomplishment; act of fulfilling


COMPLI'ANCE, _s._ the act of yielding to any design or demand


CO'MPLICATE, _v.a._ to render difficult and incomprehendable; to join one with another


COMPOSI'TION, _s._ a mass formed by mingling different ingredients; written work


COMPREHE'ND, _v.a._ comprise; include; conceive; understand


CONCE'AL, _v.a._ hide; keep secret; cover


CONCE'IT, _s._ vain pride


CONCE'NTRIC, _a._ having one common centre


CONCE'PTION, _s._ the act of conceiving; state of being conceived; notion; sentiment


CONCE'SSION, _s._ the act of granting or yielding


CONCI'LIATE, _v.a._ to gain; to win; to reconcile


CONCI'SE, _a._ short; brief; not longer than is really needful


CONCO'CT, _v.a._ to devise


CO'NCORD, _s._ agreement between persons or things; peace; union; a compact


CONCU'SSION, _s._ the state of being shaken


CONDE'NSE, _v.n._ to grow close and weighty


CONDI'TION, _s._ rank; property; state


CO'NDOR, _s._ a monstrous bird in America


CONDU'CT, _v.a._ lend; accompany; manage


CONE, _s._ a solid body, of which the base is circular, but which ends in a point


CONFE'R, _v.a._ compare; give; bestow; contribute; conduce


CO'NFERENCE, _s._ formal discourse; an appointed meeting for discussing some point by personal debate


CONFE'SS, _v.a._ acknowledge a crime; own; avow; grant


CONFI'NEMENT, _s._ imprisonment; restraint of liberty


CO'NFLUENCE, _s._ the joining together of rivers; a concourse; the act of joining together


CONFORMA'TION, _s._ the form of things as relating to each other; the act of producing suitableness or conformity to anything CONFO'RMITY, _s._ similitude; consistency


CONGE'NER, _s._ a thing of the same kind or nature


CONGE'NIAL, _a._ partaking of the same genius


CONGLO'MERATE, _v.a._ to gather into a ball, like a ball of thread


CO'NICAL, _a._ in the shape of a cone


CONJE'CTURE, _s._ guess; imperfect knowledge; idea


CONNEC'TION, _s._ union


CO'NQUER, _v.a._ gain by conquest; win; subdue


CO'NQUEROR, _s._ a victor; one that conquers


CO'NQUEST, _s._ a victory


CO'NSCIENCE, _s._ the faculty by which we judge of the goodness or wickedness of ourselves

CO'NSCIOUS, _a._ endowed with the power of knowing one's own thoughts and actions; bearing witness by the dictates of conscience to anything

CONSCRI'PTION, _s._ an enrolling or registering


CO'NSECRATE, _v.a._ to make sacred; to canonize


CO'NSEQUENCE, _s._ that which follows from any cause or principle; effect of a cause


CO'NSEQUENT, _a._ following by rational deduction; following as the effect of a cause


CONSI'DERABLE, _a._ worthy of consideration; important; valuable


CONSI'ST, _v.n._ subsist; be composed; be comprised


CONSI'STENCE, _s._ state with respect to material existence; degree of denseness or rarity


CONSI'STENCY, _s._ adhesion; agreement with itself or with any other thing


CONSPI'CUOUS, _a._ obvious to the sight CO'NSTANT, _a._ firm; fixed; certain; unvaried


CONSTELLA'TION, _s._ a cluster of fixed stars; an assemblage of splendours


CONSTERNA'TION, _s._ astonishment; amazement; wonder


CO'NSTITUTE, _v.a._ give formal existence; produce; erect; appoint another in an office


CONSTRU'CT, _v.a._ build; form; compile


CONSTRU'CTION, _s._ the act of building; structure; form of building


CONSTR'UCTIVE, _a._ by construction


CONSU'MPTION, _s._ the act of consuming; waste; a disease; a waste of muscular flesh


CO'NTACT, _s._ touch; close union


CONTA'GIOUS, _a._ infectious; caught by approach


CONTA'IN, _v.a._ hold; comprehend; restrain


CONTE'MPLATE, _v.a._ study; meditate; muse; think studiously with long attention


CONTEMPLA'TION, _s._ meditation; studious thought


CONTE'MPLATIVE, _a._ given to thought or study


CONTE'MPORARY, _s._ one who lives at the same time with another


CONTE'MPTIBLE, _a._ worthy of contempt, of scorn; neglected; despicable


CO'NTEST, _s._ dispute; difference; debate


CONTE'ST, _v.a._ to strive; to vie; to contend


CONTI'GUOUS, _a._ meeting so as to touch


CO'NTINENT, _s._ land not disjoined by the sea from other lands; that which contains anything; one of the quarters of the globe


CONTI'NGENCY, _s._ accidental possibility


CONTI'NUE, _v.n._ remain in the same state; last; persevere


CONTRA'CT, _v.a._ to shrink up; to grow short; to bargain CO'NTRARY, _a._ opposite; contradictory; adverse


CONTRI'VANCE, _s._ the act of contriving; scheme; plan; plot


CONVE'NIENCE, _s._ fitness; ease; cause of ease


CONVE'NIENT, _a._ fit; suitable; proper; well adapted


CO'NVENT, _s._ an assembly of religious persons; a monastery; a nunnery


CO'NVERSE, _s._ conversation; acquaintance; familiarity


CONVE'RSION, _s._ change from one state to another


CONVE'RT, _v.a._ change into another substance; change from one religion to another; turn from a bad to a good life; apply to any use


CONVE'Y, _v.a._ carry; transport from one place to another; bring; transfer


CONVU'LSIVE, _a._ that gives twitches or spasms


CO'PIOUS, _a._ plentiful; abundant


CO'PPICE, _s._ a low wood; a place overrun with brushwood


CO'RDIAL, _a._ reviving; hearty; sincere


CORONA'TION, _s._ the act of crowning a King


CORPORA'TION, _s._ a body politic, constituted by Royal charter


CORPO'REAL, _a._ having a body; material; not spiritual


CORRE'CT, _v.a._ punish; discipline; remark faults; take away fault


CORRESPONDENCE, _s._ intercourse; relation; friendship


CO'UNCILLOR, _s._ one that gives counsel


COU'NTENANCE, _s._ the form of the face; air; look; calmness of look; patronage


CO'UNTRY, _s._ a tract of land; a region; rural parts


CO'URAGE, _s._ bravery; boldness


CO'VERING, _s._ dress; anything spread over another CRA'FTY, _a._ cunning; knowing; scheming; politic


CRA'TER, _s._ the bowl, opening, or funnel of a volcano


CREA'TION, _s._ the act of creating; universe


CREA'TOR, _s._ the Divine Being that created all things


CRE'ATURE, _s._ a being created; a general term for man


CRE'VICE, _s._ a crack; a cleft; a narrow opening


CRI'MINAL, _s._ a man accused; a man guilty of a crime


CRI'MINA'LITY, _s._ the act of being guilty of a crime


CRI'TIC, _s._ a judge; otherwise a censurer


CRI'TICAL, _a._ relating to criticism


CRO'CODILE, _s._ an amphibious voracious animal, in shape like a lizard


CROO'KED, _a._ bent; winding; perverse


CRU'ELTY, _s._ inhumanity; savageness; act of intentional affliction


CRU'SADE, _s._ an expedition against the infidels; a holy war


CRY'STAL, _s._ crystals are hard, pellucid, and naturally colourless bodies, of regular angular figures


CU'LPABLE, _a._ criminal; guilty; blamable


CU'LTIVATE, _v.a._ forward or improve the product of the earth by manual industry; improve


CULTIVA'TION, _s._ improvement in general


CU'POLA, _s._ a dome


CU'RFEW, _s._ an evening peal, by which the Conqueror willed that every man should rake up his fire and put out his light


CURIO'SITY, _s._ inquisitiveness; nice experiment; an object of curiosity; rarity


CU'RIOUS, _a._ inquisitive; desirous of information; difficult to please; diligent about; elegant; neat; artful


CU'RRENT, _a._ passing from hand to hand; authoritative; common; what is now passing


CU'STOM, _s._ habit; fashion; practice of buying of certain persons


CY'MBAL, _s._ a kind of musical instrument


CY'PRESS, _s._ a tall straight tree. It is the emblem of mourning


DALMA'TIA, _s._ a province of Austria


DALMA'TIAN, _a._ belonging to Dalmatia


DA'MAGE, _s._ mischief; hurt; loss


DA'NGER, _s._ risk; hazard; peril


DA'NGEROUS, _a._ hazardous; perilous


DA'STARDLY, _ad._ cowardly; mean; timorous


DA'UNTED, _a._ discouraged


DECE'PTION, _s._ the act or means of deceiving; cheat; fraud; the state of being deceived


DECLI'NE, _v.a._ shun; avoid; refuse; bring down


DE'CORATE, _v.a._ adorn; embellish; beautify


DECORA'TION, _s._ ornament; added beauty


DE'DICATE, _v.a._ to inscribe


DEFA'CE, _v.a._ destroy; raze; ruin; disfigure


DEFE'CTIVE, _a._ wanting the just quantity; full of defects; imperfect; faulty


DEFE'NCE, _s._ guard; protection; resistance


DEFI'CIENCY, _s._ want; something less than is necessary; imperfection


DEGE'NERACY, _s._ departure from the virtue of our ancestors


DEGE'NERATE, _a._ unworthy; base


DE'ITY, _s._ divinity; the nature and essence of God; fabulous Rod; the supposed divinity of a heathen god


DE'LICACY, _s._ daintiness; softness; feminine beauty; nicety; gentle treatment; smallness


DE'LICATE, _s._ fine; soft; pure; clear; unable to bear hardships; effeminate


DELI'CIOUS, _a._ sweet; delicate; agreeable


DELI'GHT, _v.a._ please; content; satisfy


DELI'NEATE, _v.a._ to paint; to represent; to describe


DELI'VER, _v.a._ set free; release; give; save; surrender


DE'LUGE, _v.a._ flood


DE'LUGE, _v.a._ drown; lay totally under water; overwhelm; cause to sink


DEME'ANOUR, _s._ carriage; behaviour


DEMO'LISH, _v.a._ raze; destroy; swallow up


DEMONSTRA'TION, _s._ the highest degree of argumental evidence


DENO'MINATE, _v.a._ to name anything


DEPA'RTMENT, _s._ separate allotment; province or business assigned to a particular person


DEPO'RTMENT, _s._ carriage; bearing


DEPO'SIT, _s._ a pledge; anything given as a security


DEPO'SIT, _v.a._ lay up; lay aside


DEPRA'VITY, _s._ corruption


DE'PREDA'TION, _s._ a robbing; a spoiling; waste


DEPRI'VE, _v.a._ bereave one of a thing; hinder; debar from


DE'RVISE, _s._ a Turkish priest


DESCE'NDANT, _s._ the offspring of an ancestor


DESCRI'BE, _v.a._ mark out; define


DESCRI'PTION, _s._ the sentence or passage in which anything is described


DESCRY', _v.a._ give notice of anything suddenly discovered; detect; discover


DE'SERT, _s._ a wilderness; solitude; waste country


DESE'RVE, _v.a._ be entitled to reward or punishment


DESI'GN, _s._ an intention; a purpose; a scheme


DESIGNA'TION, _s._ appointment; direction; intention to design


DESI'RE, _v.a._ wish; long for; intreat


DE'SOLATE, _a._ without inhabitants; solitary; laid waste


DESPA'TCH, _s._ to send away hastily; to do business quickly; to put to death


DE'SPERATE, _a._ without hope; rash; mad; furious


DE'SPICABLE, _a._ worthy of scorn; contemptible


DESPI'SE, _v.a._ scorn; condemn; slight; abhor


DE'SPOTISM, _s._ absolute power


DESTINA'TION, _s._ the place where it was our destiny to go; fate; doom


DE'STINE, _v.a._ doom; devote


DE'STINY, _s._ doom; fate


DE'STITUTE, _a._ forsaken; abject; in want of


DESTRO'Y, _v.a._ lay waste; make desolate; put an end to


DESTRU'CTION, _s._ the act of destroying; the state of being destroyed; ruin


DETA'CH, _v.a._ separate; disengage


DETA'CHMENT, _s._ a body of troops sent out from the main army


DETE'R, _v.a._ fright from anything


DETERMINA'TION, _s._ absolute direction to a certain end; the result of deliberation; judicial decision


DETE'RMINE, _v.a._ fix; settle; resolve; decide DETE'STABLE, _a._ hateful; abominable; odious


DETRA'CTION, _s._ the withdrawing or taking off from a thing


DETRU'DE, _v.a._ thrust down; force into a lower place


DEVASTA'TION, _s._ waste; havoc; desolation; destruction


DEVE'LOP, _v.a._ to disentangle; to disengage from something that enfolds and conceals


