The Illustrated London Reading Book by Various - HTML preview

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Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield,
Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke: How jocund did they drive their team afield! How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke!

[Illustration]

Let not Ambition mock their useful toil, Their homely joys, and destiny obscure; Nor Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile The short and simple annals of the poor. The boast of Heraldry, the pomp of Pow'r, And all that Beauty, all that Wealth e'er gave, Await alike th' inevitable hour--
The paths of glory lead but to the grave.

Nor you, ye proud, impute to these the fault, If Mem'ry o'er their tombs no trophies raise, Where through the long-drawn aisle, and fretted vault, The pealing anthem swells the note of praise.

Can storied urn or animated bust
Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath? Can Honour's voice provoke the silent dust, Or Flatt'ry sooth the dull, cold ear of Death?

Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid
Some heart once pregnant with celestial fire; Hands that the rod of empire might have sway'd, Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre.

But Knowledge to their eyes her ample page, Rich with the spoils of time, did ne'er unroll; Chill Penury repress'd their noble rage, And froze the genial current of the soul.

Full many a gem of purest ray serene The dark unfathom'd caves of ocean bear: Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, And waste its sweetness on the desert air.

Some village Hampden, that with dauntless breast The little tyrant of his fields withstood;
Some mute inglorious Milton, here may rest, Some Cromwell guiltless of his country's blood.

Th' applause of list'ning senates to command, The threats of pain and ruin to despise, To scatter plenty o'er a smiling land, And read their hist'ry in a nation's eyes,

Their lot forbade: nor circumscribed alone Their growing virtues, but their crimes confined; Forbade to wade through slaughter to a throne, And shut the gates of mercy on mankind;

The struggling pangs of conscious truth to hide, To quench the blushes of ingenuous shame, Or heap the shrine of Luxury and Pride With incense kindled at the Muse's flame. Far from the madding crowd's ignoble strife Their sober wishes never learn'd to stray; Along the cool sequester'd vale of life They kept the noiseless tenour of their way.

Yet ev'n these bones from insult to protect,
Some frail memorial still erected nigh,
With uncouth rhymes and shapeless sculpture deck'd, Implores the passing tribute of a sigh.

Their names, their years, spelt by th' unletter'd Muse, The place of fame and elegy supply;
And many a holy text around she strews,
That teach the rustic moralist to die.

For who, to dumb forgetfulness a prey, This pleasing anxious being e'er resign'd, Left the warm precincts of the cheerful day, Nor cast one longing, ling'ring look behind?

On some fond breast the parting soul relies, Some pious drops the closing eye requires; Ev'n from the tomb the voice of Nature cries, Ev'n in our ashes live their wonted fires.

For thee, who, mindful of th' unhonour'd dead, Dost in these lines their artless tale relate; If chance, by lonely Contemplation led, Some kindred spirit shall inquire thy fate,

[Illustration]

Haply some hoary-headed swain may say, "Oft have we seen him at the peep of dawn, Brushing with hasty steps the dew away, To meet the sun upon the upland lawn.

"There, at the foot of yonder nodding beech, That wreathes its old fantastic roots so high, His listless length at noontide would he stretch, And pore upon the brook that bubbles by.

"Hard by yon wood, now smiling as in scorn, Mutt' ring his wayward fancies he would rove; Now drooping, woful, wan, like one forlorn, Or crazed with care, or cross'd in hopeless lore.

"One morn, I miss'd him on th' accustom'd hill, Along the heath, and near his fav'rite tree; Another came, nor yet beside the rill,
Nor up the lawn, nor at the wood was he;

"The next, with dirges due, in sad array,
Slow through the churchway path we saw him borne. Approach and read (for thou can'st read) the lay, Graved on the stone beneath yon aged thorn."

[Illustration: THE EPITAPH.]

Here rests his head upon the lap of Earth-- Youth to Fortune and to Fame unknown: Fair Science frown'd not on his humble birth, And Melancholy mark'd him for her own.

Large was his bounty, and his soul sincere, Heav'n did a recompense as largely send: He gave to Mis'ry all he had--a tear;
He gain'd from Heav'n, 'twas all he wish'd--a friend.

No farther seek his merits to disclose, Or draw his frailties from their dread abode; (There they alike in trembling hope repose) The bosom of his Father and his God.

GRAY.

 

* * * * *

 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.

 

[Illustration: Letter M.]

Marvellous indeed have been the productions of modern scientific investigations, but none surpass the wonder-working Electro-magnetic Telegraphic Machine; and when Shakspeare, in the exercise of his unbounded imagination, made _Puck_, in obedience to _Oberon's_ order to him--

"Be here again

 

Ere the leviathan can swim a league."

 

reply--

 

"I'll put a girdle round the earth

In forty minutes"--
how little did our immortal Bard think that this light fanciful offer of a "fairy" to "the King of the Fairies" would, in the nineteenth century, not only be substantially realised, but surpassed as follows:--

The electric telegraph would convey intelligence more than twenty-eight thousand times round the earth, while Puck, at his vaunted speed, was crawling round it only ONCE!

On every instrument there is a dial, on which are inscribed the names of the six or eight stations with which it usually communicates. When much business is to be transacted, a boy is necessary for each of these instruments; generally, however, one lad can, without practical difficulty, manage about three; but, as the whole of them are ready for work by night as well as by day, they are incessantly attended, in watches of eight hours each, by these satellite boys by day and by men at night.

As fast as the various messages for delivery, flying one after another from the ground-floor up the chimney, reach the level of the instruments, they are brought by the superintendent to the particular one by which they are to be communicated; and its boy, with the quickness characteristic of his age, then instantly sets to work.

His first process is by means of the electric current to sound a little bell, which simultaneously alarms all the stations on his line; and although the attention of the sentinel at each is thus attracted, yet it almost instantly evaporates from all excepting from that to the name of which he causes the electric needle to point, by which signal the clerk at that station instantly knows that the forthcoming question is addressed to _him_; and accordingly, by a corresponding signal, he announces to the London boy that he is ready to receive it. By means of a brass handle fixed to the dial, which the boy grasps in each hand, he now begins rapidly to spell off his information by certain twists of his wrists, each of which imparts to the needles on his dial, as well as to those on the dial of his distant correspondent, a convulsive movement designating the particular letter of the telegraphic alphabet required. By this arrangement he is enabled to transmit an ordinary-sized word in three seconds, or about twenty per minute. In the case of any accident to the wire of one of his needles, he can, by a different alphabet, transmit his message by a series of movements of the single needle, at the reduced rate of about eight or nine words per minute.

While a boy at one instrument is thus occupied in transmitting to--say Liverpool, a message, written by its London author in ink which is scarcely dry, another boy at the adjoining instrument is, by the reverse of the process, attentively reading the quivering movements of the needles of his dial, which, by a sort of St. Vitus's dance, are rapidly spelling to him a message, _via_ the wires of the South Western Railway, say from Gosport, which word by word he repeats aloud to an assistant, who, seated by his side, writes it down (he receives it about as fast as his attendant can conveniently write it); on a sheet of; paper, which, as soon as the message is concluded, descends to the "booking-office." When inscribed in due form, it is without delay despatched to its destination, by messenger, cab, or express, according to order.

SIR F.B. HEAD.

 

[Illustration: WORKING THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.]

 

* * * * *

 

THE RAINBOW.

How glorious is thy girdle cast O'er mountain, tower, and town,
Or mirror'd in the ocean vast-- A thousand fathoms down!

As fresh in yon horizon dark, As young thy beauties seem,
As when the eagle from the ark First sported in thy beam.

For faithful to its sacred page, Heaven still rebuilds thy span,
Nor let the type grow pale with age, That first spoke peace to man.

CAMPBELL.

 

[Illustration: A LUNAR RAINBOW.]

The moon sometimes exhibits the extraordinary phenomenon of an iris or rainbow, by the refraction of her rays in drops of rain during the night-time. This appearance is said to occur only at the time of full moon, and to be indicative of stormy and rainy weather. One is described in the _Philosophical Transactions_ as having been seen in 1810, during a thick rain; but, subsequent to that time, the same person gives an account of one which perhaps was the most extraordinary of which we have any record. It became visible about nine o'clock, and continued, though with very different degrees of brilliancy, until past two. At first, though a strongly marked bow, it was without colour, but afterwards became extremely vivid, the red, green, and purple being the most strongly marked. About twelve it was the most splendid in appearance. The wind was very high at the time, and a drizzling rain falling occasionally.
HOPE

[Illustration: THOMAS CAMPBELL, "THE BARD OF HOPE."]

At summer eve, when Heaven's ethereal bow Spans with bright arch the glittering hills below, Why to yon mountain turns the musing eye, Whose sunbright summit mingles with the sky? Why do those cliffs of shadowy tint appear More sweet than all the landscape smiling near? 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view, And robes the mountain in its azure hue. Thus, with delight, we linger to survey,
The promised joys of life's unmeasured way; Thus from afar each dim-discovered scene More pleasing seems than all the past hath been; And every form that fancy can repair
From dark oblivion, glows divinely there.
Auspicious Hope! in thy sweet garden, grow Wreaths for each toil, a charm for every woe. Won by their sweets, in nature's languid hour, The way-worn pilgrim seeks thy summer bower; Then, as the wild bee murmurs on the wing, What peaceful dreams thy handmaid spirits bring! What viewless forms th' Eolian organ play, And sweep the furrow'd lines of anxious care away! Angel of life! thy glittering wings explore
Earth's loneliest bounds and ocean's wildest shore. Lo! to the wintry winds the pilot yields
His bark, careering o'er unfathom'd fields; Now on Atlantic waves he rides afar
Where Andes, giant of the western star,
With meteor-standard to the winds unfurl'd, Looks from his throne of clouds o'er half the world. Poor child of danger, nursling of the storm, Sad are the woes that wreck thy manly form! Rocks, waves, and winds the shatter'd bark delay-- Thy heart is sad, thy home is far away.
But Hope can here her moonlight vigils keep, And sing to charm the spirit of the deep.
Swift as yon streamer lights the starry pole, Her visions warm the watchman's pensive soul. His native hills that rise in happier climes; The grot that heard his song of other times; His cottage home, his bark of slender sail, His glassy lake, and broomwood-blossom'd vale, Rush in his thought; he sweeps before the wind, And treads the shore he sigh'd to leave behind!

_Pleasures of Hope._

 

* * * * *

 

LIGHTHOUSES.

 

[Illustration: Letter H.]

Hartlepool Lighthouse is a handsome structure of white freestone--the building itself being fifty feet in height; but, owing to the additional height of the cliff, the light is exhibited at an elevation of nearly eighty-five feet above high-water mark. On the eastern side of the building is placed a balcony, supporting a lantern, from which a small red light is exhibited, to indicate that state of the tide which will admit of the entrance of ships into the harbour; the corresponding signal in the daytime being a red ball hoisted to the top of the flag-staff. The lighthouse is furnished with an anemometer and tidal gauge; and its appointments are altogether of the most complete description. It is chiefly, however, with regard to the system adopted in the lighting arrangements that novelty presents itself.

The main object, in the instance of a light placed as a beacon to warn mariners of their proximity to a dangerous coast, is to obtain the greatest possible intensity and amount of penetrating power. A naked or simple light is therefore seldom, if ever employed; but whether it proceed from the combustion of oil or gas, it is equally necessary that it should be combined with some arrangement of optical apparatus, in order that the rays emitted may be collected, and projected in such a direction as to render them available to the object in view; and in all cases a highly-polished metal surface is employed as a reflector.

[Illustration: HARTLEPOOL LIGHTHOUSE.]

In the Hartlepool Lighthouse the illuminative medium is _gas_. The optical apparatus embraces three-fourths of the circumference of the circle which encloses the light, and the whole of the rays emanating from that part of the light opposed to the optical arrangement are reflected or refracted (as the case may be), so that they are projected from the lighthouse in such a direction as to be visible from the surface of the ocean.
INTEGRITY.

[Illustration: Letter C.]

Can anything (says Plato) be more delightful than the hearing or the speaking of truth? For this reason it is that there is no conversation so agreeable that of a man of integrity, who hears without any intention to betray, and speaks without any intention to deceive. As an advocate was pleading the cause of his client in Rome, before one of the praetors, he could only produce a single witness in a point where the law required the testimony of two persons; upon which the advocate insisted on the integrity of the person whom he had produced, but the praetor told him that where the law required two witnesses he would not accept of one, though it were Cato himself. Such a speech, from a person who sat at the head of a court of justice, while Cato was still living, shows us, more than a thousand examples, the high reputation this great man had gained among his contemporaries on account of his sincerity.

[Illustration]

2. As I was sitting (says an ancient writer) with some senators of Bruges, before the gate of the Senate-House, a certain beggar presented himself to us, and with sighs and tears, and many lamentable gestures, expressed to us his miserable poverty, and asked our alms, telling us at the same time, that he had about him a private maim and a secret mischief, which very shame restrained him from discovering to the eyes of men. We all pitying the case of the poor man, gave him each of us something, and departed. One, however, amongst us took an opportunity to send his servant after him, with orders to inquire of him what that private infirmity might be which he found such cause to be ashamed of, and was so loth to discover. The servant overtook him, and delivered his commission: and after having diligently viewed his face, breast, arms, legs, and finding all his limbs in apparent soundness, "Why, friend," said he, "I see nothing whereof you have any such reason to complain." "Alas! sir," said the beggar, "the disease which afflicts me is far different from what you conceive, and is such as you cannot discern; yet it is an evil which hath crept over my whole body: it has passed through my very veins and marrow in such a manner that there is no member of my body that is able to work for my daily bread. This disease is by some called idleness, and by others sloth." The servant, hearing this singular apology, left him in great anger, and returned to his master with the above account; but before the company could send again to make further inquiry after him, the beggar had very prudently withdrawn himself.

3. Action, we are assured, keeps the soul in constant health; but idleness corrupts and rusts the mind; for a man of great abilities may by negligence and idleness become so mean and despicable as to be an incumbrance to society and a burthen to himself. When the Roman historians described an extraordinary man, it generally entered into his character, as an essential, that he was _incredibili industria, diligentia singulari_--of incredible industry, of singular diligence and application. And Cato, in Sallust, informs the Senate, that it was not so much the arms as the industry of their ancestors, which advanced the grandeur of Rome, and made her mistress of the world.

DR. DODD.

 

* * * * *

 

RAFT OF GAMBIER ISLANDERS

The group in the Pacific Ocean called the Gambier Islands are but thinly inhabited, but possess a good harbour. Captain Beechey, in his "Narrative of a Voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Straits," tells us that several of the islands, especially the largest, have a fertile appearance. The Captain gives an interesting account of his interview with some of the natives, who approached the ship in rafts, carrying from sixteen to twenty men each, as represented in the Engraving.

[Illustration: RAFT OF GAMBIER ISLANDERS.]

"We were much pleased," says the Captain, "with the manner of lowering their matting sail, diverging on different courses, and working their paddles, in the use of which they had great power, and were well skilled, plying them together, or, to use a nautical phrase, 'keeping stroke.' They had no other weapons but long poles, and were quite naked, with the exception of a banana leaf cut into strips, and tied about their loins; and one or two persons wore white turbans." They timidly approached both the ship and the barge, but would upset any small boats within their reach; not, however, from any malicious intention, but from thoughtlessness and inquisitiveness. Captain Beechey approached them in the gig, and gave them several presents, for which they, in return, threw him some bundles of paste, tied up in large leaves, which was the common food of the natives. They tempted the Captain and his crew with cocoa-nuts and roots, and invited their approach by performing ludicrous dances; but, as soon as the visitors were within reach, all was confusion. A scuffle ensued, and on a gun being fired over their heads, all but four instantly plunged into the sea. The inhabitants of these islands are stated to be well-made, with upright and graceful figures. Tattooing seems to be very commonly practised, and some of the patterns are described as being very elegant.

* * * * *

 

CHRISTIAN FREEDOM.

"He is the freeman whom the truth makes free," Who first of all the bands of Satan breaks;
Who breaks the bands of sin, and for his soul,
In spite of fools, consulteth seriously;
In spite of fashion, perseveres in good;
In spite of wealth or poverty, upright;
Who does as reason, not as fancy bids;
Who hears Temptation sing, and yet turns not Aside; sees Sin bedeck her flowery bed,
And yet will not go up; feels at his heart
The sword unsheathed, yet will not sell the truth; Who, having power, has not the will to hurt;
Who feels ashamed to be, or have a slave,
Whom nought makes blush but sin, fears nought but God; Who, finally, in strong integrity
Of soul, 'midst want, or riches, or disgrace
Uplifted, calmly sat, and heard the waves
Of stormy Folly breaking at his feet,
Nor shrill with praise, nor hoarse with foal reproach, And both despised sincerely; seeking this
Alone, the approbation of his God,
Which still with conscience witness'd to his peace. This, this is freedom, such as Angels use,
And kindred to the liberty of God!

POLLOCK.

 

* * * * *

 

THE POLAR REGIONS.