DEVIA'TION, _s._ the act of quitting the right way; wandering


DEVO'TE, _v.a._ dedicate; consecrate


DE'VOTEE, _s._ one erroneously or superstitiously religious; a bigot


DEVO'TION, _s._ piety; prayer; strong affection; power


DE'XTEROUS, _a._ subtle; full of expedients; expert; active; ready


DIABO'LICAL, _a._ devilish


DI'ADEM, _s._ the mark of Royalty worn on the head


DI'AL, _s._ a plate marked with lines, where a hand or shadow shows the hour


DI'ALECT, _s._ subdivision of a language; style; manner of expression


DI'ALOGUE, _s._ a discussion between two persons


DIA'METER, _s._ the straight line which, passing through the centre of a circle, divides it into two equal parts


DI'AMOND, _s._ the most valuable and hardest of all the gems; a brilliant


DI'FFER, _v.n._ be distinguished from; contend; be of a contrary opinion


DI'FFERENT, _a._ distinct; unlike; dissimilar


DIFFICULTY, _s._ hardness; something hard to accomplish; distress; perplexity in affairs


DI'GNITY, _s._ rank of elevation; grandeur of mien; high place


DILA'TE, _v n._ widen; grow wide; speak largely DI'LIGENCE, _s._ industry; assiduity


DIMI'NISH, _v.a._ to make less


DIMI'NUTIVE, _a._ small; narrow; contracted


DIRE'CT, _v.a._ aim at a straight line; regulate; order; command; adjust; mark out a certain course


DIRE'CTION, _s._ tendency of motion impressed by a certain impulse; order; command; prescription


DIRE'CTLY, _ad._ immediately; apparently; in a straight line


DISAGRE'EABLE, _a._ unpleasing; offensive


DISA'STROUS, _a._ calamitous


DISCI'PLE, _s._ a scholar; one that professes to receive instruction from another


DISCIPLINE, _s._ education; the art of cultivating the mind; a state of subjection


DISCONCE'RT, _v.a._ unsettle the mind; discompose


DISCOU'RAGE, _v.a._ depress; deprive of confidence


DISCO'VER, _v.a._ disclose; bring to light; find out


DISCO'VERY, _s._ the act of finding anything hidden


DISCRI'MINATION, _s._ the state of being distinguished from other persons or things; the mark of distinction


DISHO'NOUR, _s._ reproach; disgrace; ignominy


DISLO'DGE, _v.a._ to go to another place; to drive or remove from a place


DISMA'NTLE, _v.a._ strip; deprive of a dress; strip a town of its outworks; loose


DISMA'Y, _s._ fall of courage; desertion of mind


DISOBE'DIENCE, _s._ the act of disobeying; inattention to the words of those who have right to command


DISO'RDER, _s._ irregularity; tumult; sickness DISPA'RAGEMENT, _s._ reproach; disgrace; indignity


DISPLA'Y, _v.a._ exhibit; talk without restraint


DISPOSI'TION, _s._ order; method; temper of mind


DISQUI'ETUDE, _s._ uneasiness


DI'SREGARD, _v.a._ to slight; to neglect


DI'SSIPATE, _v.a._ scatter every way; disperse; scatter the attention


DISSO'LVE, _v.n._ be melted; fall to nothing


DISTANCE, _s._ remoteness in place; retraction of kindness; reserve


DISTE'MPER, _s._ disease; malady; bad constitution of the mind


DISTI'NCTION, _s._ the act of discerning one as preferable to the other; note of difference; honourable note of superiority; discernment


DISTINCTLY, _ad._ not confusedly; plainly; clearly


DISTRE'SS, _s._ calamity; misery; misfortune


DISTRI'BUTE, _v.a._ to deal out; to dispensate


DI'STRICT, _s._ region; country; territory


DIVE'RGE, _v.n._ send various ways from one point


DIVE'RSIFY, _v.a._ make different from another


DIVE'RSION, _s._ the act of turning anything off from its course


DIVE'RSITY, _s._ difference; dissimilitude; unlikeness; variety


DIVI'DE, _v.a._ part one whole in different pieces; separate; deal out


DI'VIDEND, _s._ a share


DO'CILE, _a._ teachable; easily instructed; tractable


DOMA'IN, _s._ dominion; possession; estate; empire


DOME'STIC, _a._ belonging to the house; private


DOME'STICATE, _v.a._ make domestic; withdraw from the public


DOMI'NION, _s._ sovereign authority; power; territory DO'RSAL, _a._ pertaining to the back


DO'UBLE, _a._ two of a sort; in pairs; twice as much


DRAMA'TIC, _a._ representable by action


DRA'MATIST, _s._ author of dramatic compositions


DRAW'INGROOM, _s._ a room to which company withdraw--originally withdrawing-room


DRE'ADFUL, _a._ terrible; frightful


DRE'ARINESS, _s._ gloominess; sorrowfulness


DRE'ARY, _a._ sorrowful; gloomy; dismal; horrid


DU'CAT, _s._ a coin struck by Dukes; in silver valued at about four shillings and sixpence, in gold at nine shillings and sixpence


DURA'TION, _s._ power of continuance; length of continuance


DU'RING, _prep._ for the time of the continuance


EA'RLY, _ad._ soon; betimes


EA'RTHQUAKE, _s._ tremour or convulsion of the earth


EA'STERN, _a._ belonging to the east; lying to the east; oriental


EA'SY, _a._ not difficult; ready; contented; at rest


ECLI'PSE, _s._ an obscuration of the heavenly luminaries; darkness; obscuration


ECO'NOMY, _s._ frugality; discretion of expense; system of matter


E'DIFICE, _s._ a fabric; a building


EDI'TION, _s._ publication of anything, particularly of a book


EDUCA'TION, _s._ formation of manners in youth


EFFE'CT, _s._ that which is produced by an operating cause; success; purpose; meaning; consequence


EFFE'CTUAL, _a._ productive of effects; expressive of facts EFFE'MINACY, _s._ softness; unmanly delicacy


E'FFLUENCE, _s._ what issues from some other principle


E'FFULGENCE, _s._ lustre; brightness; splendour


EFFU'SE, _v.a._ to pour out; to spill, to shed


EJA'CULATION, _s._ an exclamation


ELA'BORATE, _a._ finished with care


ELE'CTRIC, _a._ relating to electricity


ELE'CTRO-MA'GNETISM, _s._ a branch of electrical science


E'LEGANCE, _s._ beauty, rather soothing than striking; beauty without grandeur


E'LEGY, _s._ a mournful song; short poem without points or turns


E'LEPHANT, _s._ a large quadruped


E'LEVA'TED, _a._ exalted; raised up; progressed in rank


ELEVA'TION, _s._ the act of raising up aloft; exaltation


ELOCU'TION, _s._ the power of fluent speech; the power of expression; eloquence; flow of language


E'LOQUENCE, _s._ the power or speaking with fluency and elegance


ELU'DE, _v.a._ to mock by unexpected escape


E'MANATE, _v.a._ to issue; to flow from something else


EMBA'LM, _v.a._ impregnate a body with aromatics, that it may resist putrefaction


EMBA'RK, _v.n._ to go on board a ship; to engage in any affair


EMBROI'DERY, _s._ variegated work; figures raised upon a ground


E'MERALD, _s._ a precious stone of a green colour


EME'RGE, _v.n._ to issue; to proceed; to rise


EME'RGENCY, _s._ the act of rising into view; any sudden occasion; pressing necessity


E'MINENCE, _s._ loftiness; height; summit; distinction


E'MINENT, _a._ celebrated; renowned


EMI'T, _v.a._ to send forth; to let fly; to dart


EMO'LUMENT, _s._ profit; advantage


E'MPEROR, _s._ a monarch of title and dignity superior to a king


EMPLO'Y, _v.a._ busy; keep at work; use as materials; trust with the management of any affairs; use as means


E'MULATE, _v.a._ to vie


EMULA'TION, _s._ rivalry; desire of superiority


ENA'BLE, _v.a._ make able; confer power


ENCA'MPMENT, _s._ the act of encamping or pitching tents; a camp


ENCHA'NTMENT, _s._ magical charms; spells; irresistible influence


ENCI'RCLING, _a._ environing; surrounding


ENCLO'SE, _v.a._ part from things or grounds common by a fence; surround; encompass


ENCOU'NTER, _v.a._ meet face to face; attack


ENCRO'ACHMENT, _s._ an unlawful gathering in upon another man; advance into the territories or rights of another


ENDA'NGER, _v.a._ put in hazard; incur the danger of


ENDU'RANCE, _s._ continuance; lastingness; delay


E'NEMY, _s._ foe; antagonist; any one who regards another with malevolence


ENERGE'TIC, _a._ operative; active; vigorous


E'NERGY, _s._ activity; quickness; vigour


ENGA'GE, _v.a._ employ; stake; unite; enlist; induce; fight


ENGINE'ER, _s._ one who manages engines; one who directs the artillery of an army


ENGRA'VER, _s._ a cutter in wood or other matter ENGRA'VING, _s._ the work of an engraver


ENGRO'SS, _v.a._ thicken; increase in bulk; fatten; to copy in a large hand


ENJO'Y, _v.a._ feel or perceive with pleasure; please; delight


ENLA'RGEMENT, _s._ increase; copious discourse


ENNO'BLE, _v.a._ to dignify; to exalt; to make famous


ENO'RMOUS, _a._ wicked beyond the common measure; exceeding in bulk the common measure


ENQUI'RY, _s._ interrogation; examination; search


ENRA'GE, _v.a._ irritate; make furious


ENSNA'RE, _v.a._ entrap; entangle in difficulties or perplexities


E'NTERPRISE, _s._ an undertaking of hazard; an arduous attempt


E'NTERPRISING, _a._ fond of enterprise


ENTHU'SIASM, _s._ a vain belief of private revelation; beat of imagination; elevation of fancy


E'NTRAILS, _s._ the intestines; internal parts


ENU'MERATE, _v.a._ reckon up singly; number


ENVE'LOPEMENT, _s._ covering; inwrapment


E'PIC, _a._ narrative


EPI'STLE, _s._ a letter


EPI'STOLARY, _a._ transacted by letters; relating to letters


E'QUAL, _a._ even; uniform; in just proportion


EQUITY, _s._ justice; impartiality


ERE'CT, _a._ upright; bold; confident


ERE'CT, _v.a._ raise; build; elevate; settle


E'RMINE, _s._ an animal found in cold countries, of which the fur is valuable, and used for the adornment of the person. A fur worn by judges in England ERRO'NEOUS, _a._ wrong; unfounded; false; misled by error


ERU'PTION, _s._ the act of bursting out; sudden excursion of a hostile kind


ESCO'RT, _v.a._ convoy; guard from place to place


ESPE'CIAL, _a._ principal; chief


ESPE'CIALLY, _ad._ principally; chiefly; in an uncommon degree


ESPLANA'DE, _s._ the empty space between a citadel and the outskirts of a town


ESSE'NTIAL, _a._ necessary to the constitution or existence of anything; important in the highest degree


ESTA'BLISHMENT, _s._ settlement; fixed state


ESTRA'NGE, _v.a._ keep at a distance; withdraw


ETE'RNAL, _a._ without beginning or end; perpetual; unchanging


ETE'RNALLY, _ad._ incessantly; for evermore


ETE'RNITY, _s._ duration without beginning or end


ETHE'REAL, _a._ belonging to the higher regions


EVA'PORATE, _v.a._ to drive away in fumes


E'VENING, _s._ the close of the day; beginning of night


EVE'NTUALLY, _ad._ in the event; in the last result


E'VIDENT, _a._ plain; notorious


EXA'CT, _a._ nice; not deviating from rule; careful


EXA'MINE, _v.a._ search into; make inquiry into


EXA'MPLE, _s._ copy or pattern


E'XCAVATE, _v.a._ hollow; cut into hollows


EXCE'L, _v.a._ to outgo in good qualities; to surpass


E'XCELLENCE, _s._ the state of abounding in any good quality; dignity; goodness


E'XCELLENT, _a._ eminent in any good quality; of great value


EXCE'PT, _prep._ exclusively of; unless


EXCE'SSIVE, _a._ beyond the common proportion


EXCI'TE, _v.a._ rouse; animate


EXCLU'DE, _v.a._ shut out; debar


EXCLU'SIVE, _a._ having the power of excluding or denying admission


EXCRU'CIATE, _v.a._ torture; torment


EXCU'RSION, _s._ an expedition into some distant part


EXCU'RSIVE, _a._ rambling; deviating


EXECU'TION, _s._ performance; practice; slaughter


EXE'MPLARY, _a._ such as may give warning to others; such as may attract notice and imitation


E'XERCISE, _s._ labour of the mind or body


EXE'RTION, _s._ the act of exerting; effort


EXHI'BIT, _v.a._ to offer to view; show; display


EXHIBI'TION, _s._ the act of exhibiting; display


EXHI'LARATE, _v.a._ make cheerful; cheer; enliven


EXI'STENCE, _s._ state of being


EXPA'ND, _v.a._ to spread; to extend on all sides


EXPA'NSE, _s._ a body widely extended without inequalities


EXPE'DIENT, _s._ that which helps forward as means to an end


EXPEDI'TION, _s._ an excursion


EXPE'L, _v.a._ drive away; banish; eject


EXPE'RIENCE, _s._ knowledge gained by practice


EXPE'RIENCED, _a._ wise by long practice EXPE'RIMENT, _s._ a trial of anything


EXPI'RE, _v.a._ breathe out; close; bring to an end


EXPLO'SION, _s._ an outburst; a sudden crash


EXPO'RT, _v.a._ carry out of a country


EXPO'SE, _v.a._ lay open; make bare; put in danger


EXPRE'SSION, _s._ the form of language in which any thoughts are uttered; the act of squeezing out anything