The adventurous spirit of Englishmen has caused them to fit out no less than sixty expeditions within the last three centuries and a half, with the sole object of discovering a north-west passage to India. Without attempting even to enumerate these baffled essays, we will at once carry our young readers to these dreary regions--dreary, merely because their capabilities are unsuited to the necessities which are obvious to all, yet performing their allotted office in the economy of the world, and manifesting the majesty and the glory of our great Creator.

[Illustration: SIR JAMES ROSS'S SHIPS BESET IN A PACK OF ICE.]

Winter in the Arctic Circle is winter indeed: there is no sun to gladden with his beams the hearts of the voyagers; but all is wrapt in darkness, day and night, save when the moon chances to obtrude her faint rays, only to make visible the desolation of the scene. The approach of winter is strongly marked. Snow begins to fall in August, and the ground is covered to the depth of two or three feet before October. As the cold augments, the air bears its moisture in the form of a frozen fog, the icicles of which are so sharp as to be painful to the skin. The surface of the sea steams like a lime-kiln, caused by the water being still warmer than the superincumbent atmosphere. The mist at last clears, the water having become frozen, and darkness settles on the land. All is silence, broken only by the bark of the Arctic fox, or by the loud explosion of bursting rocks, as the frost penetrates their bosoms.

The crews of exploring vessels, which are frozen firmly in the ice in winter, spend almost the whole of their time in their ships, which in Sir James Ross's expedition (in 1848-49) were well warmed and ventilated. Where there has not been sufficient warmth, their provisions--even brandy--became so frozen as to require to be cut by a hatchet. The mercury in a barometer has frozen so that it might be beaten on an anvil.

As Sir James Ross went in search of Sir John Franklin, he adopted various methods of letting him know (if alive) of assistance being at hand. Provisions were deposited in several marked places; and on the excursions to make these deposits, they underwent terrible fatigue, as well as suffered severely from what is termed "snow blindness." But the greatest display of ingenuity was in capturing a number of white foxes, and fastening copper collars round their necks, on which was engraved a notice of the position of the ships and provisions. It was possible that these animals, which are known to travel very far in search of food, might be captured by the missing voyagers, who would thus be enabled to avail themselves of the assistance intended for them by their noble countrymen. The little foxes, in their desire to escape, sometimes tried to gnaw the bars of their traps; but the cold was so intense, that their tongues froze to the iron, and so their captors had to kill them, to release them from their misery, for they were never wantonly destroyed.

The great Painter of the Universe has not forgotten the embellishment of the Pole. One of the most beautiful phenomena in nature is the Aurora Borealis, or northern lights. It generally assumes the form of an arch, darting flashes of lilac, yellow, or white light towards the heights of heaven. Some travellers state that the aurora are accompanied by a crackling or hissing noise; but Captain Lyon, who listened for hours, says that this is not the case, and that it is merely that the
imagination cannot picture these sudden bursts of light as unaccompanied by noise.

We will now bid farewell to winter, for with returning summer comes the open sea, and the vessels leave their wintry bed. This, however, is attended with much difficulty and danger. Canals have to be cut in the ice, through which to lead the ships to a less obstructed ocean; and, after this had been done in Sir James Ross's case, the ships were hemmed in by a pack of ice, fifty miles in circumference, and were carried along, utterly helpless, at the rate of eight or ten miles daily, for upwards of 250 miles--the navigators fearing the adverse winds might drive them on the rocky coast of Baffin's Bay. At length the wind changed, and carried them clear of ice and icebergs (detached masses of ice, sometimes several hundred feet in height) to the open sea, and back to their native land.

With all its dreariness, we owe much to the ice-bound Pole; to it we are indebted for the cooling breeze and the howling tempest--the beneficent tempest, in spite of all its desolation and woe. Evil and good in nature are comparative: the same thing does what is called harm in one sense, but incalculable good in another. So the tempest, that causes the wreck, and makes widows of happy wives and orphans of joyous children, sets in motion air that would else be stagnant, and become the breath of pestilence and the grave.

[Illustration: MIDSUMMER NIGHT IN THE ARCTIC REGIONS.]

 

* * * * *

 

THE CROWN JEWELS.

 

[Illustration: Letter A.]

All the Crown Jewels, or Regalia, used by the Sovereign on great state occasions, are kept in the Tower of London, where they have been for nearly two centuries. The first express mention made of the Regalia being kept in this palatial fortress, occurs in the reign of Henry III., previously to which they were deposited either in the Treasury of the Temple, or in some religious house dependent upon the Crown. Seldom, however, did the jewels remain in the Tower for any length of time, for they were repeatedly pledged to meet the exigences of the Sovereign. An inventory of the jewels in the Tower, made by order of James I., is of great length; although Henry III., during the Lincolnshire rebellion, in 1536, greatly reduced the value and number of the Royal store. In the reign of Charles II., a desperate attempt was made by Colonel Blood and his accomplices to possess themselves of the Royal Jewels.

The Regalia were originally kept in a small building on the south side of the White Tower; but, in the reign of Charles I., they were
transferred to a strong chamber in the Martin Tower, afterwards called the Jewel Tower. Here they remained until the fire in 1840; when being threatened with destruction from the flames which were raging near them, they were carried away by the warders, and placed for safety in the house of the Governor. In 1841 they were removed to the new Jewel-House, which is much more commodious than the old vaulted chamber in which they were previously shown.

[Illustration: QUEEN'S CROWN.]

The QUEEN'S, or IMPERIAL CROWN was made for the coronation of her present Majesty. It is composed of a cap of purple velvet, enclosed by hoops of silver, richly dight with gems, in the form shown in our Illustration. The arches rise almost to a point instead of being depressed, are covered with pearls, and are surmounted by an orb of brilliants. Upon this is placed a Maltese or cross pattee of
brilliants. Four crosses and four _fleurs-de-lis_ surmount the circlet, all composed of diamonds, the front cross containing the "inestimable sapphire," of the purest and deepest azure, more than two inches long, and an inch broad; and, in the circlet beneath it, is a rock ruby, of enormous size and exquisite colour, _said_ to have been worn by the Black Prince at the battle of Cressy, and by Henry V. at the battle of Agincourt. The circlet is enriched with diamonds, emeralds, sapphires, and rubies. This crown was altered from the one constructed expressly for the coronation of King George IV.: the superb diadem then weighed 5-1/2 lb., and was worn by the King on his return in procession from the Abbey to the Hall at Westminster.

[Illustration: OLD IMPERIAL CROWN.]

The OLD IMPERIAL CROWN (St. Edward's) is the one whose form is so familiar to us from its frequent representation on the coin of the realm, the Royal arms, &c. It was made for the coronation of Charles II., to replace the one broken up and sold during the Civil Wars, which was said to have been worn by Edward the Confessor. It is of gold, and consists of two arches crossing at the top, and rising from a rim or circlet of gold, over a cap of crimson velvet, lined with white taffeta, and turned up with ermine. The base of the arches on each side is covered by a cross pattee; between the crosses are four _fleurs-de-lis_ of gold, which rise out of the circle: the whole of these are splendidly enriched with pearls and precious stones. On the top, at the intersection of the arches, which are somewhat depressed, are a mound and cross of gold the latter richly jewelled, and adorned with three pearls, one on the top, and one pendent at each limb.
[Illustration: PRINCE OF WALES'S CROWN.]

The PRINCE OF WALES'S CROWN is of pure gold, unadorned with jewels. On occasions of state, it is placed before the seat occupied by the
Heir-Apparent to the throne in the House of Lords.

[Illustration: QUEEN'S DIADEM.]

 

[Illustration: TEMPORAL SCEPTRE.]

The QUEEN'S DIADEM was made for the coronation of Marie d'Este, consort of James II., it is adorned with large diamonds, and the upper edge of the circlet is bordered with pearls.

The TEMPORAL SCEPTRE of Queen Victoria is of gold, 2 feet 9 inch in length; the staff is very plain, but the pommel is ornamented with rubies, emeralds, and diamonds. The _fleurs-de-lis_ with which this sceptre was originally adorned have been replaced by golden leaves, bearing the rose, shamrock, and thistle. The cross is variously jewelled, and has in the centre a large table diamond.

[Illustration: SPIRITUAL SCEPTRE.]

Her Majesty's SPIRITUAL SCEPTRE, Rod of Equity, or Sceptre with the Dove, is also of gold, 3 feet 7 inches long, set with diamonds and other precious stones. It is surmounted by an orb, banded with rose diamonds, bearing a cross, on which is the figure of a dove with expanded wings.

The QUEEN'S IVORY SCEPTRE was made for Maria d'Este, consort of James II. It is mounted in gold, and terminated by a golden cross, bearing a dove of white onyx.

[Illustration: AMPULLA.]

The ampulla is an antique vessel of pure gold, used for containing the holy oil at coronations. It resembles an eagle with expanded wings, and is finely chased: the head screws off at the middle of the neck for pouring in the oil; and the neck being hollow to the beak the latter serves as a spout, through which the consecrated oil is poured into

[Illustration: ANOINTING SPOON.]

The ANOINTING SPOON, which is also of pure gold: it has four pearls in the broadest part of the handle, and the bowl of the spoon is finely chased within and without; by its extreme thinness, it appears to be ancient.

[Illustration: QUEEN'S CORONATION BRACELETS.] The ARMILLAE, or BRACELETS, are of solid fine gold, chased, 1-1/2 inch in breadth, edged with rows of pearls. They open by a hinge, and are enamelled with the rose, _fleur-de-lis_, and harp.

[Illustration: IMPERIAL ORB.]

The IMPERIAL ORB, or MOUND, is an emblem of sovereignty, said to have been derived from Imperial Rome, and to have been first adorned with the cross by Constantine, on his conversion to Christianity. It first appears among the Royal insignia of England on the coins of Edward the Confessor. This orb is a ball of gold, 6 inches in diameter, encompassed with a band of gold, set with emeralds, rubies, and pearls. On the top is a remarkably fine amethyst, nearly 1-1/2 inch high, which serves as the foot or pedestal of a rich cross of gold, 32 inches high, encrusted with diamonds; having in the centre, on one side, a sapphire, and an emerald on the other; four large pearls at the angles of the cross, a large pearl at the end of each limb, and three at the base; the height of the orb and cross being 11 inches.

The QUEEN'S ORB is of smaller dimensions than the preceding, but of similar materials and fashion.

 

[Illustration: GOLDEN SALT-CELLAR OF STATE.]

 

[Illustration: STATE SALT-CELLARS.]

The SALT-CELLARS are of singular form and rich workmanship. The most noticeable is--the _Golden Salt-cellar of State,_ which is of pure gold, richly adorned with jewels, and grotesque figures in chased work. Its form is castellated: and the receptacles for the salt are formed by the removal of the tops of the turrets.

In the same chamber with the Crowns, Sceptres, and other Regalia used in the ceremonial of the Coronation, is a very interesting collection of plate, formerly used at Coronation festivals; together with fonts, &c. Amongst these are

The QUEEN'S BAPTISMAL FONT, which is of silver, gilt, tastefully chased, and surmounted by two figures emblematical of the baptismal rite: this font was formerly used at the christening of the Royal family; but a new font of more picturesque design, has lately be n manufactured for her Majesty.

[Illustration: QUEEN'S BAPTISMAL FONT.]

There are, besides, in the collection, a large Silver Wine Fountain, presented by the corporation of Plymouth to Charles II.; two massive Coronation Tankards, of gold; a Banqueting Dish, and other dishes and spoons of gold, used at Coronation festivals; besides a
beautifully-wrought service of Sacramental Plate, employed at the Coronation, and used also in the Chapel of St. Peter in the Tower.

* * * * *

 

WHAT IS TIME?

 

[Illustration: Letter I.]

I ask'd an aged man, a man of cares,
Wrinkled and curved, and white with hoary hairs: "Time is the warp of life," he said; "Oh tell The young, the fair, the gay, to weave 't well!" I ask'd the ancient, venerable dead--
Sages who wrote, and warriors who bled: From the cold grave a hollow murmur flow'd-- "Time sow'd the seed we reap in this abode!" I ask'd a dying sinner, ere the tide
Of life had left his veins: "Time?" he replied, "I've lost it! Ah, the treasure!" and he died. I ask'd the golden sun and silver spheres, Those bright chronometers of days and years: They answer'd: "Time is but a meteor's glare," And bade me for Eternity prepare.
I ask'd the Seasons, in their annual round, Which beautify or desolate the ground;
And they replied (no oracle more wise):
"'Tis Folly's blank, and Wisdom's highest prize!" I ask'd a spirit lost, but oh! the shriek
That pierced my soul! I shudder while I speak. It cried, "A particle! a speck! a mite
Of endless years--duration infinite!"
Of things inanimate, my dial I
Consulted, and it made me this reply:
"Time is the season fair of living well--
The path of glory, or the path of hell."
I ask'd my Bible, and methinks it said:
"Time is the present hour--the past is fled: Live! live to-day; to-morrow never yet
On any human being rose or set."
I ask'd old Father Time himself at last,
But in a moment he flew swiftly past--
His chariot was a cloud, the viewless wind His noiseless steeds, which left no trace behind. I ask'd the mighty Angel who shall stand One foot on sea, and one on solid land;
"By Heaven!" he cried, "I swear the mystery's o'er; Time was," he cried, "but time shall be no more!"

REV. J. MARSDEN.

 

* * * * *

 

SIMPLICITY IN WRITING.

 

[Illustration: Letter F.]

Fine writing, according to Mr. Addison, consists of sentiments which are natural without being obvious. There cannot be a juster and more concise definition of fine writing.

Sentiments which are merely natural affect not the mind with any pleasure, and seem not worthy to engage our attention. The pleasantries of a waterman, the observations of a peasant, the ribaldry of a porter or hackney-coachman; all these are natural and disagreeable. What an insipid comedy should we make of the chit-chit of the tea-table, copied faithfully and at full length! Nothing can please persons of taste but nature drawn with all her graces and ornament--_la belle nature_; or, if we copy low life, the strokes must be strong and remarkable, and must convey a lively image to the mind. The absurd _naivete_ of Sancho Panza is represented in such inimitable colours by Cervantes, that it entertains as much as the picture of the most magnanimous hero or softest lover.

The case is the same with orators, philosophers, critics, or any author who speaks in his own person without introducing other speakers or actors. If his language be not elegant, his observations uncommon, his sense strong and masculine, he will in vain boast his nature and simplicity. He may be correct, but he never will be agreeable. 'Tis the unhappiness of such authors that they are never blamed nor censured. The good fortune of a book and that of a man are not the same. The secret deceiving path of life, which Horace talks of--_fallentis semita vitae_--may be the happiest, lot of the one, but is the greatest misfortune that the other can possibly fall into.

On the other hand, productions which are merely surprising, without being natural, can never give any lasting entertainment to the mind. To draw chimaeras is not, properly speaking, to copy or imitate. The justness of the representation is lost, and the mind is displeased to find a picture which bears no resemblance to any original. Nor are such excessive refinements more agreeable in the epistolary or philosophic style, than in the epic or tragic. Too much ornament is a fault in every kind of production. Uncommon expressions, strong flashes of wit, pointed similes, and epigrammatic turns, especially when laid too thick, are a disfigurement rather than any embellishment of discourse. As the eye, in surveying a Gothic building, is distracted by the multiplicity of ornaments, and loses the whole by its minute attention to the parts; so the mind, in perusing a work overstocked with wit, is fatigued and disgusted with the constant endeavour to shine and surprise. This is the case where a writer over-abounds in wit, even though that wit should be just and agreeable. But it commonly happens to such writers, that they seek for their favourite ornaments even where the subject affords them not; and by that means have twenty insipid conceits for one thought that is really beautiful.

There is no subject in critical learning more copious than this of the just mixture of simplicity and refinement in writing; and, therefore, not to wander in too large a field, I shall confine myself to a few general observations on that head.

First, I observe, "That though excesses of both kinds are to be avoided, and though a proper medium ought to be studied in all productions; yet this medium lies not in a point, but admits of a very considerable latitude." Consider the wide distance, in this respect, between Mr. Pope and Lucretius. These seem to lie in the two greatest extremes of refinement and simplicity which a poet can indulge himself in, without being guilty of any blameable excess. All this interval may be filled with poets, who may differ from each other, but may be equally admirable, each in his peculiar style and manner. Corneille and Congreve, who carry their wit and refinement somewhat farther than Mr. Pope (if poets of so different a kind can be compared together), and Sophocles and Terence, who are more simple than Lucretius, seem to have gone out of that medium wherein the most perfect productions are to be found, and are guilty of some excess in these opposite characters. Of all the great poets, Virgil and Racine, in my opinion, lie nearest the centre, and are the farthest removed from both the extremities.