E'XQUISITE, _a._ excellent; consummate; complete


EXTE'MPORE, _ad._ without premeditation; suddenly


EXTE'ND, _v.a._ stretch out; diffuse; impart


EXTE'NSIVE, _a._ large; wide; comprehensive


EXTE'RIOR, _a._ outward; external


EXTE'RNAL, _a._ outward


EXTI'NGUISH, _v.a._ put out; destroy; obscure


EXTI'RPATE, _v.a._ root out; eradicate


E'XTRACT, _s._ the chief parts drawn from anything


EXTRAO'RDINARY, _a._ different from common order and method; eminent; remarkable


EXTRA'VAGANT, _a._ wasteful; not saving; otherwise, improbable, false


EXTRE'MELY, _ad._ greatly; very much; in the utmost degree


EXTRE'MITY, _s._ the utmost point; highest degree; parts at the greatest distance


FACI'LITY, _s._ ease; dexterity; affability


FA'CTORY, _s._ a house or district inhabited by traders in a distant country; traders embodied in one place


FA'CULTY, _s._ the power of doing anything; ability FAMI'LIAR, _a._ domestic; free; well known; common; unceremonious


FAMI'LIARITY, _s._ easiness of conversation; acquaintance


FA'MILY, _s._ those who live in the same house; household; race; clans


FA'MOUS, _a._ renowned; celebrated


FANA'TICISM, _s._ madness; frenzy; insanity


FANTA'STIC, _a._ whimsical; fanciful; imaginary


FA'RTHER, _ad._ at a greater distance; beyond this


FA'SHION, _v.a._ form; mould; figure; make according to the rule prescribed by custom


FA'TAL, _a._ deadly; mortal; appointed by destiny


FATI'GUE, _s._ weariness


FATI'GUE, _v.a._ tire; weary


FAUN, _s._ a kind of rural deity


FA'VOURITE, _s._ a person or thing beloved; one regarded with favour


FE'ATHER, _s._ plume of birds


FE'ATURE, _s._ the cast or make of the face; any lineament or single part of the face


FE'ELING, _s._ the sense of touch; sensibility; tenderness; perception

FERMENTA'TION, _s._ a slow motion of the particles of a mixed body, arising usually from the operation of some active acid matter; as when leaven or yeast ferments bread or wort

FERO'CITY, _s._ savageness; wildness; fierceness


FE'RTILE, _a._ fruitful; abundant; plenteous


FERTI'LITY, _s._ abundance; fruitfulness


FE'STAL, _a._ festive; joyous; gay


FE'STIVAL, _a._ time of feast; anniversary-day of civil or religious joy


FESTO'ON, _s._ In architecture, an ornament of carved work in the form of a wreath or garland of flowers or leaves twisted together


FEU'DAL, _a._ dependant; held by tenure


FI'BRE, _s._ a small thread or string


FI'CTION, _s._ a fanciful invention; a probable or improbable invention; a falsehood; a lie


FIDE'LITY, _s._ honesty; faithful adherence


FI'GURE, _s._ shape; person; stature; the form of anything as terminated by the outline


FI'LIAL, _a._ pertaining to a son; befitting a son; becoming the relation of a son


FI'RMAMENT, _s._ sky; heavens


FLA'GON, _s._ a vessel with a narrow mouth


FLA'MBEAU, _s._ (pronounced _flam-bo_) a lighted torch


FLA'VOUR, _s._ power of pleasing the taste; odour


FLEUR-DE-LIS, _s._ (French for a lily, pronounced _flur-de-lee_) a term applied in architecture and heraldry


FLE'XIBLE, _a._ capable of being bent; pliant; not brittle; complying: obsequious; ductile; manageable

FLOAT, _v.n._ to swim on the surface of water; to move without labour in a fluid; to pass with a light irregular course; _v.a._ to cover with water

FLO'RIDNESS, _s._ freshness of colour


FLO'URISH, _v.a._ and _v.n._ yield; prosper; wield; adorn


FLU'CTUATE, _v.n._ roll to and again, as water in agitation; be in an uncertain state


FLU'ID, _a._ anything not solid


FLU'TTER, _v.n._ move irregularly; take short flights with great agitation of the wines


FO'LIAGE, _s._ leaves; tuft of leaves


FO'LLOWING, _a._ coming after another FOME'NT, _v.a._ cherish with heat; encourage


FO'REFATHER, _s._ ancestor


FO'REIGN, _a._ not in this country; not domestic; remote; not belonging to


FO'REPART, _s._ anterior part


FO'REST, _s._ a wild uncultivated tract of ground, with wood


FO'RMER, _a._ before another in time; the first of two


FO'RMIDABLE, _a._ terrible; dreadful; tremendous


FORTIFICA'TION, _s._ the science of military architecture; a place built for strength


FO'RTITUDE, _s._ courage; bravery; strength


FO'RWARD, _v.a._ hasten; quicken; advance


FO'RWARD, _a._ warm; earnest; quick; ready


FO'RWARD, _ad._ onward; straight before


FO'RWARDNESS, _s._ eagerness; ardour; quickness; confidence


FOSSE, _s._ a ditch; a moat


FOUNDA'TION, _s._ the basis or lower parts of an edifice; the act of fixing the basis; original; rise


FRA'GMENT, _s._ a part broken from the whole; an imperfect piece


FRA'NTIC, _a._ mad; deprived of understanding


FREE'STONE, _s._ stone commonly used in building, so called because it can be cut freely in all directions


FREIGHT, _s._ anything with which a ship is loaded; the money due for transportation of goods


FRE'QUENT, _a._ often done; often seen; often occurring


FRE'SCO, _s._ coolness; shade; duskiness; a picture not drawn in glaring light, but in dusk


FRI'CTION, _s._ the act of rubbing two bodies together FRI'VOLOUS, _a._ trifling; wasteful; dawdling


FRO'NTIER, _s._ the limit; the utmost verge of any territory


FU'RNACE, _s._ a large fire


FU'RNISH, _v.a._ supply with what is necessary; fit up; equip; decorate


GA'BLE, _s._ the sloping roof of a building


GA'LAXY, _s._ the Milky Way


GA'LLANT, _a._ brave; daring; noble


G'ALLEY, _a._ a vessel used in the Mediterranean


GA'RDEN, _s._ piece of ground enclosed and cultivated


GA'RMENT, _s._ anything by which the body is covered


GA'RRISON, _s._ fortified place, stored with soldiers


GAUGE, _s._ a measure; a standard


GENEA'LOGY, _s._ history of the succession of families


GE'NERAL, _a._ common; usual; extensive, though not universal; public


GENERA'TION, _s._ a family; a race; an age


GE'NEROUS, _a._ noble of mind; magnanimous; open of heart


GE'NIAL, _a._ that gives cheerfulness, or supports life; natural; native


GE'NTLE, _a._ soft; mild; tame; meek; peaceable


GEOGRA'PHICAL, _a._ that which relates to geography


GEO'GRAPHY, _s._ knowledge of the earth


GE'STURE, _s._ action or posture expressive of sentiment


GI'ANT, _s._ a man of size above the ordinary rate of men; a man unnaturally large


GIGA'NTIC, _a._ suitable to a giant; enormous GLA'CIER, _s._ a mountain of ice


GLA'NDULAR, _a._ having glands


GLI'STER, _v.n._ shine; to be bright


GLO'BULE, _s._ a small particle of matter of a round figure, as the red particles of the blood


GLO'RIOUS, _a._ noble; excellent; illustrious


GLO'SSY, _a._ shiny; smoothly polished


GO'RGEOUS, _a._ fine; magnificent; gaudy; showy


GO'SLING, _s._ a young goose; a catkin on nut-trees and pines


GO'SSAMER, _s._ the web of a male spider


GOUT, _s._ a disease attended with great pain


GO'VERNOR, _s._ one who has the supreme direction; a tutor


GRADA'TION, _s._ regular progress from one degree to another; order; arrangement


GRA'DUALLY, _ad._ by degrees; step by step


GRA'NDEUR, _s._ splendour of appearance; magnificence


GRANGE, _s._ a farm


GRATIFICA'TION, _s._ pleasure; something gratifying


GRA'TITUDE, _s._ duty to benefactors; desire to return benefits


GRA'VITY, _s._ weight; tendency to the centre; seriousness; solemnity


GROTE'SQUE, _a._ distorted of figure; unnatural


GUARD, _s._ part of the hilt of a sword; a man or body of men whose business is to watch


GUIDE, _s._ director; regulator


HABITATION, _s._ place of abode; dwelling


HABI'TUALLY, _ad._ customarily; by habit HA'GGARD, _a._ deformed; ugly


HARA'NGUE, _v.n._ make a speech


HA'RMONIZE, _v.a._ to adjust in fit proportion


HARPO'ON, _s._ a bearded dart, with a line fastened to the handle, with which whales are struck and caught


HA'ZARDOUS, _a._ perilous, dangerous


HE'AVY, _a._ weighty; burdened; depressed


HE'RALDRY, _s._ the art or office of a herald; registers of genealogies


HE'RBAGE, _s._ grass; pasture; herbs collectively


HERBI'VOROUS, _a._ that eats herbs


HERE'DITARY, _a._ possessed or claimed by right of inheritance; descending by inheritance


HE'RETIC, _s._ one who propagates his private opinions in opposition to the Catholic Church


HE'YDAY, _s._ frolic; wildness


HI'DEOUS, _a._ frightful; ugly


HIPPOPO'TAMUS, _s._ a large animal--the river horse


HISTO'RIAN, _s._ a writer of facts and events


HISTO'RICAL, _a._ that which relates to history


HI'STORY, _s._ narration; the knowledge of facts and events


HO'LLOW, _a._ excavated; not solid; not sound


HO'NEY, _s._ a sweet substance produced by bees


HO'NOUR, _s._ dignity; fame; reputation; glory


HO'RIZON, _s._ the line that terminates the view


HO'SPITABLE, _a._ giving entertainment to strangers; kind to strangers


HO'TTENTO'T, _s._ a native of the south of Africa HOWE'VER, _ad._ in whatsoever manner; at all events; happen what will; yet


HOWI'TZER, _s._ a kind of bomb


HU'MAN, _a._ having the qualities of a man; belonging to man


HUMA'NITY, _s._ the nature of man; benevolence


HU'MBLE, _a._ not proud; modest; low


HU'MID, _a._ wet; moist; watery


HUMI'LITY, _s._ freedom from pride; modesty


HU'NDRED, _s._ a company or body consisting of a hundred.


HU'RRICANE, _s._ a blast; a tempest


HYDRAU'LIC, _a._ relating to the conveyance of water through pipes


HY'DROGEN, _s._ a gas, one of the component parts of the atmosphere


I'CEBERG, _s._ a hill of ice; a moving island of ice


I'CICLE, _s._ a pendent shoot of ice


I'DOL, _s._ an image worshipped as God; one loved or honoured to adoration


IGNO'BLE, _a._ mean of birth; worthless


IGUA'NA, _s._ a reptile of the lizard species


ILLE'GAL, _a._ unlawful


ILLUMINA'TION, _s._ brightness; splendour


ILLU'MINATIVE, _a._ having the power to give light


ILLU'SION, _s._ mockery; false show


ILLU'STRATE, _v.a._ brighten with light; brighten with honour; explain; clear


ILLUSTRA'TION, _s._ explanation; example; exposition


ILLU'STRIOUS, _a._ conspicuous; noble; eminent I'MAGE, _s._ a statue; a picture; an idol; a copy


IMA'GINARY, _a._ fanciful; poetical


IMAGINATION, _s._ fancy; conception; contrivance; scheme


I'MITATE, _v.a._ copy; counterfeit; resemble


IMMATE'RIAL, _a._ incorporeal; unimportant


IMMEA'SURABLE, _a._ immense; not to be measured


IMME'DIATELY, _ad._ without the intervention of any other cause or event


IMME'NSE, _a._ unlimited; unbounded; infinite


I'MMINENT, _a._ unavoidable; perilous


IMMO'RTALISE, _v.a._ to render immortal


IMMORTA'LITY, _s._ exemption from death; life never to end


IMPA'RT, _v.a._ grant; give; communicate


IMPA'RTIAL, _a._ indifferent; disinterested; just


IMPA'SSABLE, _a._ not to be passed; not admitting passage


IMPA'SSIBLE, _a._ incapable of suffering


IMPA'TIENT, _a._ not able to endure; hasty; eager


IMPERCE'PTIBLE, _a._ not to be discovered; not to be perceived; small


IMPERFE'CTION, _s._ defect; failure; fault


IMPE'RIAL, _a._ belonging to an emperor, king, or queen; regal; monarchical


IMPE'RIOUS, _a._ commanding; powerful


IMPE'TUOUS, _a._ violent; forcible; vehement


IMPLA'CABILITY, _s._ irreconcileable enmity


IMPLI'CITLY, _ad._ with unreserved confidence


IMPO'RT, _v.a._ carry into any country from abroad IMPO'RTANCE, _s._ thing imported, or implied; consequence; matter