My second observation on this head is, "That it is very difficult, if not impossible, to explain by words wherein the just medium betwixt the excesses of simplicity and refinement consists, or to give any rule by which we can know precisely the bounds betwixt the fault and the beauty." A critic may not only discourse very judiciously on this head without instructing his readers, but even without understanding the matter perfectly himself. There is not in the world a finer piece of criticism than Fontenelle's "Dissertation on Pastorals;" wherein, by a number of reflections and philosophical reasonings, he endeavours to fix the just medium which is suitable to that species of writing. But let any one read the pastorals of that author, and he will be convinced, that this judicious critic, notwithstanding his fine reasonings, had a false taste, and fixed the point of perfection much nearer the extreme of refinement than pastoral poetry will admit of. The sentiments of his shepherds are better suited to the toilets of Paris than to the forests of Arcadia. But this it is impossible to discover from his critical reasonings. He blames all excessive painting and ornament, as much as Virgil could have done had he written a dissertation on this species of poetry. However different the tastes of men may be, their general discourses on these subjects are commonly the same. No criticism can be very instructive which descends not to particulars, and is not full of examples and illustrations. 'Tis allowed on all hands, that beauty, as well as virtue, lies always in a medium; but where this medium is placed is the great question, and can never be sufficiently explained by general reasonings.

I shall deliver it as a third observation on this subject, "That we ought to be more on our guard against the excess of refinement than that of simplicity; and that because the former excess is both less beautiful and more dangerous than the latter."

It is a certain rule that wit and passion are entirely inconsistent. When the affections are moved, there is no place for the imagination. The mind of man being naturally limited, it is impossible all his faculties can operate at once; and the more any one predominates, the less room is there for the others to exert their vigour. For this reason a greater degree of simplicity is required in all compositions, where men and actions and passions are painted, than in such as consist of reflections and observations. And as the former species of writing is the more engaging and beautiful, one may safely, upon this account, give the preference to the extreme of simplicity above that of refinement.

We may also observe, that those compositions which we read the oftenest, and which every man of taste has got by heart, have the recommendation of simplicity, and have nothing surprising in the thought when divested of that elegance of expression and harmony of numbers with which it is cloathed. If the merit of the composition lies in a point of wit, it may strike at first; but the mind anticipates the thought in the second perusal, and is no longer affected by it. When I read an epigram of Martial, the first line recalls the whole; and I have no pleasure in repeating to myself what I know already. But each line, each word in Catullus has its merit; and I am never tired with the perusal of him. It is sufficient to rim over Cowley once; but Parnel, after the fiftieth reading, is fresh as at the first. Besides, it is with books as with women, where a certain plainness of manner and of dress is more engaging than that glare of paint and airs and apparel which may dazzle the eye but reaches not the affections. Terence is a modest and bashful beauty, to whom we grant every thing, because he assumes nothing, and whose purity and nature make a durable though not a violent impression upon us.

But refinement, as it is the less beautiful, so it is the more dangerous extreme, and what we are the aptest to fall into. Simplicity passes for dulness when it is not accompanied with great elegance and propriety. On the contrary, there is something surprising in a blaze of wit and conceit. Ordinary readers are mightily struck with it, and falsely imagine it to be the most difficult, as well as most excellent way of writing. Seneca abounds with agreeable faults, says Quinctilian--_abundat dulcibus vitiis_; and for that reason is the more dangerous and the more apt to pervert the taste of the young and inconsiderate.

I shall add, that the excess of refinement is now more to be guarded against than ever; because it is the extreme which men are the most apt to fall into, after learning has made great progress, and after eminent writers have appeared in every species of composition. The endeavour to please by novelty leads men wide of simplicity and nature, and fills their writings with affectation and conceit. It was thus that the age of Claudius and Nero became so much inferior to that of Augustus in taste and genius; and perhaps there are at present some symptoms of a like degeneracy of taste, in France as well as in England.

HUME.

 

* * * * *

 

JOHN HAMPDEN.

The celebrated patriot, John Hampden, was descended from an ancient family in Buckinghamshire, where he was born in 1594. On leaving the University, he entered the inns of court, where he made considerable progress in the study of the law. He was chosen to serve in the Parliament which assembled at Westminster, February, 1626, and served in all the succeeding Parliaments in the reign of Charles I. That Monarch having quarrelled with his Parliament, was obliged to have recourse to the open exercise of his prerogative in order to supply himself with money. From the nobility he desired assistance; from the City of London he required a loan of L100,000. The former contributed but slowly; the latter at length gave a flat denial. To equip a fleet, an apportionment was made, by order of the Council, amongst all the maritime towns, each of which was required, with the assistance of the adjoining counties, to furnish a certain number of vessels or amount of shipping. The City of London was rated at twenty ships. And this was the first appearance in the present reign of ship-money--a taxation which had once been imposed by Elizabeth, on a great emergency, but which, revived and carried further by Charles, produced the most violent discontent.

[Illustration: STATUE OF JOHN HAMPDEN.]

In 1636, John Hampden became universally known by his intrepid opposition to the ship-money, as an illegal tax. Upon this he was prosecuted, and his conduct throughout the transaction gained him great credit and reputation. When the Long Parliament began, the eyes of all were fixed upon him as the father of his country. On the 3rd of January, 1642, the King ordered articles of high treason, and other
misdemeanours, to be prepared against Lord Kimbolton, Mr. Hampden, and four other members of the House of Commons, and went to the House to seize them, but they had retired. Mr. Hampden afterwards made a celebrated speech in the House to clear himself from the charge brought against him.

In the beginning of the civil war Hampden commanded a regiment of foot, and did good service at the battle of Edgehill; but he received a mortal wound in an engagement with Prince Rupert, in Chalgrave-field, in Oxfordshire, and died in 1648. Hampden is said to have possessed in a high degree talents for gaining and preserving popular influence, and great courage, industry, and strength of mind, which procured him great ascendancy over other men.

* * * * *

 

OTHELLO'S HISTORY.

 

[Illustration: Letter H.]

Her father loved me; oft invited me;
Still question'd me the story of my life,
From year to year: the battles, sieges, fortunes,
That I have past.
I ran it through, even from my boyish days
To the very moment that he bade me tell it.
Wherein I spake of most disastrous chances,
Of moving incidents by flood and field,
Of hair-breadth 'scapes in the imminent deadly breach, Of being taken by the insolent foe,
And sold to slavery; of my redemption thence,
And 'portance in my travels' history;
Wherein of antres vast, and deserts idle,
Rough quarries, rocks, and hills whose heads touch heaven, It was my hint to speak--such was the process;
And of the cannibals that each other eat--
The Anthropophagi--and men whose heads
Do grow beneath their shoulders. These things to bear Would Desdemona seriously incline:
still the house affairs would draw her thence;
Which ever as she could with haste dispatch,
She'd come again, and with a greedy ear
Devour up my discourse; which I observing,
Took once a pliant hour, and found good means To draw from her a prayer of earnest heart,
That I would all my pilgrimage relate,
Whereof by parcels she had something heard
But not intentively: I did consent;
And often did beguile her of her tears,
When I did speak of some distressful stroke
That my youth suffer'd. My story being done,
She gave me for my pains a world of sighs;
She swore--in faith 'twas strange, 'twas passing strange; 'Twas pitiful, 'twas wondrous pitiful;
She wish'd she had not heard it; yet she wish'd That Heaven had made her such a man: she thank'd me; And bade me if I had a friend that loved her,
I should but teach him how to tell my story,
And that would woo her. Upon this hint I spake; She loved me for the dangers I had pass'd,
And I loved her that she did pity them.
This only is the witchcraft I have used:
Here comes the lady; let her witness it.

SHAKSPEARE.

 

* * * * *

 

FILIAL LOVE.

 

[Illustration: Letter V.]

Verily duty to parents is of the first consequence; and would you, my young friends, recommend yourselves to the favour of your God and Father, would you imitate the example of your adorable Redeemer, and be made an inheritor of his precious promises; would you enjoy the peace and comforts of this life, and the good esteem of your fellow-creatures--Reverence your parents; and be it your constant endeavour, as it will be your greatest satisfaction, to witness your high sense of, and to make some returns for the obligations you owe to them, by every act of filial obedience and love.

Let their commands be ever sacred in your ears, and implicitly obeyed, where they do not contradict the commands of God: pretend not to be wiser than they, who have had so much more experience than yourselves; and despise them not, if haply you should be so blest as to have gained a degree of knowledge or of fortune superior to them. Let your carriage towards them be always respectful, reverent, and submissive; let your words be always affectionate and humble, and especially beware of pert and ill-seeming replies; of angry, discontented, and peevish looks. Never imagine, if they thwart your wills, or oppose your inclinations, that this ariseth from any thing but love to you: solicitous as they have ever been for your welfare, always consider the same tender solicitude as exerting itself, even in cases most opposite to your desires; and let the remembrance of what they have done and suffered for you, ever preserve you from acts of disobedience, and from paining those good hearts which have already felt so much for you, their children.

The Emperor of China, on certain days of the year, pays a visit to his mother, who is seated on a throne to receive him; and four times on his feet, and as often on his knees, he makes her a profound obeisance, bowing his head even to the ground.

Sir Thomas More seems to have emulated this beautiful example; for, being Lord Chancellor of England at the same time that his father was a Judge of the King's Bench, he would always, on his entering Westminster Hall, go first to the King's Bench, and ask his father's blessing before he went to sit in the Court of Chancery, as if to secure success in the great decisions of his high and important office.

DR. DODD.

 

* * * * *

 

QUEEN MARY'S BOWER, CHATSWORTH.

 

[Illustration: Letter W.]

When the widowed Mary, Queen of Scots, left France, where she had dwelt since her fifth year--where she had shared in the education of the French King's own daughters, in one of the convents of the kingdom, and been the idol of the French Court and people, it is said that, as the coast of the happy land faded from her view, she continued to exclaim, "Farewell, France! farewell, dear France--I shall never see thee more!" And her first view of Scotland only increased the poignancy of these touching regrets. So little pains had been taken to "cover over the nakedness and poverty of the land," that tears sprang into her eyes, when, fresh from the elegant luxurious Court of Paris, she saw the wretched ponies, with bare, wooden saddles, or dirty and ragged trappings, which had been provided to carry her and her ladies from the water-side to Holyrood. And then the palace itself; how different from the palaces in which she had lived in France! Dismal and small, it consisted only of what is now the north wing. The state-room and the bed-chamber which were used by her yet remain, with the old furniture, and much of the needle-work there is said to have been the work of her hands. During her long and melancholy imprisonment in England, the art of needle-work and reading were almost her only mode of relieving the dreary hours.

From the moment Mary of Scotland took the fatal resolution of throwing herself upon the supposed kindness and generosity of Elizabeth, her fate was sealed, and it was that of captivity, only to be ended by death. She was immediately cut off from all communication with her subjects, except such as it was deemed proper to allow; and was moved about from place to place, the better to ensure her safety. The hapless victim again and again implored Elizabeth to deal generously and justly with her. "I came," said she, in one of her letters, "of mine own accord; let me depart again with yours: and if God permit my cause to succeed, I shall be bound to you for it." But her rival was unrelenting, and, in fact, increased the rigours of her confinement. Whilst a prisoner at Chatsworth, she had been permitted the indulgence of air and exercise; and the bower of Queen Mary is still shown in the noble grounds of that place, as a favourite resort of the unfortunate captive. But even this absolutely necessary indulgence was afterwards denied; she was wholly confined to the Castle of Fotheringay, and a standing order was issued that "she should be shot if she attempted to escape, or if others attempted to rescue her."

[Illustration: QUEEN MARY'S BOWER, AT CHATSWORTH.]

Burns, in his "Lament of Mary, Queen of Scots," touchingly expresses the weary feelings that must have existed in the breast of the Royal captive:--

"Oh, soon to me may summer suns Nae mair light up the morn!
Nae mair to me the autumn winds Wave o'er the yellow corn!
And in the narrow house of death, Let winter round me rave;
And the next flowers that deck the spring, Bloom on my peaceful grave."

* * * * *

 

TUBULAR RAILWAY BRIDGES.

In the year 1850, a vast line of railway was completed from Chester to Holyhead, for the conveyance of the Royal mails, of goods and passengers, and of her Majesty's troops and artillery, between London and Dublin--Holyhead being the most desirable point at which to effect this communication with Ireland. Upon this railway are two stupendous bridges, which are the most perfect examples of engineering skill ever executed in England, or in any other country.

The first of these bridges carries the railway across the river Conway, close to the ancient castle built by Edward I. in order to bridle his new subjects, the Welsh.

The Conway bridge consists of a tube, or long, huge chest, the ends of which rest upon stone piers, built to correspond with the architecture of the old castle. The tube is made of wrought-iron plates, varying in thickness from a quarter of an inch to one inch, riveted together, and strengthened by irons in the form of the letter T; and, to give additional strength to the whole, a series of cells is formed at the bottom and top of the tube, between an inner ceiling and floor and the exterior plates; the iron plates which form the cells being riveted and held in their places by angle irons. The space between the sides of the tube is 14 feet; and the height of the whole, inclusive of the cells, is 22 feet 3-1/2 inches at the ends, and 25 feet 6 inches at the centre. The total length of the tube is 412 feet. One end of the tube is fixed to the masonry of the pier; but the other is so arranged as to allow for the expansion of the metal by changes of the temperature of the atmosphere, and it therefore, rests upon eleven rollers of iron, running upon a bed-plate; and, that the whole weight of the tube may not be carried by these rollers, six girders are carried over the tube, and riveted to the upper parts of its sides, which rest upon twelve balls of gun-metal running in grooves, which are fixed to iron beams let into the masonry.

The second of these vast railway bridges crosses the Menai Straits, which separate Caernarvon from the island of Anglesey. It is constructed a good hundred feet above high-water level, to enable large vessels to sail beneath it; and in building it, neither scaffolding nor centering was used.

The abutments on either side of the Straits are huge piles of masonry. That on the Anglesey side is 143 feet high, and 173 feet long. The wing walls of both terminate in splendid pedestals, and on each are two colossal lions, of Egyptian design; each being 25 feet long, 12 feet high though crouched, 9 feet abaft the body, and each paw 2 feet 1 inches. Each weighs 30 tons. The towers for supporting the tube are of a like magnitude with the entire work. The great Britannia Tower, in the centre of the Straits, is 62 feet by 52 feet at its base; its total height from the bottom, 230 feet; it contains 148,625 cubic feet of limestone, and 144,625 of sandstone; it weighs 20,000 tons; and there are 387 tons of cast iron built into it in the shape of beams and girders. It sustains the four ends of the four long iron tubes which span the Straits from shore to shore. The total quantity of stone contained in the bridge is 1,500,000 cubic feet. The side towers stand at a clear distance of 460 feet from the great central tower; and, again, the abutments stand at a distance from the side towers of 230 feet, giving the entire bridge a total length of 1849 feet,
corresponding with the date of the year of its construction. The side or land towers are each 62 feet by 52 feet at the base, and 190 feet high; they contain 210 tons of cast iron.

[Illustration: CONWAY CASTLE AND TUBULAR BRIDGE.]

The length of the great tube is exactly 470 feet, being 12 feet longer than the clear space between the towers, and the greatest span ever yet attempted. The greatest height of the tube is in the centre--30 feet, and diminishing towards the end to 22 feet. Each tube consists of sides, top and bottom, all formed of long, narrow wrought-iron plates, varying in length from 12 feet downward. These plates are of the same manufacture as those for making boilers, varying in thickness from three-eighths to three-fourths of an inch. Some of them weigh nearly 7 cwt., and are amongst the largest it is possible to roll with any existing machinery. The connexion between top, bottom, and sides is made much more substantial by triangular pieces of thick plate, riveted in across the corners, to enable the tube to resist the cross or twisting strain to which it will be exposed from the heavy and long-continued gales of wind that, sweeping up the Channel, will assail it in its lofty and unprotected position. The rivets, of which there are 2,000,000--each tube containing 327,000--are more than an inch in diameter. They are placed in rows, and were put in the holes red hot, and beaten with heavy hammers. In cooling, they contracted strongly, and drew the plates together so powerfully that it required a force of from 1 to 6 tons to each rivet, to cause the plates to slide over each other. The weight of wrought iron in the great tube is 1600 tons.

Each of these vast bridge tubes was constructed on the shore, then floated to the base of the piers, or bridge towers, and raised to its proper elevation by hydraulic machinery, the largest in the world, and the most powerful ever constructed. For the Britannia Bridge, this consisted of two vast presses, one of which has power equal to that of 30,000 men, and it lifted the largest tube six feet in half an hour.

The Britannia tubes being in two lines, are passages for the up and down trains across the Straits. Each of the tubes has been compared to the Burlington Arcade, in Piccadilly; and the labour of placing this tube upon the piers has been assimilated to that of raising the Arcade upon the summit of the spire of St. James's Church, if surrounded with water.

Each line of tube is 1513 feet in length; far surpassing in size any piece of wrought-iron work ever before put together; and its weight is 5000 tons, being nearly equal to that of two 120-gun ships, having on board, ready for sea, guns, provisions, and crew. The plate-iron covering of the tubes is not thicker than the hide of an elephant, and scarcely thicker than the bark of an oak-tree; whilst one of the large tubes, if placed on its end in St. Paul's churchyard, would reach 107 feet higher than the cross of the cathedral.

[Illustration: CONSTRUCTING THE BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE.]

 

* * * * *

 

THE MARINERS OF ENGLAND.

Ye mariners of England!
Who guard our native seas,
Whose flag has braved a thousand years The battle and the breeze,
Your glorious standard launch again, To match another foe,
And sweep through the deep
While the stormy tempests blow;
While the battle rages long and loud, And the stormy tempests blow.