IMPO'RTANT, _a._ momentous; weighty; of great consequence; forcible


IMPO'SE, _v.a._ lay on as a burden or penalty; deceive; fix on


IMPO'SSIBLE, _a._ that which cannot be; that which cannot be done


IMPRE'GNABLE, _a._ invincible; unsubdueable


IMPRE'SSION, _s._ the act of pressing one body upon another; mark made by pressure; image fixed in the mind


IMPULSE, _s._ communicated love; the effect of one body upon another


IMPU'NITY, _s._ freedom from punishment; exemption from punishment


INABI'LITY, _s._ want of power; impotence


INACCE'SSIBLE, _a._ not to be reached or approached


INA'CTIVE, _a._ sluggish; slothful; not quick


INCA'LCULABLE, _a._ that which cannot be counted


INCAPA'CITATE, _v.a._ disable; weaken; disqualify


INCARNA'TION, _s._ the act of assuming body


INCE'NTIVE, _s._ that which kindles; that which provokes; that which encourages; spur


INCE'SSANT, _a._ unceasing; continual


I'NCIDENT, _s._ something happening beside the main design; casualty


INCLO'SURE, _s._ a place surrounded or fenced in


INCLU'DE, _v.a._ comprise; shut


INCONCE'IVABLE, _a._ incomprehensible


INCONSI'DERABLE, _a._ unworthy of notice; unimportant


INCONSI'STENT, _a._ contrary; absurd; incompatible


INCRE'DIBLE, _a._ surpassing belief; not to be credited


INCU'LCATE, _v.a._ impress by frequent admonitions INCU'RSION, _s._ an expedition


INDENTA'TION, _s._ an indenture; having a wavy figure


I'NDICATE, _v.a._ show; point out


INDI'CTMENT, _s._ an accusation presented in a court of justice


INDIGNA'TION, _s._ wrath; anger


INDISCRI'MINATE, _a._ without choice; impartially


INDISPE'NSABLE, _a._ not to be spared; necessary


INDIVI'DUAL, _a._ single; numerically one; undivided; separate from others of the same species


INDU'CE, _v.a._ persuade; enforce; bring into view


INDU'LGENCE, _s._ fond kindness; tenderness; favour granted


INDU'STRIOUS, _a._ diligent; laborious


I'NDUSTRY, _s._ diligence; cheerful labour


INEQUA'LITY, _s._ difference of comparative quantity


INE'VITABLE, _a._ unavoidable


INEXHA'USTIBLE, _a._ not to be spent or consumed; incapable of being spent


INEXPRE'SSIBLE, _a._ not to be told; unutterable


I'NFANTRTY, _s._ a body of foot soldiers; foot soldiery


INFA'TUATE, _v.a._ to strike with folly; to deprive of understanding


INFE'RIOR, _a._ lower in place, station, or value


I'NFIDEL, _s._ an unbeliever; a Pagan; one who rejects Christianity


I'NFINITE, _a._ unbounded; unlimited; immense


INFINITE'SSIMAL, _a._ infinitely divided


INFI'NITY, _s._ immensity; endless number


INFI'RMITY, _s._ weakness of age or temper; weakness; malady INFLA'TE, _v.a._ to swell; to make larger


INFLE'XIBLE, _a._ not to be bent; immoveable; not to be changed


INFLI'CT, _v.a._ to impose as a punishment


I'NFLUENCE, _s._ power of directing or modifying


INFLUE'NTIAL, _a._ exerting influence or power


INGE'NIOUS, _a._ witty; inventive


INGENU'ITY, _s._ wit; invention; genius; subtlety


INGLO'RIOUS, _a._ void of honour; mean; without glory


INGRA'TITUDE, _s._ unthankfulness


INHA'BITANT, _s._ dweller; one that lives in a place


INHE'RENT, _a._ existing in something else, so as to be inseparable from it; innate


INI'MITABLE, _a._ not able to be imitated; that which is incapable of imitation


INJU'RIOUS, _a._ hurtful; baneful; capable of injuring; that which injures; destructive


INJU'STICE, _s._ iniquity; wrong


INNU'MEROUS, _a._ innumerable; too many to be counted


INQUI'SITIVE, _a._ curious; busy in search; active to pry into everything


INSCRI'PTION, _s._ something written or engraved; title

I'NSECT, _s._ a small animal. Insects are so called from a separation in the middle of their bodies, whereby they are cut into two parts, which are joined together by a small ligature, as we see in wasps and common flies

INSE'NSIBLY, _ad._ imperceptibly; in such a manner as is not discovered by the senses


INSE'RT, _v.a._ place in or among other things


INSI'DIOUS, _a._ sly; diligent to entrap; treacherous INSI'GNIA, _s._ ensigns; arms


INSIGNI'FICANT, _a._ unimportant


INSI'PID, _a._ tasteless; void of taste


INSIPI'DITY, _s._ want of taste; want of life or spirit


I'NSOLENCE, _s._ petulant contempt


INSPE'CT, _v.a._ to examine; to look over


INSPE'CTION, _s._ prying examination; superintendence


INSPIRA'TION, _s._ infusion of ideas into the mind by divine power; the act of drawing breath


INSTABI'LITY, _s._ inconstancy; fickleness


I'NSTANT, _a._ _instant_ is such a part of duration wherein we perceive no succession; present or current month


I'NSTANTLY, _ad._ immediately


I'NSTINCT, _s._ natural desire or aversion; natural tendency


INSTITU'TION, _s._ establishment; settlement; positive law


INSTRU'CT, _v.a._ teach; form by precept; form authoritatively; educate; model; form


INSTRU'CTION, _s._ the act of teaching; information


INSUFFI'CIENT, _a._ inadequate to any need, use, or purpose; unfit


INTE'GRITY, _s._ honesty; straightforwardness; uprightness


INTELLE'CTUAL, _a._ relating to the understanding; mental; transacted by the understanding


INTE'LLIGENCE, _s._ commerce of information; spirit; understanding


INTE'LLIGIBLE, _a._ possible to be understood


INTE'MPERANCE, _s._ the act of overdoing something


INTE'NSE, _a._ excessive; very great


INTE'R, _v.a._ cover under ground; to bury INTERCE'PT, _v.a._ to hinder; to stop


I'NTERCOURSE, _s._ commerce; communication


I'NTEREST, _s._ concern; advantage; good; influence over others


INTERE'ST, _v.n._ affect; move; touch with passion


INTERLO'CUTOR, _s._ a dialogist; one that talks with another


INTERME'DIATE, _a._ intervening; interposed


INTE'RMINABLE, _a._ immense; without limits


INTE'RPRETER, _s._ one that interprets


INTERRU'PT, _v.a._ hinder the process of anything by breaking in upon it


INTERSE'CTION, _s._ point where lines cross each other


I'NTERSPACE, _s._ space between


INTERSPE'RSE, _v.a._ to scatter here and there among other things


INTERVE'NE, _v.n._ to come between


I'NTERVIEW, _s._ mutual sight; sight of each other


INTERWE'AVE, _v.a._ to intermingle; to mix one with another in a regular texture


I'NTIMATE, _a._ inmost; inward; near; familiar


INTONA'TION, _s._ the act of thundering


INTO'XICATE, _v.a._ to inebriate; to make drunk


I'NTRICATE, _a._ entangled; perplexed; obscure


INTRI'GUER, _s._ one that intrigues


INTRI'NSIC, _a._ inward; real; true


INTRODU'CTION, _s._ the act of bringing anything into notice or practice; the preface or part of a book containing previous matter


INTRU'DER, _s._ one who forces himself into company or affairs without right or welcome


INUNDA'TION, _s._ the overflow of waters; the flood; a confluence of any kind


INVA'LUABLE, _a._ precious above estimation


INVA'RIABLE, _a._ unchangeable; constant


INVESTIGATION, _s._ the act of investigating; the state of being investigated


INVI'NCIBLE, _a._ not capable of being conquered


INVI'SIBLE, _a._ not to be seen


I'RIS, _s._ the rainbow; the circle round the pupil of the eye


IRRA'DIATE, _v.a._ brighten; animate by heat or light; illuminate


IRRE'GULAR, _a._ deviating from rule, custom, or nature


I'RRIGATE, _v.a._ wet; moisten; water


I'RRITATE, _v.a._ provoke; tease; agitate


IRRITA'TION, _s._ provocation; stimulation


I'SLAND, _s._ a tract of land surrounded by water


I'SSUE, _v.a._ send forth


ITA'LIC, _s._ a letter in the Italian character


JA'VELIN, _s._ a spear; a dart; an implement of war


JE'ALOUSY, _s._ suspicion in love; suspicious fear; suspicious caution


JE'WEL, _s._ a precious stone; a teem


JO'CUND, _a._ merry; gay; lively


JO'URNEY, _s._ the travel of a day; passage from place to place


JO'YOUS, _a._ glad; gay; merry; giving joy


JUDI'CIOUS, _a._ prudent; wise; skilful


JU'GGLER, _s._ one who practises sleight of hand


JU'NCTION, _s._ union; coalition JU'STIFY, _v.a._ clear from imputed guilt; maintain


KANGARO'O, _s._ an animal found in Australia


KE'RNEL, _s._ anything included in a husk; the seeds of pulpy fruits


KI'NGDOM, _s._ the territories subject to a monarch; a different class or order of beings, as the mineral kingdom; a region


KNI'GHTHOOD, _s._ the character or dignity of a knight


KNO'WLEDGE, _s._ information


KNU'CKLE, _s._ joints of the fingers, protuberant when the fingers close


LABU'RNUM, _s._ a kind of tree


LA'MENTABLE, _a._ deplorable


LAMENTA'TION, _s._ expression of sorrow; audible grief


LA'NCEOLATE, _a._ in a lance-like form


LA'NDSCAPE, _s._ the prospect of a country; a picture of the prospect of a country


LA'NGUAGE, _s._ human speech; style; manner of expression


LA'NGUOR, _s._ faintness; softness; inattention


LA'RVA, _s._ an insect in the caterpillar state


LA'TENT, _a._ concealed; invisible


LA'TERALLY, _ad._ by the side


LA'TITUDE, _s._ latent diffusion; a certain degree reckoned from the Equator


LA'TTER, _a._ lately done or past; mentioned last of two


LA'VA, _s._ molten substance projected from volcanoes


LE'AFLET, _s._ a small leaf LE'GION, _s._ a body of Roman soldiers, consisting of about five thousand; military force; a great number


LE'NITY, _s._ mildness; gentleness


LENS, _s._ a glass spherically convex on both sides


LEVA'NT, _s._ east, particularly those coasts of the Mediterranean east of Italy


LEVI'ATHAN, _s._ a water-animal mentioned in the Book of Job


LI'ABLE, _a._ subject; not exempt


LI'BERAL, _a._ not mean; generous; bountiful


LI'BERATE, _v.a._ free from confinement


LI'BERTY, _s._ freedom, as opposed to slavery; privilege; permission


LICE'NTIOUSNESS, _s._ boundless liberty; contempt of just restraint


LI'CHEN, _s._ moss


LIEUTE'NANT, _s._ a deputy; in war, one who holds the next rank to a superior of any denomination


LI'GHTHOUSE, _s._ a house built either upon a rock or some other place of danger, with a light, in order to warn ships of danger


LI'NEAR, _a._ composed of lines; having the form of lines


LI'QUID, _a._ not solid; fluid; soft; clear


LI'QUOR, _s._ anything liquid; strong drink, in familiar language


LI'STEN, _v.a._ hear; attend


LI'TERALLY, _ad._ with close adherence to words


LI'TERARY, _a._ respecting letters; regarding learning


LI'TERATURE, _s._ learning; skill in letters


LI'TURGY, _s._ form of prayer


LOCA'LITY, _s._ existence in place


LOCOMO'TIVE, _a._ changing place; having the power of removing or changing place


LO'CUST, _s._ a devouring insect


LU'DICROUS, _a._ fantastic; laughable; whimsical


LU'MINARY, _a._ any body which gives light


LU'MINOUS, _a._ shining; enlightened


LU'NAR, _a._ that which relates to the moon


LU'PINE, _s._ a kind of pulse


LUXU'RIANT, _a._ superfluously plentiful


MACHINE, _s._ an engine; any complicated work in which one part contributes to the motion of another


MACHI'NERY, _s._ enginery; complicated workmanship


MAGAZI'NE, _s._ a storehouse


MA'GICAL, _a._ acted or performed by secret and invisible powers


MAGNANI'MITY, _s._ greatness of mind


MAGNA'NIMOUS, _a._ of great mind; of open heart


MAGNI'FICENT, _a._ grand in appearance; splendid; otherwise, pompous


MAJE'STIC, _a._ august; having dignity; grand


MAJO'RITY, _s._ the state of being greater; the greater number; the office of a major