The spirits of your fathers
Shall start from every wave!
For the deck it was their field of fame, And Ocean was their grave;
Where Blake and mighty Nelson fell, Your manly hearts shall glow,
As ye sweep through the deep, While the stormy tempests blow;
While the battle rages long and loud, And the stormy tempests blow.

Britannia needs no bulwarks,
No towers along the steep;
Her march is o'er the mountain waves, Her home is on the deep:
With thunders from her native oak, She quells the floods below,
As they roar on the shore,
When the stormy tempests blow;
When the battle rages long and loud, And the stormy tempests blow.

The meteor-flag of England
Shall yet terrific burn,
Till danger's troubled night depart, And the star of peace return.
Then, then, ye ocean-warriors! Our song and feast shall flow
To the fame of your name,
When the storm has ceased to blow;
When the fiery fight is heard no more, And the storm has ceased to blow.

CAMPBELL.

 

* * * * *

 

KAFFIR LETTER-CARRIER.

"I knew" (says the pleasing writer of "Letters from Sierra Leone") "that the long-looked-for vessel had at length furled her sails and dropped anchor in the bay. She was from England, and I waited, expecting every minute to feast my eyes upon at least one letter; but I remembered how unreasonable it was to suppose that any person would come up with letters to this lonely place at so late an hour, and that it behoved me to exercise the grace of patience until next day. However, between ten and eleven o'clock, a loud shouting and knocking aroused the household, and the door was opened to a trusty Kroo messenger, who, although one of a tribe who would visit any of its members in their own country with death, who could 'savey white man's book,' seemed to comprehend something of our feelings at receiving letters, as I overheard him exclaim, with evident glee, 'Ah! massa! here de right book come at last.' Every thing, whether a brown-paper parcel, a newspaper, an official despatch, a private letter or note is here denominated a 'book,' and this man understood well that newspapers are never received so gladly amongst 'books' from England as letters." The Kaffir, in the Engraving, was sketched from one employed to convey letters in the South African settlements; he carries his document in a split at the end of a cane.

[Illustration: KAFFIR LETTER-CARRIER.]

It is a singular sight in India to see the catamarans which put off from some parts of the coast, as soon as ships come in sight, either to bear on board or to convey from thence letters or messages. These frail vessels are composed of thin cocoa-tree logs, lashed together, and big enough to carry one, or, at most, two persons. In one of these a small sail is fixed, and the navigator steers with a little paddle; the float itself is almost entirely sunk in the water, so that the effect is very singular--a sail sweeping along the surface with a man behind it, and apparently nothing to support them. Those which have no sails are consequently invisible and the men have the appearance of treading the water and performing evolutions with a racket. In very rough weather the men lash themselves to their little rafts but in ordinary seas they seem, though frequently washed off, to regard such accidents as mere trifles, being naked all but a wax cloth cap in which they keep any letters they may have to convey to ships in the roads, and swimming like fish. Their only danger is from sharks, which are said to abound. These cannot hurt them while on their floats; but woe be to them if they catch them while separated from that defence. Yet, even then, the case is not quite hopeless, since the shark can only attack them from below; and a rapid dive, if not in very deep water, will sometimes save them.

* * * * *

 

THE SEASONS.

 

SPRING.

 

[Illustration: Letter C.]

Come, gentle Spring, ethereal mildness, come, And from the bosom of yon dropping cloud, While music wakes around, veil'd in a shower Of shadowing roses, on our plains descend.

* * * * *

Hail! Source of Being! Universal Soul
Of heaven and earth! Essential Presence, hail; To Thee I bend the knee; to Thee my thought Continual climb; who, with a master hand. Hast the great whole into perfection touch'd. By Thee the various vegetative tribes,
Wrapt in a filmy net, and clad with leaves, Draw the live ether, and imbibe the dew: By Thee disposed into congenial soils,
Stands each attractive plant, and sucks and swells The juicy tide--a twining mass of tubes.
At thy command the vernal sun awakes
The torpid sap, detruded to the root
By wintry winds, that now in fluent dance, And lively fermentation, mounting, spreads All this innumerous-colour'd scene of things. As rising from the vegetable world
My theme ascends, with equal wing ascend My panting Muse! And hark! how loud the woods Invite you forth in all your gayest trim. Lend me your song, ye nightingales! oh, pour The mazy running soul of melody
Into my varied verse! while I deduce From the first note the hollow cuckoo sings, The symphony of spring, and touch a theme Unknown to fame, the passion of the groves.

[Illustration: SPRING.]

 

SUMMER.

 

[Illustration: Letter F.]

From bright'ning fields of ether fair disclosed, Child of the Sun, refulgent Summer comes, In pride of youth, and felt through nature's depth: He comes attended by the sultry hours,
And ever-fanning breezes on his way;
While from his ardent look the turning Spring Averts his blushing face, and earth and skies, All-smiling, to his hot dominion leaves.

* * * * *

Cheer'd by the milder beam, the sprightly youth Speeds to the well-known pool, whose crystal depth A sandy bottom shows. Awhile he stands
Gazing the inverted landscape, half afraid
To meditate the blue profound below;
Then plunges headlong down the circling flood. His ebon tresses, and his rosy cheek,
Instant emerge: and through the obedient wave, At each short breathing by his lip repell'd, With arms and legs according well, he makes, As humour leads, an easy-winding path;
While from his polish'd sides a dewy light Effuses on the pleased spectators round.

This is the purest exercise of health.
The kind refresher of the Summer heats: Nor, when cold Winter keens the brightening flood, Would I, weak-shivering, linger on the brink. Thus life redoubles, and is oft preserved
By the bold swimmer, in the swift elapse Of accident disastrous.
[Illustration: SUMMER.]

AUTUMN.

 

[Illustration: Letter C.]

Crown'd with the sickle and the wheaten sheaf, While Autumn nodding o'er the yellow plain Comes jovial on, the Doric reed once more, Well pleased, I tune. Whatever the wintry frost Nitrous prepared, the various-blossom'd Spring Put in white promised forth, and Summer suns Concocted strong, rush boundless now to view, Full, perfect all, and swell my glorious theme.

* * * * *

Hence from the busy, joy-resounding fields In cheerful error let us tread the maze Of Autumn, unconfined; and taste, revived, The breath of orchard big with bending fruit. Obedient to the breeze and beating ray, From the deep-loaded bough a mellow shower Incessant melts away. The juicy pear
Lies in a soft profusion scatter'd round. A various sweetness swells the gentle race, By Nature's all-refining hand prepared; Of tempered sun, and water, earth, and air, In ever-changing composition mix'd.
Such, falling frequent through the chiller night, The fragrant stores, the wide projected heaps Of apples, which the lusty-handed year, Innumerous, o'er the blushing orchard shakes.

[Illustration: AUTUMN.]

 

WINTER.

 

[Illustration: Letter S.]

See, Winter comes to rule the varied year,
Sullen and sad, with all his rising train--
Vapours, and clouds, and storms. Be these my theme, These--that exalt the soul to solemn thought And heavenly musing. Welcome, kindred glooms; Congenial horrors, hail: with frequent foot, Pleased have I, in my cheerful morn of life, When nursed by careless solitude I lived,
And sung of nature with unceasing joy;
Pleased have I wander'd through your rough domain, Trod the pure virgin snows, myself as pure; Heard the winds roar, and the big torrent burst, Or seen the deep-fermenting tempest brew'd In the grim evening sky.

* * * * *

Nature! great parent! whose unceasing hand Rolls round the seasons of the changeful year, How mighty, how majestic are thy works! With what a pleasing dread they swell the soul, That sees astonish'd, and astonish'd sings! Ye, too, ye winds! that now begin to blow With boisterous sweep, I raise my voice to you. Where are your stores, ye powerful beings, say, Where your aerial magazines reserved
To swell the brooding terrors of the storm? In what far distant region of the sky,
Hush'd in deep silence, sleep ye when 'tis calm?

* * * * *

'Tis done; dread Winter spreads his latest glooms, And reigns tremendous o'er the conquer'd year. How dead the vegetable kingdom lies!
How dumb the tuneful! Horror wide extends
His desolate domain. Behold, fond man!
See here thy pictured life! Pass some few years Thy flowering spring, thy summer's ardent strength, And sober autumn fading into age,
The pale concluding winter comes at last
The shuts the scene. Ah! whither now are fled Those dreams of greatness? those unsolid hopes Of happiness? those longings after fame?
Those restless cares? those busy bustling days? Those gay-spent festive nights? those veering thoughts, Lost between good and ill, that shared thy life? All now are vanish'd; virtue sole survives,
Immortal, never-failing friend of man--
His guide to happiness on high.

THOMSON.

[Illustration: WINTER.] [Illustration: AND PALE CONCLUDING WINTER COMES AT LAST, AND SHUTS THE
SCENE.]

* * * * *

 

ON MUSIC.

 

[Illustration: Letter T.]

There are few who have not felt the charms of music, and acknowledged its expressions to be intelligible to the heart. It is a language of delightful sensations, that is far more eloquent than words: it breathes to the ear the clearest intimations; but how it was learned, to what origin we owe it, or what is the meaning of some of its most affecting strains, we know not.

We feel plainly that music touches and gently agitates the agreeable and sublime passions; that it wraps us in melancholy, and elevates us to joy; that it dissolves and inflames; that it melts us into tenderness, and rouses into rage: but its strokes are so fine and delicate, that, like a tragedy, even the passions that are wounded please; its sorrows are charming, and its rage heroic and delightful. As people feel the particular passions with different degrees of force, their taste of harmony must proportionably vary. Music, then, is a language directed to the passions; but the rudest passions put on a new nature, and become pleasing in harmony: let me add, also, that it awakens some passions which we perceive not in ordinary life. Particularly the most elevated sensation of music arises from a confused perception of ideal or visionary beauty and rapture, which is sufficiently perceivable to fire the imagination, but not clear enough to become an object of knowledge. This shadowy beauty the mind attempts, with a languishing curiosity, to collect into a distinct object of view and comprehension; but it sinks and escapes, like the dissolving ideas of a delightful dream, that are neither within the reach of the memory, nor yet totally fled. The noblest charm of music, then, though real and affecting, seems too confused and fluid to be collected into a distinct idea.

Harmony is always understood by the crowd, and almost always mistaken by musicians. The present Italian taste for music is exactly correspondent to the taste for tragi-comedy, that about a century ago gained ground upon the stage. The musicians of the present day are charmed at the union they form between the grave and the fantastic, and at the surprising transitions they make between extremes, while every hearer who has the least remainder of the taste of nature left, is shocked at the strange jargon. If the same taste should prevail in painting, we must soon expect to see the woman's head, a horse's body, and a fish's tail, united by soft gradations, greatly admired at our public exhibitions. Musical gentlemen should take particular care to preserve in its full vigour and sensibility their original natural taste, which alone feels and discovers the true beauty of music.

If Milton, Shakspeare, or Dryden had been born with the same genius and inspiration for music as for poetry, and had passed through the practical part without corrupting the natural taste, or blending with it any prepossession in favour of sleights and dexterities of hand, then would their notes be tuned to passions and to sentiments as natural and expressive as the tones and modulations of the voice in discourse. The music and the thought would not make different expressions; the hearers would only think impetuously; and the effect of the music would be to give the ideas a tumultuous violence and divine impulse upon the mind. Any person conversant with the classic poets, sees instantly that the passionate power of music I speak of, was perfectly understood and practised by the ancients--that the Muses of the Greeks always sung, and their song was the echo of the subject, which swelled their poetry into enthusiasm and rapture. An inquiry into the nature and merits of the ancient music, and a comparison thereof with modern composition, by a person of poetic genius and an admirer of harmony, who is free from the shackles of practice, and the prejudices of the mode, aided by the countenance of a few men of rank, of elevated and true taste, would probably lay the present half-Gothic mode of music in ruins, like those towers of whose little laboured ornaments it is an exact picture, and restore the Grecian taste of passionate harmony once more to the delight and wonder of mankind. But as from the disposition of things, and the force of fashion, we cannot hope in our time to rescue the sacred lyre, and see it put into the hands of men of genius, I can only recall you to your own natural feeling of harmony and observe to you, that its emotions are not found in the laboured, fantastic, and surprising compositions that form the modern style of music: but you meet them in some few pieces that are the growth of wild unvitiated taste; you discover them in the swelling sounds that wrap us in imaginary grandeur; in those plaintive notes that make us in love with woe; in the tones that utter the lover's sighs, and fluctuate the breast with gentle pain; in the noble strokes that coil up the courage and fury of the soul, or that lull it in confused visions of joy; in short, in those affecting strains that find their way to the inmost recesses of the heart,

Untwisting all the chains that tie The hidden soul of harmony.--_Milton_.

 

USHER.

 

* * * * * THE AFFLICTED POOR.

Say ye--oppress'd by some fantastic woes, Some jarring nerve that baffles your repose, Who press the downy couch while slaves advance With timid eye to read the distant glance; Who with sad pray'rs the weary doctor tease, To name the nameless, ever new disease; Who with mock patience dire complaint endure, Which real pain, and that alone, can cure: How would ye bear in real pain to lie,
Despised, neglected, left alone to die?
How would ye bear to draw your latest breath, Where all that's wretched paves the way for death?

Such is that room which one rude beam divides, And naked rafters form the sloping sides; Where the vile bands that bind the thatch are seen, And lath and mud are all that lie between, Save one dull pane that coarsely patch'd gives way To the rude tempest, yet excludes the day: There, on a matted flock with dust o'erspread, The drooping wretch reclines his languid head! For him no hand the cordial cup supplies, Nor wipes the tear which stagnates in his eyes; No friends, with soft discourse, his pangs beguile. Nor promise hope till sickness wears a smile.

CRABBE.

 

[Illustration: GEORGE CRABBE.]

 

* * * * *

 

MIDNIGHT THOUGHTS.

 

[Illustration: Letter T.]

Thou, who didst put to flight
Primeval silence, when the morning stars, Exulting, shouted o'er the rising ball:
O Thou! whose word from solid darkness struck That spark, the sun, strike wisdom from my soul; My soul which flies to thee, her trust her treasure, As misers to their gold, while others rest: Through this opaque of nature and of soul, This double night, transmit one pitying ray, To lighten and to cheer. Oh, lead my mind, (A mind that fain would wander from its woe,) Lead it through various scenes of life and death, And from each scene the noblest truths inspire. Nor less inspire my conduct, than my song; Teach my best reason, reason; my best will Teach rectitude; and fix my firm resolve
Wisdom to wed, and pay her long arrear; Nor let the phial of thy vengeance, pour'd On this devoted head, be pour'd in vain.

The bell strikes One. We take no note of time But from its loss; to give it then a tongue
Is wise in man. As if an angel spoke,
I feel the solemn sound. If heard aright,
It is the knell of my departed hours.
Where are they? with the years beyond the flood! It is the signal that demands dispatch:
How much is to be done! My hopes and fears Start up alarm'd, and o'er life's narrow verge Look down--on what? A fathomless abyss! A dread eternity! How surely mine!
And can eternity belong to me,
Poor pensioner on the bounties of an hour? How poor, how rich, how abject, how august, How complicate, how wonderful is man!
How passing wonder He who made him such! Who center'd in our make such strange extremes-- From different natures, marvellously mix'd: Connexion exquisite! of distant worlds
Distinguish'd link in being's endless chain! Midway from nothing to the Deity;
A beam ethereal--sullied and absorpt!
Though sullied and dishonour'd, still divine! Dim miniature of greatness absolute!
An heir of glory! a frail child of dust!
Helpless immortal! insect infinite!
A worm! a god! I tremble at myself,
And in myself am lost. At home a stranger. Thought wanders up and down, surprised, aghast, And wondering at her own. How reason reels! Oh, what a miracle to man is man!
Triumphantly distress'd! what joy! what dread Alternately transported and alarm'd!
What can preserve my life, or what destroy? An angel's arm can't snatch me from the grave; Legions of angels can't confine me there.
'Tis past conjecture; all things rise in proof.
While o'er my limbs sleep's soft dominion spread, What though my soul fantastic measures trod O'er fairy fields, or mourn'd along the gloom
Of pathless woods, or down the craggy steep Hurl'd headlong, swam with pain the mantled pool, Or scaled the cliff, or danced on hollow winds With antic shapes, wild natives of the brain!
Her ceaseless flight, though devious, speaks her nature Of subtler essence than the trodden clod:
Active, aerial, towering, unconfined,
Unfetter'd with her gross companion's fall.
Even silent night proclaims my soul immortal: Even silent night proclaims eternal day!
For human weal Heaven husbands all events; Dull sleep instructs, nor sport vain dreams in vain.

YOUNG.

 

* * * * *

 

FAREWELL.

 

[Illustration: Letter N.]

 

Nay, shrink not from that word "Farewell!" As if 'twere friendship's final knell--

Such fears may prove but vain:
So changeful is life's fleeting day,
Whene'er we sever, Hope may say, We part to meet again!

E'en the last parting earth can know, Brings not unutterable woe

To souls that heav'nward soar: For humble Faith, with steadfast eye, Points to a brighter world on high, Where hearts, that here at parting sigh, May meet--to part no more!

BARTON.

 

[Illustration]

* * * * * VOCABULARY OF WORDS USED IN THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON READING BOOK.

* * * * *

[We have considered that it would be useful to the young reader to have a ready means of reference, in the READING BOOK itself, to all unusual words of one syllable, and all the words of two syllables and above, that occur in the various lessons. In the following pages will be found, properly accentuated, all the more difficult polysyllables, with their meanings, derived from Johnson, Walker, and other competent authorities.]

* * * * *

 

ABA'NDON, _v.a._ give up; resign, or quit; forsake; leave

 

ABI'LITY, _s._ capacity; qualification; power

 

A'BJECT, _a._ mean; being of no hope or regard; destitute

 

ABLU'TION, _s._ the act of cleansing or washing clean; water used in washing

 

ABO'LISH, _v.a._ make void; put an end to; destroy

 

ABO'UND, _v.n._ have in great plenty; be in great plenty

 

ABRE'AST, _ad._ side by side

 

ABRU'PTLY, _ad._ hastily; suddenly; without the due forms of preparation

 

A'BSOLUTE, _a._ positive; certain; unlimited

 

A'BSTRACT, _s._ the smaller quantity containing the virtue or power of the greater

 

ABSTRU'SE, _a._ hidden; difficult

 

ABU'NDANT, _a._ plentiful

ABU'TMENT, _s._ that which borders upon another ACA'DEMY, _s._ (from _Academus_, an Athenian, who founded a public school at Athens, which after him was called Academia, _Latin_), place of education; an assembly or society of men, uniting for the promotion of some art

A'CCENT, _s._ the sound of a syllable; a modification of the voice expressive of the passions or sentiments; the marks made upon syllables to regulate their pronunciation

A'CCIDENT, _s._ that which happens unforeseen; chance

 

ACCO'MPANY, _v.n._ associate with; become a companion to

 

ACCO'MPLICE, _s._ an associate; partner

 

ACCO'MPLISHMENT, _s._ ornament of mind or body; acquirement

 

ACCO'ST, _v.a._ speak to; address; salute

 

ACCO'UNT, _s._ the state or result of a computation--as, the _account_ stands thus between us; narrative; value

 

ACCO'UTRE, _v.a._ dress; equip

 

A'CCURACY, _s._ exactness; nicety

 

ACCU'STOM, _v._ to habituate; to inure

 

ACQUI'RE, _v.a._ gain; obtain; attain

 

A'CRID, _a._ having a hot biting taste; bitter

 

A'CRIMONY, _s._ sharpness; severity; bitterness of thought or language

 

ACRO'POLIS, _s._ a citadel; the highest part of a city

 

ACTI'VITY, _s._ quickness; nimbleness

 

ACU'TE, _a._ sharp, not blunt; sharp, not dull; not stupid; vigorous; powerful in operation

 

ADAMA'NTINE, _a._ made of adamant; having the qualities of adamant, viz. hardness, indissolubility

 

ADA'PT, _v.a._ admit, justify; yield; permit

 

ADIEU', _ad._ used elliptically for _a Dieu je vous commende_, at the parting of friends; farewell

 

A'DMIRABLE, _a._ to be admired; of power to excite wonder ADMIRA'TION, _s._ wonder

 

ADMI'T, _v.a._ suffer to enter; allow

ADO'PT, _v.a._ take a son by choice; make him a son who is not so by birth; place any person or thing in a nearer relation than they have by nature or something else

ADRO'ITNESS, _s._ dexterity; readiness

 

ADU'LT, _s._ a person above the age of boyhood or girlhood

 

ADVA'NCE, _v.a._ improve; forward; propose

 

ADVA'NTAGE, _s._ superiority; opportunity

 

ADVE'NTURE, _s._ chance; hazard; an enterprise in which something must be left to hazard

 

ADVE'NTURER, _s._ he that puts himself into the hands of chance

 

ADVE'NTUROUS, _a._ bold; daring; courageous; inclined to adventures

 

ADVE'RSITY, _s._ affliction; calamity; misfortune; the public misery

 

ADVE'RTISEMENT, _s._ something advertised; the public notice of a thing

 

A'DVOCATE, _s._ he that pleads a cause

AE'OLIAN, _a._ an epithet applied to lyric poetry, because Sappho and Alcaeus were natives of Lesbos in Aeolia, and wrote in the Aeolic dialect

AE'RIAL, _a._ belonging to the air; lofty

 

AFFABI'LITY, _s._ civility; condescension; easiness of manners

 

AFFE'CT, _v.a._ act upon; produce effect in any other thing; move the passions; aim at; aspire to

 

AFFECTA'TION, _s._ an elaborate appearance; false pretence

 

AFFE'CTION, _s._ state of being affected by any cause or agent; love; kindness; good-will to some person; passionate regard

 

AFFE'CTIONATE, _a._ full of affection; fond; tender; warm; benevolent

 

AFFI'NITY, _s._ connection with AGGRE'SSION, _s._ first act of injury

 

A'GONY, _s._ the pangs of death; any violent pain in body or mind

 

AGRE'EABLE, _a._ suitable to; pleasing

 

A'GRICULTURE, _s._ the science of making land productive

 

A'LABASTER, _s._ a kind of soft marble, easier to cut and less durable than the other kinds

 

ALA'RUM, _s._ notice of any approaching danger; any tumult or disturbance

 

A'LIEN, _s._ foreigner; stranger

 

A'LKALI, _s._ any substance which, when mingled with acid, produces effervescence and fermentation

 

ALLEGO'RY, _s._ a figurative discourse, in which something is contained other than is literally understood

 

ALLE'VIATE, _v.a._ make light; ease; soften

 

ALLO'W, _v.a._ permit; give leave

 

A'LPHABET, _s._ the order of the letters, or elements of speech

 

ALTERA'TION, _s._ the act of changing; the change made

 

A'LTITUDE, _s._ height of place; space measured upward

 

AL'TOGETHER, _ad._ completely; without exception

 

AMA'LGAMATE, _v.a._ to unite metals with silver

 

AMA'ZEMENT, _s._ height of admiration; astonishment

 

AMBI'GUOUS, _a._ using doubtful expressions; doubtful; having two meanings

 

AMBI'TION, _s._ the desire of preferment or honour; the desire of anything great or excellent

 

AMBI'TIOUS, _a._ fond of power; desirous of power

 

AME'RICAN, _s._ native of America

 

A'METHYST, _s._ a precious stone of a violet colour A'MIABLE, _a._ kind; gentle; good natured; loving; not selfish

 

AMMUNI'TION, _s._ military stores, applied to artillery

 

AMPHITHE'ATRE, _s._ a building in a circular or oval form, having its area encompassed with rows of seats one above another

 

AMPU'LLA, _s._ (pronounced _am-poo-la_) a vessel of pure gold, used for containing the holy oil at coronations

 

AMU'SE, _v.a._ entertain with tranquillity; draw on from time to time

 

ANA'LOGY, _s._ resemblance between things with regard to some circumstances or effects

 

ANATO'MICAL, _a._ relating or belonging to anatomy

 

ANA'TOMY, _s._ the art of dissecting the body; the doctrine of the structure of the body

 

A'NCESTOR, _s._ one from whom a person descends

 

A'NCIENT, _a._ old; past; former

 

A'NECDOTE, _s._ something yet unpublished; biographical history; personal history

 

ANEMO'METER, _s._ an instrument to measure the force of the wind

 

ANGE'LIC, _a._ resembling angels; belonging to angels

 

A'NIMAL, _s._ a living creature

 

ANIMA'LCULE, _s._ a small animal, generally applied to those which cannot be seen without a microscope

 

ANIMO'SITY, _s._ vehemence of hatred; passionate malignity

 

ANNIHILATE, _v.a._ reduce to nothing; destroy

 

ANNO'Y, _v.a._ incommode; vex; tease; molest

 

A'NNUAL, _a._ that comes yearly

 

A'NTELOPE, _s._ a goat with curled or wreathed horns

 

ANTHROPO'PHAGI, _s._ man-eaters; cannibals

 

ANTI'CIPATE, _v.a._ take an impression of something which is not yet as if it really was

 

A'NTIQUARY, _s._ a man studious of antiquity

 

ANTI'QUE, _a._ ancient; old; odd; of old fashion

 

ANTI'QUITY, _s._ old times; remains of old times

 

A'NTRE, _s._ a cavern

 

ANXI'ETY, _s._ perplexity; lowness of spirits

 

ANXIOUS, _a._ disturbed about some uncertain event

 

A'PATHY, _s._ exemption from feeling or passion

 

APO'CALYPSE, _s._ the Book of Revelations

 

APO'LOGY, _s._ defence; excuse

 

APO'STLE, _s._ a person sent with commands, particularly applied to those whom our Saviour deputed to preach the Gospel

 

APOSTO'LIC, _a._ delivered or taught by the Apostles

 

APPARA'TUS, _s._ tools; furniture; show; instruments

 

APPE'AR, _v.n._ be visible; in sight

 

APPEARANCE, _s._ the act of coming into sight; phenomenon; apparition; presence

 

APPE'NDAGE, _s._ something added to another thing without being necessary to its essence

 

A'PPETITE _s._ hunger; violent longing

 

APPLA'USE _s._ approbation loudly expressed; praise

 

APPLICATION, _s._ close study; intenseness of thought; attention; the act of applying; the act of applying anything to another.

 

APPORTIONMENT, _s._ dividing into portions

 

APPRECIATE, _v.a._ set a price on anything; esteem

 

APPRO'ACH, _v n._ draw near; somewhat resemble

 

APPROBATION, _s._ the act of approving, or expressing himself pleased, or satisfied; support

 

APPRO'PRIATENESS, _s._ a fitness to be appropriated

 

APPROPRIATION, _s._ the application of something to a certain purpose

 

AQUA'TIC, _a._ that inhabits the water; that grows in the water

 

A'QUEDUCT, _s._ a conveyance, tunnel, or way made for carrying water

 

ARA'TOO, _s._ a bird of the parrot kind

 

AR'BALIST, _s._ a naturalist who make trees his study

 

A'RBITRABY, _o._ despotic; absolute; depending on no rule

 

ARBU'TUS, _s._ a strawberry tree

 

ARCA'DE, _s._ a continued arch; a walk arched over

 

ARCHBI'SHOP, _s._ a bishop of the first class, who superintends the conduct of other bishops

 

ARCHITE'CTURE, _s._ the art or science of building

 

A'RCTIC, _a._ northern; lying under the Arctos or Bear

 

A'RDUOUS, _a._ lofty; difficult

 

ARI'SE, _v.n._ mount upward; get up; proceed

 

ARMI'LLA, _s._ a bracelet, or jewel worn on the arm

 

A'RMY, _s._ collection of armed men; a great number

 

AROMA'TIC, _a._ spicy; fragrant; strong-scented

 

ARRI'VE, _v.n._ reach any place; happen

 

ARRA'NGE, _v.a._ put in the proper order for any purpose

 

ARRA'NGEMENT, _s._ the act of putting In proper order, the state of being put in order

 

ARRA'Y, _s._ order, chiefly of war; dress

 

A'RROGANCE, _s._ the act or quality of taking much upon one's self

 

A'RROW, _s._ the pointed weapon which is shot from a bow

 

A'RTICLE, _s._ a part of speech; a single clause of an account; term ARTI'CULATE, _v.a._ form words; speak as a man; draw up in articles; make terms

 

A'RTIFICE, _s._ trick; fraud; stratagem; art; trade

 

ARTIFI'CIAL, _a._ made by art; not natural

 

ARTI'LLERY, _s._ weapons of war; cannon; great ordinance

 

A'RTISAN, _s._ professor of any art

 

ASCE'NDANCY, _s._ influence; power

 

ASPE'RSE, _v.a._ bespatter with censure or calumny

 

A'SPIC, _s._ the name of a small serpent

 

ASSA'ILANT, _s._ one that assails

 

ASSE'MBLY, _s._ a company met together

 

ASSE'RT, _v.a._ to declare positively; maintain; to defend either by words or actions; claim

 

ASSIDU'ITY, _s._ diligence

 

ASSI'MILATE, _v.a._ bring to a likeness; turn to its own nature by digestion

 

ASSISTANCE, _s._ help

 

ASSISTANT, _s._ a helper

 

ASSI'ZE, _s._ a jury; any court of justice; the ordinance or statute

 

ASSO'CIATE, _s._ a partner; a confederate; a companion

 

ASSU'RE, _v.a._ give confidence by a firm promise

 

ASTO'NISHMENT, _s._ amazement

 

ASTRO'NOMY, _s._ the science of the motions, distances, &c. of the stars

 

A'THEISM, _s._ the disbelief of a god

 

ATHE'NIAN, _s._ a native of Athens

 

A'TMOSPHERE, _s._ the air that encompasses the solid earth on all sides

 

ATRO'CIOUS, _a._ wicked in a high degree; enormous ATTA'CH, _v.a._ arrest; fix one's interest; win; lay hold on

 

ATTA'CK, _v.a._ to make an assault

 

ATTA'IN, _v.a._ gain; procure; reach

 

ATTAINMENT, _s._ an acquisition; an accomplishment

 

ATTE'MPT, _v.a._ venture upon; try; endeavour

 

ATTE'NDANT, _s._ one that attends; one that is present at anything

 

ATTENTION, _s._ the act of attending; the act of bending the mind upon it

 

ATTE'NTIVE, _a._ regardful; full of attention

 

ATTI'RE, _s._ clothing; dress; equipment

 

A'TTITUDE, _s._ position; expression

 

ATTRA'CT, _v.a._ draw to something; allure; invite

 

ATTRA'CTIVE, _a._ having the power to draw anything; inviting

 

ATTRIBUTE, _v.a._ to ascribe; to yield as due; to impute as a cause

 

AU'DITOR, _s._ a hearer

 

AURO'RA-BOREA'LIS, _a._ electrical light streaming in the night from the north; the northern lights or streamers

 

AUSTE'RITY, _s._ severity; cruelty

 

AUTHENTIC, _a._ genuine

 

AU'THOR, _s._ the first beginner or mover of anything; a writer in general

 

AUTHO'RITY, _s._ power; rule; influence; support; legal power

 

AU'TUMN, _s._ the season of the year between summer and winter

 

AVAILABLE, _a._ profitable; powerful; advantageous

 

AVALA'NCHE, _s._ immense mass of snow or ice

 

A'VERAGE, _s._ a middle proportion AVI'DITY, _s._ eagerness; voracity; greediness

 

AVO'ID, _v.a._ shun; shift off; quit

 

AWA'KE, _v.a._ rouse out of sleep; put into new action

 

AW'KWARD, _a._ clumsy; inelegant; unready

 

A'ZURE, _s._ blue; faint blue

 

**

 

BA'CCHANALS, _s._ the drunken feasts of Bacchus; fabulous personages who assisted at the festivals of Bacchus

 

BALCO'NY, _s._ a frame before the window of a room

 

BALLO'ON, _s._ a large hollow ball of silk, filled with gas, which makes it rise in the air

 

BA'NDIT, _s._ a man outlawed

 

BA'NISH, _v.a._ condemn to leave one's country; drive away

 

BA'NISHMENT, _s._ the act of banishing another; the state of being banished

 

BARBA'RIAN, _s._ a savage; a man uncivilized

 

BA'RBAROUS, _a._ savage; ignorant; cruel

 

BA'RREN, _a._ unfruitful; sterile; scanty

 

BARRIC'ADE, _v.a._ stop up a passage; hinder by stoppage

 

BASA'LT, _s._ a variety of trap rock

 

BASA'LTIC, _a._ relating to basalt

 

BASTI'LE, _s._ (pronounced _basteel_) a jail; formerly the state prison of France

 

BA'TTER, _v.a._ beat; shatter; beat down

 

BA'TTLE, _s._ a fight; an encounter between opposite enemies

 

BEA'CON, _s._ something raised on an eminence to direct BEA'RABLE, _a._ that which is capable of being borne

 

BEAU'TY, _s._ a particular grace or feature; a beautiful person

 

BECO'ME, _v.a._ befit; be suitable to the person

 

BEDE'CK, _v.a._ to deck; to adorn; to grace

 

BE'DSTEAD, _s._ the frame on which the bed is placed

 

BEHI'ND, _ad._ out of sight; not yet in view; remaining

 

BEHO'VE, _v.n._ to be fit

 

BELI'EVE, _v.n._ to have a firm persuasion of anything

 

BENEFA'CTOR, _s._ one that does good

 

BE'NEFIT, _s._ a kindness; a favour conferred; an advantage

 

BENE'VOLENT, _a._ kind; having good-will

 

BENI'GHT, _v.a._ involve in darkness; surprise with the coming on of night

 

BENI'GNANT, _a._ kind; generous; liberal

 

BE'NISON, _s._ a blessing

 

BENU'MB, _v.a._ make torpid; stupify

 

BESIE'GE, _v.a._ to beleaguer; to lay siege to

 

BESPRE'NT, _v. def._ besprinkled

 