MALE'VOLENCE, _s._ ill-will; inclination to hurt others


MA'LICE, _s._ hatred; enmity; desire of hurting


MALI'CIOUS, _a._ desirous of hurting; with wicked design


MALI'GNANT, _a._ envious; malicious; mischievous


MALI'GNITY, _s._ ill-will; enmity


MA'NDIBLE, _s._ a jaw MA'NKIND, _s._ the race or species of human beings


MA'NNER, _s._ form; method; way; mode; sort


MANUFA'CTORY, _s._ a place where a manufacture is carried on


MANOEUVRE, _s._ a stratagem; a trick


MARA'UDER, _s._ a soldier that roves in quest of plunder


MA'RGIN, _s._ the brink; the edge


MA'RINER, _s._ a seaman


MA'RITIME, _a._ that which relates to the sea


MA'RSHAL, _v.a._ arrange; rank in order


MA'RTYR, _s._ one who by his death bears witness to the truth


MA'RVELLOUS, _a._ wonderful; strange; astonishing


MA'SONRY, _s._ the craft or performance of a mason


MA'SSACRE, _s._ butchery; murder


MA'SSIVE, _a._ heavy; weighty; ponderous; bulky; continuous


MA'STERPIECE, _s._ chief excellence


MATE'RIAL, _a._ consisting of matter; not spiritual; important


MATHEMA'TICS, _s._ that science which contemplates whatever is capable of being numbered or measured


MA'XIM, _s._ general principle; leading truth


ME'ASURE, _s._ that by which anything is measured; proportion; quantity; time; degree


MECHA'NIC, _s._ a workman


MECHA'NICAL, _a._ constructed by the laws of mechanics


ME'DAL, _s._ a piece of metal stamped in honour of some remarkable performance


MEDI'CINAL, _a._ having the power of healing; belonging to physic


MEDITA'TION, _s._ deep thought; contemplation ME'DIUM, _s._ the centre point between two extremes


ME'LANCHOLY, _a._ gloomy; dismal; sorrowful


ME'LLOW, _a._ soft with ripeness; soft; unctuous


MELO'DIOUS, _a._ musical; harmonious

ME'MBRANE, _s._ a web of several sorts of fibres, interwoven for the wrapping up some parts; the fibres give them an elasticity, whereby they can contract and closely grasp the parts they contain

MEMBRA'NOUS, _a._ consisting of membranes


ME'MOIR, _s._ an account of anything


ME'MORABLE, _a._ worthy of memory; not to be forgotten


ME'MORY, _s._ the power of retaining or recollecting things past; recollection


MENA'GERIE, _s._ a place for keeping foreign birds and other curious animals


ME'NTION, _v.a._ to express in words or in writing


ME'RCHANDISE, _s._ commerce; traffic; wares; anything to be bought or sold


ME'RCHANTMAN, _s._ a ship of trade


META'LLIC, _a._ partaking of metal; consisting of metal


ME'TEOR, _s._ any body in the air or sky that is of a transitory nature


ME'TRICAL, _a._ pertaining to metre or numbers; consisting of verses


METROPO'LITAN, _a._ belonging to a metropolis


MI'CROSCOPE, _s._ an optical instrument, contrived to give to the eye a large appearance of many objects which could not otherwise be seen


MI'LITARY, _a._ engaged in the life of a soldier; soldierlike warlike; pertaining to war; affected by soldiers


MIND, _s._ intellectual capacity; memory; opinion


MI'NERAL, _s._ fossil body; something dug out of mines MI'NSTER, _s._ a monastery; a cathedral church


MI'NSTRELSY, _s._ music; instrumental harmony


MINU'TE, _a._ small; little; slender


MI'RACLE, _s._ a wonder; something above human power


MIRA'CULOUS, _a._ done by miracle


MI'RROR, _s._ a looking-glass


MI'SERY, _s._ wretchedness; calamity; misfortune


MISFO'RTUNE, _s._ calamity; ill-luck


MI'SSILE, _s._ something thrown by the hand


MI'SSIONARY, _s._ one sent to propagate religion


MI'XTURE, _s._ the act of mixing; that which is added and mixed


MO'ATED, _a._ surrounded with canals by way of defence


MO'DERATE, _a._ temperate; not excessive


MODERA'TION, _s._ state of keeping a due mean between extremities


MO'DESTY, _s._ decency; purity of manners


MODULA'TION, _s._ the act of forming anything to certain proportion; harmony


MO'LTEN, _part. pass._ the state of being melted


MO'MENT, _s._ an individual particle of time; force; importance


MOME'NTUM, _s._ the quantity of motion in a moving body


MO'NARCH, _s._ a sovereign; a ruler; a king or queen


MO'NASTERY, _s._ a residence of monks


MO'NEY, _s._ metal coined for the purposes of commerce


MO'NKEY, _s._ an animal bearing some resemblance to man; a word of contempt, or slight kindness


MO'NUMENT, _s._ anything by which the memory of persons or things is preserved; a memorial; a tomb


MO'RALIST, _s._ one who teaches the duties of life


MORA'LITY, _s._ the doctrine of the duties of life


MO'RNING, _s._ the first part of the day

MO'RTAR, _s._ a cement for fixing bricks together; otherwise, a kind of cannon for firing bomb-shells; a kind of vessel in which anything is broken by a pestle

MO'RTIFY, _v.a._ destroy vital properties, or active powers; vex; humble; depict; corrupt; die away


MO'SLEM, _s._ a Mussulman; relating to the Mahometan form of religion


MOSQUE, _s._ a Mahometan temple


MO'TION, _s._ the act of changing place; action; agitation; proposal made


MO'ULDED, _v.n._ be turned to dust; perish in dust


MO'UNTAINOUS, _a._ hilly; full of mountains; huge


MO'VEABLE, _a._ capable of being moved; portable


MULETE'ER, _s._ mule-driver; horse-boy


MULTIPLI'CITY, _s._ more than one of the same kind; state of being many


MU'LTITUDE, _s._ a large crowd of people; a vast assembly


MU'RMUR, _v.n._ grumble; utter secret and sullen discontent


MU'SSULMAN, _s._ a Mahometan believer


MU'TILATE, _v.a._ deprive of some essential part


MU'TUALLY, _ad._ reciprocally; in return


MY'RIAD, _s._ the number of ten thousand; proverbially any great number


NA'RROW, _a._ not broad or wide; small; close; covetous; near


NA'TION, _s._ a people distinguished from another people


NA'TIVE, _a._ original; natural NA'TIVE, _s._ one born in any place


NA'TURAL, _a._ produced or effected by nature; not forced; tender


NA'TURALIST, _s._ one who studies nature, more especially as regards inferior animals, plants, &c.

NA'TURE, _s._ constitution of an animated body; regular course of things; disposition of mind; native state or properties of anything; sort; species

NAU'TICAL, _a._ that which relates to a sailor


NA'VIGABLE, _a._ capable of being passed by ships or boats


NAVIGA'TOR, _s._ a sailor; seaman


NE'CESSARY, _a._ needful


NECE'SSITY, _s._ compulsion; want; need; poverty


NEGO'TIATION, _s._ treaty of business


NEI'GHBOURHOOD, _s._ vicinity; place adjoining


NE'ITHER, _pron._ not either; nor one nor other


NICHE, _s._ a hollow hi which a statue may be placed


NIDIFICA'TION, _s._ the act of building nests


NI'MBLY, _ad._ quickly; speedily; actively


NI'TROUS, _a._ impregnated with nitre


NOBI'LITY, _s._ high-mindedness; the highest class of people in civilized life


NO'BLE, _a._ magnificent; great; illustrious


NO'TICE, _s._ remark; heed; regard; information


NOTWITHSTA'NDING, _conj._ although; nevertheless


NO'XIOUS, _a._ hurtful; harmful; baneful; guilty


NU'MBER, _s._ many; more than one.


NU'MBERLESS, _a._ more than can be reckoned NU'MEROUS, _a._ containing many; consisting of many


NU'TRIMENT, _s._ food


OBE'DIENCE, _s._ submission to authority


OBE'ISANCE, _s._ courtesy


O'BJECT, _s._ that about which any power or faculty is employed


OBJE'CTION, _s._ adverse argument; criminal charge; fault found; the act of opposing anything


OBLI'QUE, _a._ not direct; not parallel; not perpendicular


OBLI'VION, _s._ forgetfulness


OBNO'XIOUS, _a._ hateful; hurtful; injurious


OBSERVA'TION, _s._ the act of observing, noticing, or remarking; note; remark


OBSE'RVE, _v.a._ watch; regard attentively note; obey; follow


O'BSTINACY, _s._ stubbornness


OBSTRU'CT, _v.a._ block up; oppose; hinder


OCCA'SION, _s._ occurrence; casualty; incident; opportunity; convenience


OCCA'SION, _v.a._ cause; produce; influence


O'CCUPY, _v.a._ possess; keep; take up; employ; use


OFFE'NSIVE, _a._ displeasing; disgusting; injurious


O'FFER, _v.a._ present itself; be at hand; be present


O'FFER, _v.a._ propose; present; sacrifice


O'FFICE, _s._ a public charge or employment; agency; business


OLFA'CTORY, _a._ having the sense of smelling


O'LIVE, _s._ a plant producing oil; the fruit of the tree; the emblem of peace


O'MINOUS, _a._ exhibiting bad tokens of futurity


OMI'SSION, _s._ neglect of duty; neglect to do something


OMNI'POTENT, _s._ the Almighty


OMNIPRE'SENCE, _s._ unbounded presence


OMNI'SCIENCE, _s._ boundless knowledge; infinite wisdom


O'NSET, _s._ attack; storm; assault


O'PAL, _s._ a precious stone


O'PALINE, _a._ resembling opal


OPPORTU'NITY, _s._ convenience; suitableness of circumstances to any end


OPPRE'SS, _v.a._ crush by hardship or unreasonable severity; overpower; subdue


OPPRE'SSOR, _s._ one who harasses others with unreasonable or unjust severity


O'PTICAL, _a._ relating to the science of optics


O'PTICS, _s._ the science of the nature and laws of vision


O'PULENT, _a._ rich


O'RACLE, _s._ something delivered by supernatural wisdom; the place where, or persons of whom, the determinations of heaven are inquired


O'RAL, _a._ delivered by mouth; not written


O'RATOR, _s._ a public speaker; a man of eloquence


O'RBIT, _s._ a circle; path of a heavenly body


O'RCHARD, _s._ a garden of fruit trees


O'RCHIS, _s._ a kind of flowering plant


O'RDER, _s._ method; regularity; command; a rank or class; rule


O'RDINANCE, _s._ law; rule; appointment


O'RDINARY, _a._ established; regular; common; of low rank


O'RDNANCE, _s._ cannon; great guns O'RGAN, _s._ natural instrument: as the tongue is the organ of speech. A musical instrument


ORGA'NIC, _a._ consisting of various parts co-operating with each other


O'RGANISM, _s._ organic structure


O'RIENT, _a._ eastern; oriental; bright; gaudy


ORI'GINAL, _a._ primitive; first


O'RNAMENT, _v.a._ embellish; decorate


OSCILLA'TION, _a._ the act of moving backward or forward like a pendulum


O'SSEOUS, _a._ bony; resembling bone


OSTENTA'TION, _s._ outward show; pride of riches or power


OSTRICH, _s._ a large bird


OTHERWISE, _ad._ in a different manner; by other causes; in other respects


OU'TLET, _s._ passage outward


OU'TSET, _s._ setting out; departure


OU'TWARD, _a._ external; opposed to _inward_.


OVERFLO'W, _v.a._ deluge; drown; overrun; fill beyond the brim


OVERTA'KE, _v.a._ catch anything by pursuit; come up to something going before


OVERTHRO'W, _v.a._ turn upside down; throw down; ruin; defeat; destroy


OVERWHE'LM, _v.a._ crush underneath something violent and weighty; overlook gloomily


PACI'FIC, _a._ mild; gentle; appeasing


PA'LACE, _a._ a royal house


PA'LTRY, _a._ worthless; contemptible; mean


PA'RADISE, _s._ the blissful region in which the first pair were placed; any place of felicity


PA'RALLEL, _a._ extending in the same direction; having the same tendency


PARALLE'LOGRAM, _s._ in geometry, a right-lined four-sided figure, whose opposite sides are parallel and equal


PA'RAPET, _s._ a wall breast high


PA'RCEL, _s._ a small bundle; a part of a whole


PA'RDON, _s._ forgiveness


PARO'CHIAL, _a._ belonging to a parish


PARO'TIDA-SA'LIVART, _a._ glands so named because near the ear


PA'RTICLE, _s._ any small quantity of a greater substance; a word unvaried by inflection


PARTICULAR, _s._ a single instance; a minute detail of things singly enumerated. IN PARTICULAR, peculiarly; distinctly


PARTICULARLY, _ad._ in an extraordinary degree; distinctly


PA'SSAGE, _s._ act of passing; road; way; entrance or exit; part of a book


PA'SSENGER, _s._ traveller; a wayfarer; one who hires in any vehicle the liberty of travelling


PA'SSIONATE, _a._ moved by passion; easily moved to anger


PA'SSIVE, _a._ unresisting; suffering; not acting


PA'STORAL, _a._ rural; rustic; imitating shepherds


PATHE'TIC, _a._ affecting the passions; moving


PA'THOS, _s._ passion; warmth; affection of the mind


PA'THWAY, _s._ a road; a narrow way to be passed on foot.