BESTO'W, _v.a._ give; confer upon; lay up

 

BETWE'EN, _prep._ in the middle space; from one to another; noting difference of one from another

 

BI'LBERRY, _s._ the fruit of a plant so called

 

BO'ATMAN, _s._ he that manages a boat

 

BO'DY, _s._ material substance of an animal; matter; person; collective mass; main part; main army

 

BO'RDER, _s._ edge; edge of a country; a bank raised round a garden and set with flowers

 

BO'UNTEOUS, _a._ liberal; kind; generous

 

BOUQUE'T, _s._ (pronounced _boo-kay_) a nosegay

 

BOWSPRI'T, _s._ (a sea term) the mast that runs out at the bow of a ship

 

BRA'CELET, _s._ an ornament for the arms

 

BRA'CH, _s._ a she hound

 

BRA'CKISH, _a._ salt; somewhat salt

 

BRI'LLIANCY, _s._ brightness; lustre

 

BRI'LLIANT, _s._ a diamond of the finest cut

 

BRI'LLIANT, _a._ shining; sparkling; full of lustre

 

BU'BBLE, _s._ a small bladder of water; anything which wants solidity and firmness

 

BU'LKY, _a._ of great size or stature

 

BU'LWARK, _s._ a fortification; a security

 

BUO'YANCY, _s._ the quality of floating

 

BU'RDENSOME, _a._ grievous

 

BU'RIAL, _s._ interment; the act of putting anything under earth or water

 

BU'RY, _v.a._ inter; put in the grave; conceal

 

BU'TTRESS, _s._ a prop; a wall built to support another

 

CA'DENCE, _s._ the fall of the voice; state of sinking, decline

 

CALA'MITY, _s._ misfortune; cause of misery; distress

 

CA'LCULATE, _v.a._ reckon; adjust

 

CAL'CULA'TION, _s._ a practice or manner of reckoning; a reckoning

 

CA'LEDO'NIANS, _s._ the ancient inhabitants of Scotland

 

CAMPA'IGN, _s._ a large, open, level tract of land; the time for which any army keeps the field

 

CA'NADA, _s._ a province of the British possessions in America

 

CANA'L, _s._ any course of water made by art; a passage through which any of the juices of the body flow

 

CANA'RY, _s._ an excellent singing-bird--so called from its native place, the Canary Islands

 

CA'NNIBAL, _s._ a savage that eats his fellow-men taken in war

 

CA'PABLE, _a._ susceptible; intelligent; qualified for; able to receive; capacious; able to understand

 

CAPA'CIOUS, _a._ wide; large

 

CAPA'CITY, _s._ power; ability; state; condition; character

 

CAPERCA'ILZIE, _s._ (pronounced _cap-per-kail-zeh_) cock of the wood

 

CA'PITAL, _s._ the upper part of a pillar; the chief city of a nation or kingdom

 

CA'PITAL, _a._ applied to letters--large, such as are written at the beginning or heads of books

 

CA'PTAIN, _s._ a chief commander

 

CA'PTIVE, _s._ a prisoner

 

CAPTI'VITY, _s._ imprisonment; subjection by the fate of war; bondage; slavery; servitude

 

CA'PTURE, _v.a._ take prisoner; bring into a condition of servitude

 

CA'RAVAN, _s._ a conveyance; a troop or body of merchants or pilgrims, as they travel in the East

 

CARE'ER, _s._ a course; full speed; course of action

 

CA'RGO, _s._ the lading of a ship

 

CARNI'VOROUS, _a._ flesh-eating

 

CA'ROB, _s._ a plant bearing a nutritious fruit so called

 

CA'RRIAGE, _s._ the act of carrying or transporting; vehicle; conduct

 

CA'RRION, _s._ the carcase of something not proper for food CA'RRONA'DE, _s._ a short iron cannon

 

CA'RRY, _v.a._ convey from a place; transport; bring forward; bear

 

CAR'TILAGE, _s._ a smooth and solid body, softer than a bone, but harder than a ligament

 

CARTILA'GINOUS, _a._ consisting of cartilages

 

CA'RTRIDGE, _s._ a case of paper or parchment filled with gunpowder, used for greater expedition in loading

 

CASCA'DE, _s._ a cataract; a waterfall

 

CA'STELLATED, _a._ that which is turretted or built in the form of a castle

 

CATAMARA'N, _s._ a rude species of boat

 

CA'TARACT, _s._ a waterfall

 

CATA'STROPHE, _s._ a final event

 

CATHE'DRAL, _s._ the head church of a diocese

 

CA'VALRY, _s._ horse soldiery

 

CA'VERN, _s._ a hollow place in the ground

 

CA'VIL, _s._ a false or frivolous objection

 

CA'VITY, _s._ a hole; a hollow place

 

CE'DAR, _s._ a kind of tree; it is evergreen, and produces flowers

 

CE'LEBRATE, _v.a._ praise; commend; mention in a set or solemn manner

 

CELE'BRITY, _s._ transaction publicly splendid

 

CELE'RITY, _s._ quickness

 

CELE'STIAL, _a._ heavenly

 

CE'METERY, _s._ a place where the dead are deposited

 

CE'NTRE, _s._ the middle

 

CE'NTURY, _s._ a hundred years

 

CEREMO'NIOUS, _a._ full of ceremony CE'REMONY, _s._ form in religion; form of civility

 

CE'RTAIN, _a._ sure; unquestionable; regular; particular kind

 

CHAO'TIC, _a._ confused

 

CHA'PTER, _s._ a division of a book; the place in which assemblies of the clergy are held

 

CHARACTERI'SE, _v.a._ to give a character of the particular quality of any man

 

CHARACTERI'STIC, _s._ that which constitutes the character

 

CHARACTERI'STICALLY, _ad._ constituting the character

 

CHA'RITY, _s._ kindness; love; good-will; relief given to the poor

 

CHA'TEAU, _s._ (pronounced _shat-oh_) a castle

 

CHA'TTER, _v.a._ make a noise by collision of the teeth; talk idly or carelessly

 

CHE'RUB, _s._ a celestial spirit, next in order to the seraphim

 

CHRI'STENDOM, _s._ the collective body of Christianity

 

CHRI'STIAN, _s._ a professor of the religion of Christ

 

CHRO'NICLE, _s._ a register of events in order of time; a history

 

CHRO'NICLER, _s._ a writer of chronicles; a historian

 

CHRONO'METER, _s._ an instrument for the exact measuring of time

 

CI'PHER, _s._ a figure, as 1, 2

 

CI'RCUIT, _s._ a circular band

 

CI'RCUIT, _s._ ring; round; stated journey repeated at intervals

 

CIRCU'MFERENCE, _s._ the space enclosed in a circle

 

CIRCUMSCRI'BE, _v.a._ enclose in certain lines or boundaries; bound; Limit

 

CI'RCUMSTANCE, _s._ something relative to a fact; incident; event

 

CI'STERN, _s._ a receptacle of water for domestic uses; reservoir CI'STUS, _s._ rock-rose

 

CI'TADEL, _s._ a fortress; a place of defence

 

CI'TIZEN, _s._ a freeman of a city; townsman

 

CI'TY, _s._ a corporate town that hath a bishop

 

CI'VIL, _a._ political; not foreign; gentle; well bred; polite

 

CIVI'LITY, _s._ politeness; complaisance

 

CI'VILIZA'TION, _s._ civilising manners

 

CI'VILIZE, _v.a._ reclaim from savageness and brutality

 

CLA'MOUR, _s._ noise; tumult; disturbance

 

CLA'RION, _s._ a trumpet

 

CLI'MATE, _s._ a region, or tract of land, differing from another by the temperature of the air

 

CLU'STER, _s._ a bunch

 

CO'GNIZANCE, _s._ trial; a badge by which one is known

 

COLLE'CT, _v.a._ gather together; bring into one place; gain from observation

 

COLLO'QUIAL, _a._ that relates to common conversation

 

COLO'NIAL, _a._ that which relates to a colony

 

CO'LONIST, _s._ one that colonises; one that dwells in a colony

 

COLO'SSAL, _a._ of enormous magnitude; large

 

CO'LOUR, _s._ the appearance of bodies to the eye only; hue; appearance

 

CO'LUMN, _s._ a round pillar; a long file or row of troops; half a page, when divided into two equal parts by a line passing down the middle

 

COLU'MNAR, _a._ formed in columns

 

COMBINA'TION, _s._ a union; a joining together

 

CO'MFORTABLE, _a._ admitting comfort; dispensing comfort COMMA'NDER, _s._ a general; chief; leader

 

COMMEMORA'TION, _s._ an act of public celebration

 

COMME'NCE, _v.a._ to begin

 

CO'MMERCE, _s._ intercourse; exchange of one thing for another; trade

 

COMME'RCIAL, _a._ that which relates to commerce

 

CO'MMINUTE, _v.a._ to grind; to pulverise

 

COMMO'DITY, _s._ wares; merchandise

 

COMMONWE'ALTH, _s._ a polity; an established form of civilized life; public; republic

 

COMMU'NICATE, _v.a._ impart knowledge; reveal

 

COMMU'NITY, _s._ the commonwealth; the body politic; common possession

 

COMPA'NION, _s._ a partner; an associate

 

CO'MPANY, _s._ persons assembled together; a band; a subdivision of a regiment of foot

 

CO'MPARABLE, _a._ capable of being compared; of equal regard

 

COMPA'RE, _v.n._ make one thing the measure of another; find a likeness of one thing with another

 

COMPA'RISON, _s._ the act of comparing; state of being compared; comparative estimate

 

COMPE'TE, _v.a._ to vie; to contend; to strive; to endeavour to outstrip

 

COMPLA'INT, _s._ representation of pains or injuries; malady; remonstrance against

 

COMPLAI'SANCE, _s._ civility; desire of pleasing

 

COMPLE'TION, _s._ accomplishment; act of fulfilling

 

COMPLI'ANCE, _s._ the act of yielding to any design or demand

 

CO'MPLICATE, _v.a._ to render difficult and incomprehendable; to join one with another

 

COMPOSI'TION, _s._ a mass formed by mingling different ingredients; written work

 

COMPREHE'ND, _v.a._ comprise; include; conceive; understand

 

CONCE'AL, _v.a._ hide; keep secret; cover

 

CONCE'IT, _s._ vain pride

 

CONCE'NTRIC, _a._ having one common centre

 

CONCE'PTION, _s._ the act of conceiving; state of being conceived; notion; sentiment

 

CONCE'SSION, _s._ the act of granting or yielding

 

CONCI'LIATE, _v.a._ to gain; to win; to reconcile

 

CONCI'SE, _a._ short; brief; not longer than is really needful

 

CONCO'CT, _v.a._ to devise

 

CO'NCORD, _s._ agreement between persons or things; peace; union; a compact

 

CONCU'SSION, _s._ the state of being shaken

 

CONDE'NSE, _v.n._ to grow close and weighty

 

CONDI'TION, _s._ rank; property; state

 

CO'NDOR, _s._ a monstrous bird in America

 

CONDU'CT, _v.a._ lend; accompany; manage

 

CONE, _s._ a solid body, of which the base is circular, but which ends in a point

 

CONFE'R, _v.a._ compare; give; bestow; contribute; conduce

 

CO'NFERENCE, _s._ formal discourse; an appointed meeting for discussing some point by personal debate

 

CONFE'SS, _v.a._ acknowledge a crime; own; avow; grant

 

CONFI'NEMENT, _s._ imprisonment; restraint of liberty

 

CO'NFLUENCE, _s._ the joining together of rivers; a concourse; the act of joining together

 

CONFORMA'TION, _s._ the form of things as relating to each other; the act of producing suitableness or conformity to anything CONFO'RMITY, _s._ similitude; consistency

 

CONGE'NER, _s._ a thing of the same kind or nature

 

CONGE'NIAL, _a._ partaking of the same genius

 

CONGLO'MERATE, _v.a._ to gather into a ball, like a ball of thread

 

CO'NICAL, _a._ in the shape of a cone

 

CONJE'CTURE, _s._ guess; imperfect knowledge; idea

 

CONNEC'TION, _s._ union

 

CO'NQUER, _v.a._ gain by conquest; win; subdue

 

CO'NQUEROR, _s._ a victor; one that conquers

 

CO'NQUEST, _s._ a victory

 

CO'NSCIENCE, _s._ the faculty by which we judge of the goodness or wickedness of ourselves

CO'NSCIOUS, _a._ endowed with the power of knowing one's own thoughts and actions; bearing witness by the dictates of conscience to anything

CONSCRI'PTION, _s._ an enrolling or registering

 

CO'NSECRATE, _v.a._ to make sacred; to canonize

 

CO'NSEQUENCE, _s._ that which follows from any cause or principle; effect of a cause

 

CO'NSEQUENT, _a._ following by rational deduction; following as the effect of a cause

 

CONSI'DERABLE, _a._ worthy of consideration; important; valuable

 

CONSI'ST, _v.n._ subsist; be composed; be comprised

 

CONSI'STENCE, _s._ state with respect to material existence; degree of denseness or rarity

 

CONSI'STENCY, _s._ adhesion; agreement with itself or with any other thing

 

CONSPI'CUOUS, _a._ obvious to the sight CO'NSTANT, _a._ firm; fixed; certain; unvaried

 

CONSTELLA'TION, _s._ a cluster of fixed stars; an assemblage of splendours

 

CONSTERNA'TION, _s._ astonishment; amazement; wonder

 

CO'NSTITUTE, _v.a._ give formal existence; produce; erect; appoint another in an office

 

CONSTRU'CT, _v.a._ build; form; compile

 

CONSTRU'CTION, _s._ the act of building; structure; form of building

 

CONSTR'UCTIVE, _a._ by construction

 

CONSU'MPTION, _s._ the act of consuming; waste; a disease; a waste of muscular flesh

 

CO'NTACT, _s._ touch; close union

 

CONTA'GIOUS, _a._ infectious; caught by approach

 

CONTA'IN, _v.a._ hold; comprehend; restrain

 

CONTE'MPLATE, _v.a._ study; meditate; muse; think studiously with long attention

 

CONTEMPLA'TION, _s._ meditation; studious thought

 

CONTE'MPLATIVE, _a._ given to thought or study

 

CONTE'MPORARY, _s._ one who lives at the same time with another

 

CONTE'MPTIBLE, _a._ worthy of contempt, of scorn; neglected; despicable

 

CO'NTEST, _s._ dispute; difference; debate

 

CONTE'ST, _v.a._ to strive; to vie; to contend

 

CONTI'GUOUS, _a._ meeting so as to touch

 

CO'NTINENT, _s._ land not disjoined by the sea from other lands; that which contains anything; one of the quarters of the globe

 

CONTI'NGENCY, _s._ accidental possibility

 

CONTI'NUE, _v.n._ remain in the same state; last; persevere

 

CONTRA'CT, _v.a._ to shrink up; to grow short; to bargain CO'NTRARY, _a._ opposite; contradictory; adverse

 

CONTRI'VANCE, _s._ the act of contriving; scheme; plan; plot

 

CONVE'NIENCE, _s._ fitness; ease; cause of ease

 

CONVE'NIENT, _a._ fit; suitable; proper; well adapted

 

CO'NVENT, _s._ an assembly of religious persons; a monastery; a nunnery

 

CO'NVERSE, _s._ conversation; acquaintance; familiarity

 

CONVE'RSION, _s._ change from one state to another

 

CONVE'RT, _v.a._ change into another substance; change from one religion to another; turn from a bad to a good life; apply to any use

 

CONVE'Y, _v.a._ carry; transport from one place to another; bring; transfer

 

CONVU'LSIVE, _a._ that gives twitches or spasms

 

CO'PIOUS, _a._ plentiful; abundant

 

CO'PPICE, _s._ a low wood; a place overrun with brushwood

 

CO'RDIAL, _a._ reviving; hearty; sincere

 

CORONA'TION, _s._ the act of crowning a King

 

CORPORA'TION, _s._ a body politic, constituted by Royal charter

 

CORPO'REAL, _a._ having a body; material; not spiritual

 

CORRE'CT, _v.a._ punish; discipline; remark faults; take away fault

 

CORRESPONDENCE, _s._ intercourse; relation; friendship

 

CO'UNCILLOR, _s._ one that gives counsel

 

COU'NTENANCE, _s._ the form of the face; air; look; calmness of look; patronage

 

CO'UNTRY, _s._ a tract of land; a region; rural parts

 

CO'URAGE, _s._ bravery; boldness

 

CO'VERING, _s._ dress; anything spread over another CRA'FTY, _a._ cunning; knowing; scheming; politic

 

CRA'TER, _s._ the bowl, opening, or funnel of a volcano

 

CREA'TION, _s._ the act of creating; universe

 

CREA'TOR, _s._ the Divine Being that created all things

 

CRE'ATURE, _s._ a being created; a general term for man

 

CRE'VICE, _s._ a crack; a cleft; a narrow opening

 

CRI'MINAL, _s._ a man accused; a man guilty of a crime

 

CRI'MINA'LITY, _s._ the act of being guilty of a crime

 

CRI'TIC, _s._ a judge; otherwise a censurer

 