PA'TIENCE, _s._ the power of suffering; perseverance


PA'TIENTLY, _ad._ with steadfast resignation; with hopeful confidence


PA'TRIARCH, _a._ one who governs by paternal right; the father and ruler of a family


PA'THIMONY, _s._ an estate possessed by inheritance


PA'TRIOT, _s._ one who loves his country


PA'TRON, _s._ one who countenances, supports, or protects; defender


PEA'CEABLE, _a._ not quarrelsome; not turbulent


PE'CTORAL, _a._ belonging to the breast


PECU'LIAR, _a._ appropriate; not common to other things; particular


PECULIARITY, _s._ particularity; something found only in one


PE'DESTAL, _a._ the lower member of a pillar; the basis of a statue


PE'DIMENT, _s._ an ornament that finishes the fronts of buildings, and serves as a decoration over gates


PE'NANCE, _s._ infliction, either public or private, suffered as an expression of repentance for sin


PE'NDULOUS, _a._ hanging


PE'NETRATE, _v.a._ enter beyond the surface; make way into a body; affect the mind


PENINSULA, _s._ laud almost surrounded by water


PE'NURY, _s._ poverty; indigence


PE'OPLE, _s._ a nation; the vulgar


PERCEI'VE, _v.a._ discover by some sensible effects; know; observe


PERCE'PTIBLE, _a._ such as may be known or observed


PERFECTION, _s._ the state of being perfect


PERFO'RM, _v.a._ execute; do; accomplish


PE'RFORATE, _v.a._ pierce with a tool; bore


PERHA'PS, _ad._ peradventure; may be


PE'RIL, _s._ danger; hazard; jeopardy


PE'RIOD, _s._ length of duration; a complete sentence from one full stop to another; the end or conclusion


PE'RISIH, _v.n._ die; be destroyed; be lost; come to nothing


PE'RMANENT, _a._ durable; unchanged; of long continuance


PERNI'CIOUS, _a._ destructive; baneful


PERPENDICULAR, _a._ a straight line up and down


PERPE'TUAL, _a._ never-ceasing; continual


PERPLE'X, _v.a._ disturb; distract; tease; plague


PERPLE'XITY, _s._ anxiety; entanglement


PE'RSECUTE, _v.a._ to harass or pursue with malignity


PERSEVE'RANCE, _s._ persistence in any design or attempt; constancy in progress


PERTINA'CITY, _s._ obstinacy; stubbornness; constancy


PERTURBA'TION, _s._ restlessness; disturbance


PERU'SAL, _s._ the act of reading


PETI'TION, _s._ request; entreaty; single branch or article of prayer


PHA'LANX, _s._ a troop of men closely embodied


PHENO'MENON, _s._ appearance


PHILOSOPHER, _s._ a man deep in knowledge


PHILOSOPHICAL, _a._ belonging to philosophy


PHILO'SOPHY, _s._ moral or natural knowledge


PHY'SICAL, _a._ relating to nature or to natural philosophy; medicinal; relating to health


PICTO'RIAL, _a._ produced by a painter


PIC'TURESQUE, _a._ beautiful; magnificent


PI'LCHARD, _s._ a kind of fish


PI'LGRIMAGE, _s._ a long journey


PI'OUS, _a._ careful of the duties owed by created beings to God; godly; religious


PI'RATE, _s._ a sea robber


PISTA'CHIO, _s._ a dry fruit of an oblong figure


PI'TIABLE, _a._ that which deserves pity


PLA'CABLE, _a._ willing or able to be appeased


PLA'INTIVE, _a._ complaining; lamenting; expressive of sorrow


PLA'NETARY, _a._ pertaining to the planets; produced by the planets


PLANTATION, _s._ a place planted; a colony


PLAU'SIBLY, _ad._ with fair show


PLEA'SANT, _a._ delightful; cheerful; merry


PLEA'SANTRY, _s._ merriment; lively talk


PLEA'SURE, _s._ delight


PLE'NTIFUL, _a._ copious; fruitful; abundant


PLI'ABLE, _a._ flexible; easy to be bent; easy to be persuaded; capable of being plied


PLI'ANT, _a._ bending; flexible; easy to take a form


PLU'MAGE, _s._ feathers; suit of feathers


PNY'X, _s._ a place where assemblies of the people were held


PO'ETRY, _s._ sublime thought expressed in sublime language


POI'GNANCY, _s._ power of irritation; sharpness


POI'SON, _s._ that which taken into the body destroys or injures life; anything infectious or malignant


POLI'TE, _a._ glossy; smooth; elegant of manners


POLITICAL, _a._ that which relates to politics; that which relates to public affairs; also cunning, skilful


PO'PULAR, _a._ vulgar; familiar; well known


POPULARITY, _a._ state of being favoured by the people; representation suited to vulgar conception


POPULA'TION, _s._ the state of a country with respect to numbers of people


PO'RTABLE, _a._ manageable by the hand; supportable


PO'RTION, _s._ a part; an allotment


PORTMA'NTEAU, _s._ a chest, or bag, in which clothes are carried


POSI'TION, _s._ state of being placed; situation


PO'SITIVE, _o._ absolute; particular; real; certain


POSSE'SS, _v.a._ have as an owner; be master of; seize; obtain


POSSESSION, _s._ property; the thing possessed


POSSIBLE, _a._ having the power to be or to be done; not contrary to the nature of things


POSTE'RITY, _s._ succeeding generations


PO'TENTATE, _s._ monarch; prince; sovereign


PO'WER, _s._ command; authority; ability; strength; faculty of the mind


PRACTICABLE, _a._ capable of being practised


PRA'CTICAL, _o._ relating to action; not merely speculative.


PRAE'TOR, _s._ a functionary among the ancient Romans


PRAI'RIE, _s._ a meadow


PRECAUTION, _s._ preservative caution; preventive measures


PRECE'PTOR, _s._ a teacher; an Instructor


PRE'CINCT, _s._ outward limit; boundary


PRECI'PITOUS, _a._ headlong; steep


PREDECE'SSOR, _s._ one who was in any state or place before another; ancestor


PREDOMINANCE, _s._ prevalence; ascendancy


PREDOMINANT, _a._ prevalent; ascendant; supreme influence PREDOMINATE, _v.n._ prevail; be supreme in influence


PREFI'X, _v.a._ appoint beforehand; settle; establish; put before another thing


PRELI'MINARY, _a._ previous; introductory


PREJUDICE, _s._ prepossession; judgment formed beforehand; mischief; injury


PREPARATION, _s._ anything made by process of operation; previous measures


PREROGATIVE, _s._ an exclusive or peculiar privilege


PRE'SCIENT, _a._ foreknowing; prophetic


PRESENT, _a._ not past; not future; ready at hand; not absent; being face to face; being now in view


PRESE'NT, _v.a._ offer; exhibit


PRESE'RVE, _v.a._ save; keep; defend from destruction or any evil


PRESU'MPTION, _s._ arrogance; blind confidence


PREVE'NT, _v.a._ hinder; obviate; obstruct


PRINCIPAL, _a._ chief; capital; essential; important; considerable


PRINCIPLE, _s._ constituent part; original cause


PRO'BABLE, _a._ likely


PRO'BABLY, _a._ very likely


PROBA'TION, _s._ proof; trial; noviciate


PROCEE'D, _v.n._ pass from one thing or place to another; go forward; issue; arise; carry on; act; transact


PRO'CESS, _s._ course of law; course


PROCE'SSION, _s._ a train marching in ceremonious solemnity


PRODI'GIOUS, _a._ enormous; amazing; monstrous


PRO'DUCE, _s._ amount; profit; that which anything yields or brings PRODU'CE, _v.a._ offer to the view or notice; bear; cause; effect


PRODU'CTION, _s._ the act of producing; fruit; product; composition


PROFESSION, _s._ vocation; known employment


PROFU'SE, _a._ lavish; too liberal


PROFUSION, _s._ extravagance; abundance


PRO'GRESS, _s._ course; advancement; motion forward


PROHI'BIT, _v.a._ forbid; debar; hinder


PROJE'CT, _v.a._ throw out; scheme; contrive; form in the mind


PRO'PAGATE, _v.a._ extend; widen; promote


PRO'PER, _a._ fit; exact; peculiar


PRO'PHECY, _s._ a declaration of something to come


PROPHE'TIC, _a._ foreseeing or foretelling future events


PROPORTION, _s._ symmetry; form; size; ratio


PROPOSITION, _s._ one of the three parts of a regular argument, in which anything is affirmed or denied; proposal


PROPRIETOR, _s._ possessor in his own right


PROPRI'ETY, _s._ accuracy; justness


PROSA'IC, _a._ belonging to or resembling prose


PROTE'CTOR, _s._ defender; supporter; guardian


PROTRU'DE, _v.a._ thrust forward


PROVI'DE, _v.a._ procure; furnish; supply; stipulate


PROVIDE'NTIAL, _a._ effected by Providence; referrible to Providence


PRO'VINCE, _s._ a conquered country; a region


PROVINCIAL, _a._ that which relates to provinces


PROVISION, _s._ the act of providing beforehand; measures taken beforehand; stock collected; victuals


PROVOCATION, _s._ an act or cause by which anger is raised; an appeal to a judge


PROXI'MITY, _s._ nearness


PTA'RMIGAN, _s._ (pronounced _tar-mi-gan_) a bird of the grouse species


PU'BLIC, _s._ the people; general view; open view


PU'LLEY, _s._ a small wheel turning on a pivot, with a furrow on its outside, in which a rope runs


PU'NISH, _v.a._ to chastise; to afflict with penalties or death for some crime


PU'NISHED, _a._ chastised


PU'PIL, _s._ a scholar; one under the care of a tutor


PU'RCHASE, _v.a._ acquire; buy for a price


PU'RITY, _s._ clearness; freedom from foulness or dirt; freedom from guilt; innocence


PU'RPOSE, _v.t._ intention; design; instance


PU'TRIFY, _v.n._ to rot


PU'ZZLE, _v.a._ perplex; confound; tease; entangle


PY'RAMID, _s._ a solid figure, whose base is a polygon and whose sides are plain triangles, their several points meeting in one


PYTHA'GORAS, _s._ the originator of the present system universe


PYTHAGORE'ANS, _s._ followers of Pythagoras


QUALIFICATION, _s._ accomplishment; that which makes any person or thing fit for anything


QUA'NTITY, _s._ any indeterminate weight or measure; bulk or weight; a portion; a part


QUA'RRY, _s._ game flown at by a hawk; a stone mine


RA'DIANT, _a._ shining; emitting rays RAMIFICA'TION, _s._ division or separation into branches; small branches; branching out


RA'NCID, _a._ strong scented


RAPA'CIOUS, _a._ given to plunder; seizing by violence


RAPI'DITY, _s._ celerity; velocity; swiftness


RA'PTURE, _s._ transport; haste


RA'TTLE, _s._ a quick noise nimbly repeated; empty and loud talk; a plant


RA'TTLESNAKE, _s._ a kind of serpent, which has a rattle at the end of its tail


REA'CTION, _s._ the reciprocation of any impulse or force impressed, made by the body on which such an impression is made


RE'ALISE, _v.a._ bring into being or act; convert money into land.


REA'SON, _s._ the power by which man deduces one proposition from another; cause; ground or principle; motive; moderation


REASONABLENESS, _s._ the faculty of reason


REASONING, _s._ an argument


REBE'LLION, _s._ insurrection against lawful authority


RECE'DE, _v.n._ fall back; retreat; desist


RECEI'VE, _v.a._ obtain; admit; entertain as a guest


RE'CENT, _a._ new; late; fresh


RECE'PTACLE, _s._ a vessel or place into which anything is received


RECOGNITION, _s._ review; renovation of knowledge; acknowledgment; memorial


RECOLLE'CTION, _s._ recovery of notion; revival in the memory


RECOMME'ND, _v.a._ make acceptable; praise another; commit with prayers


RECOMMENDA'TION, _s._ the act of recommending; that which secures to one a kind reception from another


RE'COMPENSE, _s._ reward; compensation


RECOMPENSE, _v.a._ repay; reward; redeem


RE'CORD, _s._ register; authentic memorial


RECREA'TION, _s._ relief after toil or pain; amusement; diversion


RE'CTIFY, _v.a._ to make right


RE'CTITUDE, _s._ straightness; rightness; uprightness


REDE'MPTION, _s._ ransom; relief; purchase of God's favour by the death of Christ


REDU'CE, _v.a._ bring back; subdue; degrade


REFLECTION, _s._ that which is reflected; thought thrown back upon the past; attentive consideration


REFLE'CTOR, _s._ considerer


REFRA'CT, _v.n._ break the natural course of rays


REFU'LGENT, _a._ bright; splendid


REGA'LIA, _s._ ensigns of Royalty


REGA'RD, _v.a._ observe; remark; pay attention to


RE'GIMENT, _s._ a body of soldiers under one colonel


RE'GION, _s._ tract of land; country


RE'GULAR, _a._ methodical; orderly


REINFO'RCE, _v.a._ strengthen again


REJE'CT, _v.a._ cast off; refuse; throw aside


RE'LATIVE, _s._ a near friend; a relation; a kinsman


RE'LATIVE, _a._ having relation


RELAXATION, _s._ the act of loosening


RELA'XED, _a._ slackened; loosened; let loose; diverted; eased; refreshed


RELEA'SE, _v.a._ quit; let go; slacken; free from RELE'NT, _v.n._ slacken; remit; soften; melt


RE'LIC, _s._ that which remains


RELIE'VE, _v.a._ ease pain or sorrow; succour by assistance; support; assist


RELI'GION, _s._ a system of divine faith and worship


RELU'CTANT, _a._ unwilling; acting with repugnance


REMAI'N, _v.n._ continue; endure; be left


REMAINDER, _s._ the part left


REMA'RKABLE, _a._ observable; worthy of note


RE'MEDY, _s._ a medicine by which any illness is cured; that which counteracts any evil; reparation


REME'MBER, _v.a._ bear in mind; not to


REMO'NSTRANCE, _s._ strong representation


REMO'RSELESS, _a._ without remorse


RE'NDER, _v.a._ restore; give back; represent; exhibit; give


REPEA'T, _v.a._ use again; do again; speak again


REPO'RT, _s._ rumour; popular fame; sound; loud noise


RE'PRESENT, _v.a._ exhibit; describe; personate; exhibit to show


REPRESENTA'TION, _s._ image; likeness; public exhibition


REPRIE'VE, _s._ respite after sentence of death


REPRI'SAL, _s._ something seized by way of retaliation for robbery or injury


RE'PTILE, _s._ an animal that creeps on many feet


REPU'BLIC, _s._ commonwealth; a government without a King or other hereditary head


REPU'GNANT, _a._ disobedient; contrary; opposite


REPU'LSE, _v.a._ beat back; drive off REPUTA'TION, _s._ character of good or bad; credit


REPU'TE, _s._ character; reputation


REQUE'ST, _s._ petition; entreaty; demand


RE'QUIEM, _s._ a hymn, in which they ask for the dead, requiem or rest


REQUISITE, _a._ necessary


RE'SCUE, _v.a._ set free from any violence, confinement, or danger


RESE'MBLE, _v. a_ to be like; to compare; to represent as like something else


RESE'NTMENT, _s._ anger; deep sense of injury


RE'SERVOIR, _s._ a receiver; a large basin which receives water


RESIDENCE, _s._ dwelling; place of abode


RESOU'RCE, _s._ resort; expedient


RESPECTIVE, _a._ particular; relating to particular persons or things


RESPIRA'TION, _s._ the act of breathing; relief from toil


RESPLENDENT, _a._ bright; shining; having a beautiful lustre


RESPONSIBLE, _a._ answerable; accountable


RESTRAINT, _s._ abridgment of liberty; prohibition; restriction


RETALIATION, _s._ requital; return of like for like


RETA'RD, _v.a._ hinder; delay


RE'TINUE, _s._ a number attending upon a principal person; train


RETROSPECTION, _s._ act or faculty of looking backward


RETU'RN, _s._ the act of coming back to the same place; act of restoring or giving back


REVELA'TION, _s._ discovery; communication; apocalypse; the prophecy of St. John, revealing future things


REVE'NUE, _s._ income; annual profits received from lands or other funds RE'VERENCE, _s._ veneration; respect; title of the clergy


REVE'RSE, _v.a._ turn upside down; overturn


RHINO'CERUS, _s._ a large animal with a horn on its nose


RHODODE'NDRON, _s._ the rose-bay


RI'BALDRY, _s._ mean, lewd, brutal language


RI'DICULE, _s._ contemptive mockery


RI'VET, _v.a._ fasten strongly


RI'VULET, _s_ a small river; streamlet; brook


ROMA'NTIC, _a._ wild; fanciful


ROO'KERY, _s._ a nursery of rooks


ROYA'LIST, _s._ adherent to a King


RU'BY, _s._ a precious stone of a red colour


RU'DIMEMT, _s._ the first principle


RU'GGED, _a._ rough; uneven; rude


RU'STIC, _a._ rough; rude; pertaining to the country


RUSTI'CITY, _s._ rural appearance; simplicity


SA'CRAMENT, _s._ an oath; an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace


SA'CRED, _a._ immediately relating to God; holy


SA'CRIFICE, _v.a._ offer to heaven; destroy or give up for the sake of something else; destroy; kill


SAGA'CITY, _a._ quickness of scent; acuteness of discovery


SA'LINE, _a._ consisting of salt; constituting bait


SA'NCTITY, _s._ holiness; goodness; purity


SA'NGUINARY, _a._ cruel; bloody; murderous SA'PPHIRE, _s._ a precious stone, of a blue colour


SAU'RIAN, _s._ a reptile belonging to the order of Sauris or lizards


SAVA'NNAH, _s._ an open meadow without wood


SCABBARD, _s._ the sheath of a sword or dagger


SCE'NERY, _s._ the appearances of places or things; the background of the scenes of a play


SCE'PTRE, _s._ the ensign of royalty borne in the hand


SCI'ENCE, _s._ knowledge; certainty grounded, on demonstration


SCIENTIFIC, _a._ producing demonstrative knowledge


SCREECH, _s._ cry of horror and anguish; harsh cry


SCRI'PTURE, _s._ sacred writing; the Bible


SCU'RRY, _a._ mean; vile; dirty; worthless


SCU'LPTURE, _s._ carved work


SE'AMAN, _s._ a sailor


SE'ASON, _s._ one of the four parts of the year; a fit time


SE'CRET, _s._ something studiously hidden; privacy; solitude; a thing unknown


SECRE'TE, _v.a._ put aside; hide


SECU'RITY, _s._ protection; safety; certainty


SEE'MING, _s._ appearance; show; opinion


SELE'CT, _v.a._ choose in preference to others rejected


SELE'CTION, _s._ the act of choosing; choice


SE'MI-GLO'BULAR, _a._ half circular


SE'MINARY, _s._ place of education


SE'NATOR, _s._ a public counsellor


SENSA'TION, _s._ perception by means of the senses SENSIBI'LITY, _s._ quickness of sensation; delicacy


SENSORIO'LA, _s. plur._ little sensoriums


SENSO'RIUM, _s._ the seat of sense; organ of sensation


SE'NTINEL, _s._ one who watches or keeps guard, to prevent surprise


SEPARATION, _s._ the act of separating; disunion


SE'QUEL, _s._ conclusion; consequence; event


SEQUE'STER, _v.a._ separate from others for the sake of privacy; remove; withdraw


SERE'NITY, _s._ calmness; mild temperature; peace; coolness of mind


SE'RIES, _s._ sequence; order; succession; course


SERRA'TED, _a._ formed with jags or indentures, like the edge of a saw


SE'RVANT, _s._ one who attends another, and acts at his command


SERVICEABLE, _a._ active; diligent; officious; useful; beneficial


SE'VERAL, _a._ different; divers; many


SHA'NTY, _s._ a temporary wooden building


SHE'LTER, _s._ cover; protection


SI'GNAL, _s._ a notice given by a sign; a sign that gives notice


SI'GNIFY, _v.a._ to declare; to make known; to declare by some token or sign; to express; to mean


SILT, _s._ mud; slime; consisting of mud


SI'MILAR, _a._ like; having resemblance


SIMPLICITY, _s._ plainness; not cunning; silliness


SIMULTANEOUS, _a._ acting together; existing at the same time


SINCE'RITY, _s._ honesty of intention


SI'NGER, _s._ one that tings; one whose profession or business is to sing


SI'NGULAR, _a._ single; particular SI'TUATE, _part. a._ placed with respect to anything else; consisting


SKE'LETON, _a._ the bones of the body preserved together, as much as can be, in their natural situation


SKI'RMISH, _s._ slight fight; contest


SLA'TY, _a._ having the nature of slate


SLEIGHT, _s._ artful trick; dexterous practice


SLU'GGISH, _a._ slow; slothful; lazy, inactive


SOBRI'ETY, _s._ soberness; calmness; gravity


SOCI'ETY, _s._ company; community


SO'CKET, _s._ a hollow pipe; the receptacle of the eye


SO'LDIER, _s._ a fighting man; a warrior


SO'LEMN, _a._ religiously grave; awful; grave


SOLE'MNITY, _s._ gravity; religious ceremony


SOLI'CITOUS, _a._ anxious; careful; concerned


SOLI'CITUDE, _s._ anxiety; carefulness


SO'LID, _a._ not liquid; not fluid; not hollow; compact; strong; firm; sound; true; profound; grave


SOLI'LOQUY, _s._ a discourse made by one in solitude to himself


SO'LITARY, _a._ living alone; not having company


SO'LITUDE, _s._ loneliness; a lonely place


SO'RROW, _s._ grief; pain for something past; sadness


SOU'THERN, _a._ belonging to the south


SO'VEREIGN, _s._ supreme lord.


SPA'NGLE, _s._ any little thing sparkling and shining


SPA'NIEL, _s._ a dog used for sport in the field, remarkable for tenacity and obedience


SPEA'KER, _s._ one that speaks; the prolocutor of the Commons


SPE'CIES, _s._ a sort; class of nature; show


SPECIMEN, _s._ sample; a part of any thing exhibited, that the rest may be known


SPE'CTACLE, _s._ a show; sight


SPECTA'TOR, _s._ a looker-on; a beholder


SPECULA'TION, _s._ examination by the eye; view; spy


SPHE'RICAL, _a._ round; globular


SPI'CULA, _s. plur._ little spikes


SPI'CY, _a._ producing spice; aromatic


SPI'DER, _s._ the animal that spins a web for flies


SPI'RAL, _a._ curved; winding; circularly involved


SPI'RIT, _s._ breath; soul of man; apparition; temper


SPI'RITUAL, _a._ that which regards divinity; that which regards the soul; not temporal


SPLE'NDID, _a._ showy; magnificent; pompous


STABI'LITY, _s._ steadiness; strength to stand


STA'GNANT, _a._ motionless; still


STA'GNATE, _v.a._ lie motionless; have no stream


STA'NDARD, _s._ an ensign in war; a settled rate


STA'RLING, _s._ a bird that may be taught to whistle, and articulate words


STA'TESMAN, _s._ a politician; one employed in public affairs


STA'TION, _v.a._ place in a certain post or place


STA'TUE, _s._ an image; solid representation of any living being


STA'TURE, _s._ the height of any animal


STE'RIL, _a._ barren; unfruitful STO'IC, _s._ an ancient philosopher of a particular sect, that met under the _Stoa_ or portico of the temple


STO'ICAL, _a._ pertaining to the Stoics


STRA'TAGEM, _s._ an artifice in war; a trick by which some advantage is gained


STRU'CTURE, _s._ building; form


STRU'GGLE, _v.n._ labour; strive; contend


STU'DENT, _s._ a bookish man; a scholar


STUPE'NDOUS, _a._ wonderful; amazing; astonishing


STU'PIFY, _v.a._ make stupid; deprive of sensibility


SUB-DIVI'DE, _v.a._ to divide a part into more parts


SUBDIVI'SION, _s._ the act of subdividing; the parts distinguished by a second division


SUBDU'E, _v.a._ crush; oppress; conquer; tame


SUB'JECT, _s._ one who lives under the dominion of another; that on which any operation is performed


SUBME'RGE, _v.a._ to put under water; to drown


SUBMI'SSIVE, _a._ humble


SU'BSEQUENT, _a._ following in train


SUBSI'STENCE, _s._ competence; means of supporting life; inherence in something else


SU'BSTANCE, _s._ something real, not imaginary; wealth; means of life


S'UBSTITUTE, _s._ one placed by another to act with delegated power


SUBTERRA'NEOUS, _a._ living under the earth


SUBVE'RSION, _s._ overthrow; ruin


SU'CCEED, _v.a._ follow; prosper


SUCCE'SSFUL, _a._ prosperous; happy; fortunate SUCCE'SSION, _s._ a series of persons or things following one another; a lineage


SU'CCOUR, _s._ aid; assistance; help in distress


SU'CCULENT, _a._ juicy; moist


SU'DDEN, _a._ coming unexpectedly; hasty; violent


SU'FFER, _v.a._ bear; undergo; endure; permit


SUFFI'CE, _v.n._ be enough; be sufficient; be equal to the end, or purpose


SUFFI'CE, _v.a._ afford; supply; satisfy


SUFFI'CIENT, _a._ equal to any end or purpose


SU'LLY, _v.a._ spoil; tarnish; dirty; spot


SU'LTRY, _a._ hot and close


SU'MMON, _v.a._ call up; raise; admonish to appear


SU'MPTUOUS, _a._ costly; expensive; splendid


SUPE'RB, _a._ grand; pompous; lofty; magnificent


SUPERINCU'MBENT, _a._ lying on the top of something else


SUPERINDU'CE, _v.a._ bring in as an addition to something else


SUPERINTE'NDENCE, _s._ superior care; the act of overseeing with authority


SUPERINTEN'DENT, _s._ one who overlooks others authoritatively


SUPE'RIOR, _a._ higher; greater in dignity or excellence; preferable; upper


SUPERIO'RITY, _s._ pre-eminence; the quality of being greater or higher than another