CRI'TICAL, _a._ relating to criticism

 

CRO'CODILE, _s._ an amphibious voracious animal, in shape like a lizard

 

CROO'KED, _a._ bent; winding; perverse

 

CRU'ELTY, _s._ inhumanity; savageness; act of intentional affliction

 

CRU'SADE, _s._ an expedition against the infidels; a holy war

 

CRY'STAL, _s._ crystals are hard, pellucid, and naturally colourless bodies, of regular angular figures

 

CU'LPABLE, _a._ criminal; guilty; blamable

 

CU'LTIVATE, _v.a._ forward or improve the product of the earth by manual industry; improve

 

CULTIVA'TION, _s._ improvement in general

 

CU'POLA, _s._ a dome

 

CU'RFEW, _s._ an evening peal, by which the Conqueror willed that every man should rake up his fire and put out his light

 

CURIO'SITY, _s._ inquisitiveness; nice experiment; an object of curiosity; rarity

 

CU'RIOUS, _a._ inquisitive; desirous of information; difficult to please; diligent about; elegant; neat; artful

 

CU'RRENT, _a._ passing from hand to hand; authoritative; common; what is now passing

 

CU'STOM, _s._ habit; fashion; practice of buying of certain persons

 

CY'MBAL, _s._ a kind of musical instrument

 

CY'PRESS, _s._ a tall straight tree. It is the emblem of mourning

 

DALMA'TIA, _s._ a province of Austria

 

DALMA'TIAN, _a._ belonging to Dalmatia

 

DA'MAGE, _s._ mischief; hurt; loss

 

DA'NGER, _s._ risk; hazard; peril

 

DA'NGEROUS, _a._ hazardous; perilous

 

DA'STARDLY, _ad._ cowardly; mean; timorous

 

DA'UNTED, _a._ discouraged

 

DECE'PTION, _s._ the act or means of deceiving; cheat; fraud; the state of being deceived

 

DECLI'NE, _v.a._ shun; avoid; refuse; bring down

 

DE'CORATE, _v.a._ adorn; embellish; beautify

 

DECORA'TION, _s._ ornament; added beauty

 

DE'DICATE, _v.a._ to inscribe

 

DEFA'CE, _v.a._ destroy; raze; ruin; disfigure

 

DEFE'CTIVE, _a._ wanting the just quantity; full of defects; imperfect; faulty

 

DEFE'NCE, _s._ guard; protection; resistance

 

DEFI'CIENCY, _s._ want; something less than is necessary; imperfection

 

DEGE'NERACY, _s._ departure from the virtue of our ancestors

 

DEGE'NERATE, _a._ unworthy; base

 

DE'ITY, _s._ divinity; the nature and essence of God; fabulous Rod; the supposed divinity of a heathen god

 

DE'LICACY, _s._ daintiness; softness; feminine beauty; nicety; gentle treatment; smallness

 

DE'LICATE, _s._ fine; soft; pure; clear; unable to bear hardships; effeminate

 

DELI'CIOUS, _a._ sweet; delicate; agreeable

 

DELI'GHT, _v.a._ please; content; satisfy

 

DELI'NEATE, _v.a._ to paint; to represent; to describe

 

DELI'VER, _v.a._ set free; release; give; save; surrender

 

DE'LUGE, _v.a._ flood

 

DE'LUGE, _v.a._ drown; lay totally under water; overwhelm; cause to sink

 

DEME'ANOUR, _s._ carriage; behaviour

 

DEMO'LISH, _v.a._ raze; destroy; swallow up

 

DEMONSTRA'TION, _s._ the highest degree of argumental evidence

 

DENO'MINATE, _v.a._ to name anything

 

DEPA'RTMENT, _s._ separate allotment; province or business assigned to a particular person

 

DEPO'RTMENT, _s._ carriage; bearing

 

DEPO'SIT, _s._ a pledge; anything given as a security

 

DEPO'SIT, _v.a._ lay up; lay aside

 

DEPRA'VITY, _s._ corruption

 

DE'PREDA'TION, _s._ a robbing; a spoiling; waste

 

DEPRI'VE, _v.a._ bereave one of a thing; hinder; debar from

 

DE'RVISE, _s._ a Turkish priest

 

DESCE'NDANT, _s._ the offspring of an ancestor

 

DESCRI'BE, _v.a._ mark out; define

 

DESCRI'PTION, _s._ the sentence or passage in which anything is described

 

DESCRY', _v.a._ give notice of anything suddenly discovered; detect; discover

 

DE'SERT, _s._ a wilderness; solitude; waste country

 

DESE'RVE, _v.a._ be entitled to reward or punishment

 

DESI'GN, _s._ an intention; a purpose; a scheme

 

DESIGNA'TION, _s._ appointment; direction; intention to design

 

DESI'RE, _v.a._ wish; long for; intreat

 

DE'SOLATE, _a._ without inhabitants; solitary; laid waste

 

DESPA'TCH, _s._ to send away hastily; to do business quickly; to put to death

 

DE'SPERATE, _a._ without hope; rash; mad; furious

 

DE'SPICABLE, _a._ worthy of scorn; contemptible

 

DESPI'SE, _v.a._ scorn; condemn; slight; abhor

 

DE'SPOTISM, _s._ absolute power

 

DESTINA'TION, _s._ the place where it was our destiny to go; fate; doom

 

DE'STINE, _v.a._ doom; devote

 

DE'STINY, _s._ doom; fate

 

DE'STITUTE, _a._ forsaken; abject; in want of

 

DESTRO'Y, _v.a._ lay waste; make desolate; put an end to

 

DESTRU'CTION, _s._ the act of destroying; the state of being destroyed; ruin

 

DETA'CH, _v.a._ separate; disengage

 

DETA'CHMENT, _s._ a body of troops sent out from the main army

 

DETE'R, _v.a._ fright from anything

 

DETERMINA'TION, _s._ absolute direction to a certain end; the result of deliberation; judicial decision

 

DETE'RMINE, _v.a._ fix; settle; resolve; decide DETE'STABLE, _a._ hateful; abominable; odious

 

DETRA'CTION, _s._ the withdrawing or taking off from a thing

 

DETRU'DE, _v.a._ thrust down; force into a lower place

 

DEVASTA'TION, _s._ waste; havoc; desolation; destruction

 

DEVE'LOP, _v.a._ to disentangle; to disengage from something that enfolds and conceals

 

DEVIA'TION, _s._ the act of quitting the right way; wandering

 

DEVO'TE, _v.a._ dedicate; consecrate

 

DE'VOTEE, _s._ one erroneously or superstitiously religious; a bigot

 

DEVO'TION, _s._ piety; prayer; strong affection; power

 

DE'XTEROUS, _a._ subtle; full of expedients; expert; active; ready

 

DIABO'LICAL, _a._ devilish

 

DI'ADEM, _s._ the mark of Royalty worn on the head

 

DI'AL, _s._ a plate marked with lines, where a hand or shadow shows the hour

 

DI'ALECT, _s._ subdivision of a language; style; manner of expression

 

DI'ALOGUE, _s._ a discussion between two persons

 

DIA'METER, _s._ the straight line which, passing through the centre of a circle, divides it into two equal parts

 

DI'AMOND, _s._ the most valuable and hardest of all the gems; a brilliant

 

DI'FFER, _v.n._ be distinguished from; contend; be of a contrary opinion

 

DI'FFERENT, _a._ distinct; unlike; dissimilar

 

DIFFICULTY, _s._ hardness; something hard to accomplish; distress; perplexity in affairs

 

DI'GNITY, _s._ rank of elevation; grandeur of mien; high place

 

DILA'TE, _v n._ widen; grow wide; speak largely DI'LIGENCE, _s._ industry; assiduity

 

DIMI'NISH, _v.a._ to make less

 

DIMI'NUTIVE, _a._ small; narrow; contracted

 

DIRE'CT, _v.a._ aim at a straight line; regulate; order; command; adjust; mark out a certain course

 

DIRE'CTION, _s._ tendency of motion impressed by a certain impulse; order; command; prescription

 

DIRE'CTLY, _ad._ immediately; apparently; in a straight line

 

DISAGRE'EABLE, _a._ unpleasing; offensive

 

DISA'STROUS, _a._ calamitous

 

DISCI'PLE, _s._ a scholar; one that professes to receive instruction from another

 

DISCIPLINE, _s._ education; the art of cultivating the mind; a state of subjection

 

DISCONCE'RT, _v.a._ unsettle the mind; discompose

 

DISCOU'RAGE, _v.a._ depress; deprive of confidence

 

DISCO'VER, _v.a._ disclose; bring to light; find out

 

DISCO'VERY, _s._ the act of finding anything hidden

 

DISCRI'MINATION, _s._ the state of being distinguished from other persons or things; the mark of distinction

 

DISHO'NOUR, _s._ reproach; disgrace; ignominy

 

DISLO'DGE, _v.a._ to go to another place; to drive or remove from a place

 

DISMA'NTLE, _v.a._ strip; deprive of a dress; strip a town of its outworks; loose

 

DISMA'Y, _s._ fall of courage; desertion of mind

 

DISOBE'DIENCE, _s._ the act of disobeying; inattention to the words of those who have right to command

 

DISO'RDER, _s._ irregularity; tumult; sickness DISPA'RAGEMENT, _s._ reproach; disgrace; indignity

 

DISPLA'Y, _v.a._ exhibit; talk without restraint

 

DISPOSI'TION, _s._ order; method; temper of mind

 

DISQUI'ETUDE, _s._ uneasiness

 

DI'SREGARD, _v.a._ to slight; to neglect

 

DI'SSIPATE, _v.a._ scatter every way; disperse; scatter the attention

 

DISSO'LVE, _v.n._ be melted; fall to nothing

 

DISTANCE, _s._ remoteness in place; retraction of kindness; reserve

 

DISTE'MPER, _s._ disease; malady; bad constitution of the mind

 

DISTI'NCTION, _s._ the act of discerning one as preferable to the other; note of difference; honourable note of superiority; discernment

 

DISTINCTLY, _ad._ not confusedly; plainly; clearly

 

DISTRE'SS, _s._ calamity; misery; misfortune

 

DISTRI'BUTE, _v.a._ to deal out; to dispensate

 

DI'STRICT, _s._ region; country; territory

 

DIVE'RGE, _v.n._ send various ways from one point

 

DIVE'RSIFY, _v.a._ make different from another

 

DIVE'RSION, _s._ the act of turning anything off from its course

 

DIVE'RSITY, _s._ difference; dissimilitude; unlikeness; variety

 

DIVI'DE, _v.a._ part one whole in different pieces; separate; deal out

 

DI'VIDEND, _s._ a share

 

DO'CILE, _a._ teachable; easily instructed; tractable

 

DOMA'IN, _s._ dominion; possession; estate; empire

 

DOME'STIC, _a._ belonging to the house; private

 

DOME'STICATE, _v.a._ make domestic; withdraw from the public

 

DOMI'NION, _s._ sovereign authority; power; territory DO'RSAL, _a._ pertaining to the back

 

DO'UBLE, _a._ two of a sort; in pairs; twice as much

 

DRAMA'TIC, _a._ representable by action

 

DRA'MATIST, _s._ author of dramatic compositions

 

DRAW'INGROOM, _s._ a room to which company withdraw--originally withdrawing-room

 

DRE'ADFUL, _a._ terrible; frightful

 

DRE'ARINESS, _s._ gloominess; sorrowfulness

 

DRE'ARY, _a._ sorrowful; gloomy; dismal; horrid

 

DU'CAT, _s._ a coin struck by Dukes; in silver valued at about four shillings and sixpence, in gold at nine shillings and sixpence

 

DURA'TION, _s._ power of continuance; length of continuance

 

DU'RING, _prep._ for the time of the continuance

 

EA'RLY, _ad._ soon; betimes

 

EA'RTHQUAKE, _s._ tremour or convulsion of the earth

 

EA'STERN, _a._ belonging to the east; lying to the east; oriental

 

EA'SY, _a._ not difficult; ready; contented; at rest

 

ECLI'PSE, _s._ an obscuration of the heavenly luminaries; darkness; obscuration

 

ECO'NOMY, _s._ frugality; discretion of expense; system of matter

 

E'DIFICE, _s._ a fabric; a building

 

EDI'TION, _s._ publication of anything, particularly of a book

 

EDUCA'TION, _s._ formation of manners in youth

 

EFFE'CT, _s._ that which is produced by an operating cause; success; purpose; meaning; consequence

 

EFFE'CTUAL, _a._ productive of effects; expressive of facts EFFE'MINACY, _s._ softness; unmanly delicacy

 

E'FFLUENCE, _s._ what issues from some other principle

 

E'FFULGENCE, _s._ lustre; brightness; splendour

 

EFFU'SE, _v.a._ to pour out; to spill, to shed

 

EJA'CULATION, _s._ an exclamation

 

ELA'BORATE, _a._ finished with care

 

ELE'CTRIC, _a._ relating to electricity

 

ELE'CTRO-MA'GNETISM, _s._ a branch of electrical science

 

E'LEGANCE, _s._ beauty, rather soothing than striking; beauty without grandeur

 

E'LEGY, _s._ a mournful song; short poem without points or turns

 

E'LEPHANT, _s._ a large quadruped

 

E'LEVA'TED, _a._ exalted; raised up; progressed in rank

 

ELEVA'TION, _s._ the act of raising up aloft; exaltation

 

ELOCU'TION, _s._ the power of fluent speech; the power of expression; eloquence; flow of language

 

E'LOQUENCE, _s._ the power or speaking with fluency and elegance

 

ELU'DE, _v.a._ to mock by unexpected escape

 

E'MANATE, _v.a._ to issue; to flow from something else

 

EMBA'LM, _v.a._ impregnate a body with aromatics, that it may resist putrefaction

 

EMBA'RK, _v.n._ to go on board a ship; to engage in any affair

 

EMBROI'DERY, _s._ variegated work; figures raised upon a ground

 

E'MERALD, _s._ a precious stone of a green colour

 

EME'RGE, _v.n._ to issue; to proceed; to rise

 

EME'RGENCY, _s._ the act of rising into view; any sudden occasion; pressing necessity

 

E'MINENCE, _s._ loftiness; height; summit; distinction

 

E'MINENT, _a._ celebrated; renowned

 

EMI'T, _v.a._ to send forth; to let fly; to dart

 

EMO'LUMENT, _s._ profit; advantage

 

E'MPEROR, _s._ a monarch of title and dignity superior to a king

 

EMPLO'Y, _v.a._ busy; keep at work; use as materials; trust with the management of any affairs; use as means

 

E'MULATE, _v.a._ to vie

 

EMULA'TION, _s._ rivalry; desire of superiority

 

ENA'BLE, _v.a._ make able; confer power

 

ENCA'MPMENT, _s._ the act of encamping or pitching tents; a camp

 

ENCHA'NTMENT, _s._ magical charms; spells; irresistible influence

 

ENCI'RCLING, _a._ environing; surrounding

 

ENCLO'SE, _v.a._ part from things or grounds common by a fence; surround; encompass

 

ENCOU'NTER, _v.a._ meet face to face; attack

 

ENCRO'ACHMENT, _s._ an unlawful gathering in upon another man; advance into the territories or rights of another

 

ENDA'NGER, _v.a._ put in hazard; incur the danger of

 

ENDU'RANCE, _s._ continuance; lastingness; delay

 

E'NEMY, _s._ foe; antagonist; any one who regards another with malevolence

 

ENERGE'TIC, _a._ operative; active; vigorous

 

E'NERGY, _s._ activity; quickness; vigour

 

ENGA'GE, _v.a._ employ; stake; unite; enlist; induce; fight

 

ENGINE'ER, _s._ one who manages engines; one who directs the artillery of an army

 

ENGRA'VER, _s._ a cutter in wood or other matter ENGRA'VING, _s._ the work of an engraver

 

ENGRO'SS, _v.a._ thicken; increase in bulk; fatten; to copy in a large hand

 

ENJO'Y, _v.a._ feel or perceive with pleasure; please; delight

 

ENLA'RGEMENT, _s._ increase; copious discourse

 

ENNO'BLE, _v.a._ to dignify; to exalt; to make famous

 

ENO'RMOUS, _a._ wicked beyond the common measure; exceeding in bulk the common measure

 

ENQUI'RY, _s._ interrogation; examination; search

 

ENRA'GE, _v.a._ irritate; make furious

 

ENSNA'RE, _v.a._ entrap; entangle in difficulties or perplexities

 

E'NTERPRISE, _s._ an undertaking of hazard; an arduous attempt

 

E'NTERPRISING, _a._ fond of enterprise

 

ENTHU'SIASM, _s._ a vain belief of private revelation; beat of imagination; elevation of fancy

 

E'NTRAILS, _s._ the intestines; internal parts

 

ENU'MERATE, _v.a._ reckon up singly; number

 

ENVE'LOPEMENT, _s._ covering; inwrapment

 

E'PIC, _a._ narrative

 

EPI'STLE, _s._ a letter

 

EPI'STOLARY, _a._ transacted by letters; relating to letters

 

E'QUAL, _a._ even; uniform; in just proportion

 