SUPERSE'DE, _v.a._ make void by superior power


SUPERSTI'TIOUS, _a._ full of idle fancies or scruples with regard to religion


SUPPLY', _v.n._ fill up a deficiency; yield; afford; accommodate; furnish


SUPPLY', _s._ relief of want; cure of deficiencies


SUPPO'RT, _s._ act or power of sustaining; prop


SUPPO'RT, _v.a._ sustain; prop; endure


SUPPO'SE, _v.a._ admit without proof; imagine


SU'RFACE, _s._ superficies; outside


S'URPLUS, _s._ overplus; what remains when use is satisfied


SURROU'ND, _v.a._ environ; encompass; enclose on all sides


SURVE'Y, _v.a._ view as examining; measure and estimate land; overlook


SUSCE'PTIBLE, _a._ capable of anything


SUSPI'CION, _s._ the act of suspecting; imagination of something ill without proof


SWA'LLOW, _v.n._ take down the throat; take in


SY'CAMORE, _s._ a tree


SY'COPHANT, _s._ tale-bearer


SY'MMETRY, _s._ adaptation of parts to each other; proportion; harmony


SY'MPHONY, _s._ harmony of mingled sounds


SY'NAGOGUE, _s._ a Jewish place of worship


SY'STEM, _s._ any combination of many things acting together


SYSTEMA'TIC, _a._ methodical; written or formed with regular subordination of one part to another


TA'BLET, _s._ a small level surface; a surface written on or painted


TA'BULAR, _a._ set in the form of tables or synopses


TA'CTICS, _s._ the art of ranging men on the field of battle


TA'FFETA, _s._ a thin silk


TA'NKARD, _s._ a large vessel with a cover for strong drink TA'PER, _v.n._ grow gradually smaller


TA'TTOO, _v.a._ mark by staining on the skin


TA'WDRY, _a._ meanly showy; showy without elegance


TA'XATION, _s._ the act of loading with taxes; accusation


TE'CHNICAL, _a._ belonging to the arts; not in common or popular use


TE'LESCOPE, _s._ a long glass by which distant objects are viewed


TEA'CHER, _s._ one who teaches; an instructor


TE'MPERANCE, _s._ moderation in meat and drink; free from ardent passion


TE'MPERATE, _a._ moderate in meat and drink; free from ardent passion; not excessive


TE'MPERATURE, _s._ constitution of nature; degree of any qualities; moderation


TE'MPLE, _s._ a place appropriated to acts of religion; the upper part of the sides of the head


TE'MPORAL, _a._ measured by time secular; not spiritual


TEMPTA'TION, _s._ the act of tempting


TENA'CITY, _s._ adhesion of one part to another


TE'NDENCY, _s._ direction or course toward any place, object, inference, or result


TE'NDER, _a._ soft; sensible; delicate; gentle; mild; young; weak, as _tender_ age


TE'NDRIL, _s._ the clasp of a vine or other climbing plant


TE'NEMENT, _s._ anything held by a tenant


TENU'ITY, _s._ thinness; smallness; poverty


TE'RMINATE, _v.n._ have an end; be limited; end


TERMINA'TION, _s._ the end


TERRE'STRIAL, _a._ earthly TE'RRIBLE, _a._ dreadful; formidable; causing fear


TE'RRIER, _s._ a kind of dog


TE'RRITORY, _s._ land; country


TE'RROR, _s._ fear communicated; fear received; the cause of fear


TE'XTURE, _s._ the act of weaving; a web; a thing woven; combination of parts


THE'REFORE, _ad._ for this reason; consequently


THOU'SAND, _a._ or _s._ the number of ten hundred


TIDE, _s._ time; alternate ebb and flow of the sea


TI'MID, _a._ fearful; wanting courage


TI'MOROUS, _a._ fearful; terrified; susceptible of fear; capable of being frightened

TI'TLE, _s._ a general head comprising particulars; an appellation of honour; claim of right; the first page of a book, telling its name, and generally its subject

TO'CSIN, _s._ an alarm-bell


TO'RPID, _a._ motionless; sluggish


TO'RTURE, _s._ torments judicially inflicted; pain by which guilt is punished, or confession extorted


TO'RTURE, _v.a._ punish with tortures; torment


TOUR, _s._ (pronounced _toor_) a journey for pleasure


TOU'RIST, _s._ one who travels for pleasure


TO'WARD, _prep._ in a direction to; near to


TOW'ER, _s._ high building; fortress; an elevation


TRADI'TIONAL, _a._ delivered by tradition


TRA'GEDY, _s._ any mournful or dreadful event


TRA'GIC, _a._ mournful, calamitous


TRA'GI-CO'MEDY, _s._ a drama compounded of merry and serious things TRAIN, _v.a._ draw along; entice; educate


TRA'NQUIL, _a._ quiet; peaceful


TRANQUI'LLITY, _a._ quietness; peace; freedom from trouble or annoyance


TRANSA'CT, _v.a._ manage; negotiate; perform


TRANSA'CTION, _s._ negotiation; management


TRA'NSIENT, _a._ short; momentary


TRANSI'TION, _s._ removal; passage from one to another; change


TRANSMI'T, _v.a._ send from one place to another


TRANSPA'RENT, _a._ clear; translucent


TRA'VEL, _s._ journey; labour; toil


TRA'VEL, _v.n._ make travels; move; go


TRA'VERSE, _v.a._ to cross; to lay athwart; to cross by way of opposition; to wander over


TREA'CHEROUS, _a._ faithless; guilty of deserting or betraying


TREA'CHERY, _s._ perfidy; breach of faith


TREA'SURER, _s._ one who has the care of money; one who has the charge of treasure


TRE'LLIS, _s._ a structure of iron, wood, or osier, the parts crossing each other like a lattice


TREME'NDOUS, _a._ dreadful; horrible


TRE'MOUR, _s._ the state of trembling or quivering


TRE'MULOUS, _a._ trembling; fearful; quivering


TREPIDA'TION, _s._ fear; terror; hurry; confused haste; terrified flight


TRI'ANGLE, _s._ a figure of three angles


TRIBU'NAL, _s._ the seat of a judge; a court of justice


TRI'BUTE, _s._ payment in acknowledgment; subjection TRI'PLE, _a._ threefold; treble


TRI'UMPH, _s._ victory; conquest


TRIU'MPHANT, _a._ victorious; celebrating a victory


TRO'PHY, _s._ something shown or treasured up in proof of victory


TRO'UBLE, _v.n._ disturb; afflict; tease; disorder


TRU'NCATE, _v.a._ maim; cut short


TRU'NNIONS, _s._ the knobs or bunchings of a gun, that bear it on the checks of a carriage


TUBE, _s._ a pipe; a long hollow body


TU'BULAR, _a._ resembling a pipe or trunk


TUMU'LTUOUS, _a._ uproarious; noisy


TU'NIC, _s._ part of the Roman dress, natural covering; tunicle


TU'NNEL, _s._ funnel; shaft of a chimney; passage underground


TU'RBAN, _s._ the covering worn by the Turks on their heads


TU'RPITUDE, _s._ shamefulness; baseness


TY'RANNY, _s._ severity; rigour


TY'RANT, _s._ an absolute monarch governing imperiously; a cruel and severe master; an oppressor


U'LTIMATE, _a._ intended as the last resort


UNABA'TED, _part._ not lessened in force or intensity


UNACCOU'NTABLE, _a._ not explicable; not to be solved by reason; not subject


UNA'LTERABLE, _a._ unchangeable; immutable


UNAPRROA'CHED, _a._ inaccessible


UNAWA'RE, _ad._ unexpectedly; without thought


UNCE'RTAINTY, _s._ want of certainty; inaccuracy UNCHA'NGEABLE, _a._ not subject to variation


UNCO'MFORTABLE, _a._ affording no comfort; gloomy


UNCU'LTIVATED, _a._ not instructed; uncivilised


UNDAU'NTED, _a._ unsubdued by fear; not depressed


UNDERGO', _v.a._ suffer; sustain; support


UNDERMI'NE, _v.a._ to excavate under


UNDIMI'NISHED, _a._ not to be lessened; incapable of being lessened


UNDISCO'VERED, _a._ not seen; not found out


UNDISTI'NGUISHABLE, _a._ not to be distinguished


UNFO'RTUNATE, _a._ unsuccessful; unprosperous


U'NIFORM, _a._ conforming to one rule; similar to itself


UNIFO'RMITY, _s._ conforming to one pattern


UNINHA'BITABLE, _a._ unfit to be inhabited


UNINI'TIATED, _part._ ignorant of; not conversant with


UNIVE'RSAL, _s._ the whole


U'NIVERSE, _s._ the general system of things


UNJU'STIFIABLE, _a._ not to be defended


UNMO'ULTED, _part._ unchanged in feather


UNPA'LATEABLE, _a._ nauseous, disgusting


UNRETA'LIATED, _part._ unreturned, applied to injuries


UNSA'Y, _v.a._ retract; deny what has been said


UNSUCCE'SSFUL, _a._ not having the wished event


UNSWA'THE, _v.a._ unbandage


UNVI'TIATED, _part._ pure; not defiled


UNWIE'LDY, _a._ unmanageable; not easily moving, or moved URGE, _v.a._ press; incite; provoke; solicit


U'SHER, _s._ an under-teacher; one whose business it is to introduce strangers, or walk before a person of high rank


UTE'NSIL, _s._ an instrument for any use, such as the vessels of the kitchen, or tools of a trade


VALE'RIAN, _s._ a plant


VA'LLEY, _s._ low ground; a hollow between two hills


VA'LUABLE, _a._ precious; worthy


VA'LUE, _s._ price; worth; rate


VAN, _s._ the front of an army; the first line


VANI'LLA, _s._ a plant, the fruit of which is used to scent chocolate


VA'NISH, _v.n._ lose perceptible existence; disappear; be lost; pass away


VA'RIANCE, _s._ discord; disagreement


VA'RIEGATE, _v.a._ diversify; stain with different colours


VA'RIOUS, _a._ different; several; diversified


VA'RY, _v.a._ change; change to something else


VA'TICAN, _s._ the palace of the Pope at Rome


VEGETA'TION, _s._ the power of producing the growth of plants


VEGETA'TIVE, _a._ having the power to produce growth in plants


VE'HICLE, _s._ a conveyance


VE'NERABLE, _a._ old; to be treated with reverence


VE'NISON, _s._ game; the flesh of deer


VENTILA'TION, _s._ the act of fanning


VENTILA'TOR, _s._ an instrument contrived to supply close places with fresh air


VE'NTURE, _v.n._ dare; run hazard; engage in


VE'RIFY, _v.n._ justify against the charge of falsehood; confirm; to prove true


VE'RILY, _ad._ in truth; certainly


VE'SSEL, _s._ any capacity; anything containing; the containing parts of an animal body


VESU'VIUS, _s._ a burning mountain near Naples


VICI'NITY, _s._ nearness; state of being near


VICI'SSITUDE, _s._ regular change; revolution


VI'CTIM, _s._ sacrifice; something destroyed


VI'CTORY, _s._ conquest; triumph


VI'GIL, _s._ watch; a fast kept before a holiday


VI'GOROUS, _a._ full of strength and life


VI'GOROUSLY, _ad._ energetically; forcibly; with force; without weakness


VI'LLAGE, _s._ a small collection of houses


VI'NDICATE, _v.a._ justify; clear; assert; revenge


VI'NTAGE, _s._ the produce of the vine for the year; the time in which grapes are gathered


VI'OLATION, _s._ infringement of a law


VI'OLENT, _a._ forcible; unseasonably vehement


VI'PER, _s._ a serpent; anything mischievous


VI'PERINE, _a._ belonging to a viper


VI'RULENT, _a._ poisonous; venomous; poisoned in the mind; malignant


VI'SIBLE, _a._ perceptible by the eye; apparent

VI'SION, _s._ sight; the faculty of seeing; the act of seeing; a supernatural appearance; a spectre; a phantom; a dream; something shown in a dream
VI'SUAL, _a._ using the power of sight

VI'TIATE, _v.a._ deprave; spoil; make less pure


VOLCA'NO, _s._ a burning mountain


VO'TARY, _s._ one devoted, as by a vow, to any particular service, worship, study, or state of life


VU'LTURE, _s._ a large bird of prey


WA'NTONLY, _ad._ sportively; carelessly


WEA'PON, _s._ an instrument of offence; something with which one is armed to hurt another


WI'LDERNESS, _s._ a desert


WI'STFUL, _a._ attentive; earnest; full of thought


WO'NDERFUL, _a._ admirable; strange; astonishing


WO'RSHIP, _v.a._ adore; honour; venerate


ZEST, _s._ relish


ZOOLO'GICAL, _a._ that which relates to animals



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