EQUITY, _s._ justice; impartiality

 

ERE'CT, _a._ upright; bold; confident

 

ERE'CT, _v.a._ raise; build; elevate; settle

 

E'RMINE, _s._ an animal found in cold countries, of which the fur is valuable, and used for the adornment of the person. A fur worn by judges in England ERRO'NEOUS, _a._ wrong; unfounded; false; misled by error

 

ERU'PTION, _s._ the act of bursting out; sudden excursion of a hostile kind

 

ESCO'RT, _v.a._ convoy; guard from place to place

 

ESPE'CIAL, _a._ principal; chief

 

ESPE'CIALLY, _ad._ principally; chiefly; in an uncommon degree

 

ESPLANA'DE, _s._ the empty space between a citadel and the outskirts of a town

 

ESSE'NTIAL, _a._ necessary to the constitution or existence of anything; important in the highest degree

 

ESTA'BLISHMENT, _s._ settlement; fixed state

 

ESTRA'NGE, _v.a._ keep at a distance; withdraw

 

ETE'RNAL, _a._ without beginning or end; perpetual; unchanging

 

ETE'RNALLY, _ad._ incessantly; for evermore

 

ETE'RNITY, _s._ duration without beginning or end

 

ETHE'REAL, _a._ belonging to the higher regions

 

EVA'PORATE, _v.a._ to drive away in fumes

 

E'VENING, _s._ the close of the day; beginning of night

 

EVE'NTUALLY, _ad._ in the event; in the last result

 

E'VIDENT, _a._ plain; notorious

 

EXA'CT, _a._ nice; not deviating from rule; careful

 

EXA'MINE, _v.a._ search into; make inquiry into

 

EXA'MPLE, _s._ copy or pattern

 

E'XCAVATE, _v.a._ hollow; cut into hollows

 

EXCE'L, _v.a._ to outgo in good qualities; to surpass

 

E'XCELLENCE, _s._ the state of abounding in any good quality; dignity; goodness

 

E'XCELLENT, _a._ eminent in any good quality; of great value

 

EXCE'PT, _prep._ exclusively of; unless

 

EXCE'SSIVE, _a._ beyond the common proportion

 

EXCI'TE, _v.a._ rouse; animate

 

EXCLU'DE, _v.a._ shut out; debar

 

EXCLU'SIVE, _a._ having the power of excluding or denying admission

 

EXCRU'CIATE, _v.a._ torture; torment

 

EXCU'RSION, _s._ an expedition into some distant part

 

EXCU'RSIVE, _a._ rambling; deviating

 

EXECU'TION, _s._ performance; practice; slaughter

 

EXE'MPLARY, _a._ such as may give warning to others; such as may attract notice and imitation

 

E'XERCISE, _s._ labour of the mind or body

 

EXE'RTION, _s._ the act of exerting; effort

 

EXHI'BIT, _v.a._ to offer to view; show; display

 

EXHIBI'TION, _s._ the act of exhibiting; display

 

EXHI'LARATE, _v.a._ make cheerful; cheer; enliven

 

EXI'STENCE, _s._ state of being

 

EXPA'ND, _v.a._ to spread; to extend on all sides

 

EXPA'NSE, _s._ a body widely extended without inequalities

 

EXPE'DIENT, _s._ that which helps forward as means to an end

 

EXPEDI'TION, _s._ an excursion

 

EXPE'L, _v.a._ drive away; banish; eject

 

EXPE'RIENCE, _s._ knowledge gained by practice

 

EXPE'RIENCED, _a._ wise by long practice EXPE'RIMENT, _s._ a trial of anything

 

EXPI'RE, _v.a._ breathe out; close; bring to an end

 

EXPLO'SION, _s._ an outburst; a sudden crash

 

EXPO'RT, _v.a._ carry out of a country

 

EXPO'SE, _v.a._ lay open; make bare; put in danger

 

EXPRE'SSION, _s._ the form of language in which any thoughts are uttered; the act of squeezing out anything

 

E'XQUISITE, _a._ excellent; consummate; complete

 

EXTE'MPORE, _ad._ without premeditation; suddenly

 

EXTE'ND, _v.a._ stretch out; diffuse; impart

 

EXTE'NSIVE, _a._ large; wide; comprehensive

 

EXTE'RIOR, _a._ outward; external

 

EXTE'RNAL, _a._ outward

 

EXTI'NGUISH, _v.a._ put out; destroy; obscure

 

EXTI'RPATE, _v.a._ root out; eradicate

 

E'XTRACT, _s._ the chief parts drawn from anything

 

EXTRAO'RDINARY, _a._ different from common order and method; eminent; remarkable

 

EXTRA'VAGANT, _a._ wasteful; not saving; otherwise, improbable, false

 

EXTRE'MELY, _ad._ greatly; very much; in the utmost degree

 

EXTRE'MITY, _s._ the utmost point; highest degree; parts at the greatest distance

 

FACI'LITY, _s._ ease; dexterity; affability

 

FA'CTORY, _s._ a house or district inhabited by traders in a distant country; traders embodied in one place

 

FA'CULTY, _s._ the power of doing anything; ability FAMI'LIAR, _a._ domestic; free; well known; common; unceremonious

 

FAMI'LIARITY, _s._ easiness of conversation; acquaintance

 

FA'MILY, _s._ those who live in the same house; household; race; clans

 

FA'MOUS, _a._ renowned; celebrated

 

FANA'TICISM, _s._ madness; frenzy; insanity

 

FANTA'STIC, _a._ whimsical; fanciful; imaginary

 

FA'RTHER, _ad._ at a greater distance; beyond this

 

FA'SHION, _v.a._ form; mould; figure; make according to the rule prescribed by custom

 

FA'TAL, _a._ deadly; mortal; appointed by destiny

 

FATI'GUE, _s._ weariness

 

FATI'GUE, _v.a._ tire; weary

 

FAUN, _s._ a kind of rural deity

 

FA'VOURITE, _s._ a person or thing beloved; one regarded with favour

 

FE'ATHER, _s._ plume of birds

 

FE'ATURE, _s._ the cast or make of the face; any lineament or single part of the face

 

FE'ELING, _s._ the sense of touch; sensibility; tenderness; perception

FERMENTA'TION, _s._ a slow motion of the particles of a mixed body, arising usually from the operation of some active acid matter; as when leaven or yeast ferments bread or wort

FERO'CITY, _s._ savageness; wildness; fierceness

 

FE'RTILE, _a._ fruitful; abundant; plenteous

 

FERTI'LITY, _s._ abundance; fruitfulness

 

FE'STAL, _a._ festive; joyous; gay

 

FE'STIVAL, _a._ time of feast; anniversary-day of civil or religious joy

 

FESTO'ON, _s._ In architecture, an ornament of carved work in the form of a wreath or garland of flowers or leaves twisted together

 

FEU'DAL, _a._ dependant; held by tenure

 

FI'BRE, _s._ a small thread or string

 

FI'CTION, _s._ a fanciful invention; a probable or improbable invention; a falsehood; a lie

 

FIDE'LITY, _s._ honesty; faithful adherence

 

FI'GURE, _s._ shape; person; stature; the form of anything as terminated by the outline

 

FI'LIAL, _a._ pertaining to a son; befitting a son; becoming the relation of a son

 

FI'RMAMENT, _s._ sky; heavens

 

FLA'GON, _s._ a vessel with a narrow mouth

 

FLA'MBEAU, _s._ (pronounced _flam-bo_) a lighted torch

 

FLA'VOUR, _s._ power of pleasing the taste; odour

 

FLEUR-DE-LIS, _s._ (French for a lily, pronounced _flur-de-lee_) a term applied in architecture and heraldry

 

FLE'XIBLE, _a._ capable of being bent; pliant; not brittle; complying: obsequious; ductile; manageable

FLOAT, _v.n._ to swim on the surface of water; to move without labour in a fluid; to pass with a light irregular course; _v.a._ to cover with water

FLO'RIDNESS, _s._ freshness of colour

 

FLO'URISH, _v.a._ and _v.n._ yield; prosper; wield; adorn

 

FLU'CTUATE, _v.n._ roll to and again, as water in agitation; be in an uncertain state

 

FLU'ID, _a._ anything not solid

 

FLU'TTER, _v.n._ move irregularly; take short flights with great agitation of the wines

 

FO'LIAGE, _s._ leaves; tuft of leaves

 

FO'LLOWING, _a._ coming after another FOME'NT, _v.a._ cherish with heat; encourage

 

FO'REFATHER, _s._ ancestor

 

FO'REIGN, _a._ not in this country; not domestic; remote; not belonging to

 

FO'REPART, _s._ anterior part

 

FO'REST, _s._ a wild uncultivated tract of ground, with wood

 

FO'RMER, _a._ before another in time; the first of two

 

FO'RMIDABLE, _a._ terrible; dreadful; tremendous

 

FORTIFICA'TION, _s._ the science of military architecture; a place built for strength

 

FO'RTITUDE, _s._ courage; bravery; strength

 

FO'RWARD, _v.a._ hasten; quicken; advance

 

FO'RWARD, _a._ warm; earnest; quick; ready

 

FO'RWARD, _ad._ onward; straight before

 

FO'RWARDNESS, _s._ eagerness; ardour; quickness; confidence

 

FOSSE, _s._ a ditch; a moat

 

FOUNDA'TION, _s._ the basis or lower parts of an edifice; the act of fixing the basis; original; rise

 

FRA'GMENT, _s._ a part broken from the whole; an imperfect piece

 

FRA'NTIC, _a._ mad; deprived of understanding

 

FREE'STONE, _s._ stone commonly used in building, so called because it can be cut freely in all directions

 

FREIGHT, _s._ anything with which a ship is loaded; the money due for transportation of goods

 

FRE'QUENT, _a._ often done; often seen; often occurring

 

FRE'SCO, _s._ coolness; shade; duskiness; a picture not drawn in glaring light, but in dusk

 

FRI'CTION, _s._ the act of rubbing two bodies together FRI'VOLOUS, _a._ trifling; wasteful; dawdling

 

FRO'NTIER, _s._ the limit; the utmost verge of any territory

 

FU'RNACE, _s._ a large fire

 

FU'RNISH, _v.a._ supply with what is necessary; fit up; equip; decorate

 

GA'BLE, _s._ the sloping roof of a building

 

GA'LAXY, _s._ the Milky Way

 

GA'LLANT, _a._ brave; daring; noble

 

G'ALLEY, _a._ a vessel used in the Mediterranean

 

GA'RDEN, _s._ piece of ground enclosed and cultivated

 

GA'RMENT, _s._ anything by which the body is covered

 

GA'RRISON, _s._ fortified place, stored with soldiers

 

GAUGE, _s._ a measure; a standard

 

GENEA'LOGY, _s._ history of the succession of families

 

GE'NERAL, _a._ common; usual; extensive, though not universal; public

 

GENERA'TION, _s._ a family; a race; an age

 

GE'NEROUS, _a._ noble of mind; magnanimous; open of heart

 

GE'NIAL, _a._ that gives cheerfulness, or supports life; natural; native

 

GE'NTLE, _a._ soft; mild; tame; meek; peaceable

 

GEOGRA'PHICAL, _a._ that which relates to geography

 

GEO'GRAPHY, _s._ knowledge of the earth

 

GE'STURE, _s._ action or posture expressive of sentiment

 

GI'ANT, _s._ a man of size above the ordinary rate of men; a man unnaturally large

 

GIGA'NTIC, _a._ suitable to a giant; enormous GLA'CIER, _s._ a mountain of ice

 

GLA'NDULAR, _a._ having glands

 

GLI'STER, _v.n._ shine; to be bright

 

GLO'BULE, _s._ a small particle of matter of a round figure, as the red particles of the blood

 

GLO'RIOUS, _a._ noble; excellent; illustrious

 

GLO'SSY, _a._ shiny; smoothly polished

 

GO'RGEOUS, _a._ fine; magnificent; gaudy; showy

 

GO'SLING, _s._ a young goose; a catkin on nut-trees and pines

 

GO'SSAMER, _s._ the web of a male spider

 

GOUT, _s._ a disease attended with great pain

 

GO'VERNOR, _s._ one who has the supreme direction; a tutor

 

GRADA'TION, _s._ regular progress from one degree to another; order; arrangement

 

GRA'DUALLY, _ad._ by degrees; step by step

 

GRA'NDEUR, _s._ splendour of appearance; magnificence

 

GRANGE, _s._ a farm

 

GRATIFICA'TION, _s._ pleasure; something gratifying

 

GRA'TITUDE, _s._ duty to benefactors; desire to return benefits

 

GRA'VITY, _s._ weight; tendency to the centre; seriousness; solemnity

 

GROTE'SQUE, _a._ distorted of figure; unnatural

 

GUARD, _s._ part of the hilt of a sword; a man or body of men whose business is to watch

 

GUIDE, _s._ director; regulator

 

HABITATION, _s._ place of abode; dwelling

 

HABI'TUALLY, _ad._ customarily; by habit HA'GGARD, _a._ deformed; ugly

 

HARA'NGUE, _v.n._ make a speech

 

HA'RMONIZE, _v.a._ to adjust in fit proportion

 

HARPO'ON, _s._ a bearded dart, with a line fastened to the handle, with which whales are struck and caught

 

HA'ZARDOUS, _a._ perilous, dangerous

 

HE'AVY, _a._ weighty; burdened; depressed

 

HE'RALDRY, _s._ the art or office of a herald; registers of genealogies

 

HE'RBAGE, _s._ grass; pasture; herbs collectively

 

HERBI'VOROUS, _a._ that eats herbs

 

HERE'DITARY, _a._ possessed or claimed by right of inheritance; descending by inheritance

 

HE'RETIC, _s._ one who propagates his private opinions in opposition to the Catholic Church

 

HE'YDAY, _s._ frolic; wildness

 

HI'DEOUS, _a._ frightful; ugly

 

HIPPOPO'TAMUS, _s._ a large animal--the river horse

 

HISTO'RIAN, _s._ a writer of facts and events

 

HISTO'RICAL, _a._ that which relates to history

 

HI'STORY, _s._ narration; the knowledge of facts and events

 

HO'LLOW, _a._ excavated; not solid; not sound

 

HO'NEY, _s._ a sweet substance produced by bees

 

HO'NOUR, _s._ dignity; fame; reputation; glory

 

HO'RIZON, _s._ the line that terminates the view

 

HO'SPITABLE, _a._ giving entertainment to strangers; kind to strangers

 

HO'TTENTO'T, _s._ a native of the south of Africa HOWE'VER, _ad._ in whatsoever manner; at all events; happen what will; yet

 

HOWI'TZER, _s._ a kind of bomb

 

HU'MAN, _a._ having the qualities of a man; belonging to man

 

HUMA'NITY, _s._ the nature of man; benevolence

 

HU'MBLE, _a._ not proud; modest; low

 

HU'MID, _a._ wet; moist; watery

 

HUMI'LITY, _s._ freedom from pride; modesty

 

HU'NDRED, _s._ a company or body consisting of a hundred.

 

HU'RRICANE, _s._ a blast; a tempest

 

HYDRAU'LIC, _a._ relating to the conveyance of water through pipes

 

HY'DROGEN, _s._ a gas, one of the component parts of the atmosphere

 

I'CEBERG, _s._ a hill of ice; a moving island of ice

 

I'CICLE, _s._ a pendent shoot of ice

 

I'DOL, _s._ an image worshipped as God; one loved or honoured to adoration

 

IGNO'BLE, _a._ mean of birth; worthless

 

IGUA'NA, _s._ a reptile of the lizard species

 

ILLE'GAL, _a._ unlawful

 

ILLUMINA'TION, _s._ brightness; splendour

 

ILLU'MINATIVE, _a._ having the power to give light

 

ILLU'SION, _s._ mockery; false show

 

ILLU'STRATE, _v.a._ brighten with light; brighten with honour; explain; clear

 

ILLUSTRA'TION, _s._ explanation; example; exposition

 

ILLU'STRIOUS, _a._ conspicuous; noble; eminent I'MAGE, _s._ a statue; a picture; an idol; a copy

 

IMA'GINARY, _a._ fanciful; poetical

 

IMAGINATION, _s._ fancy; conception; contrivance; scheme

 

I'MITATE, _v.a._ copy; counterfeit; resemble

 

IMMATE'RIAL, _a._ incorporeal; unimportant

 

IMMEA'SURABLE, _a._ immense; not to be measured

 

IMME'DIATELY, _ad._ without the intervention of any other cause or event

 

IMME'NSE, _a._ unlimited; unbounded; infinite

 

I'MMINENT, _a._ unavoidable; perilous

 

IMMO'RTALISE, _v.a._ to render immortal

 

IMMORTA'LITY, _s._ exemption from death; life never to end

 

IMPA'RT, _v.a._ grant; give; communicate

 

IMPA'RTIAL, _a._ indifferent; disinterested; just

 

IMPA'SSABLE, _a._ not to be passed; not admitting passage

 

IMPA'SSIBLE, _a._ incapable of suffering

 

IMPA'TIENT, _a._ not able to endure; hasty; eager

 

IMPERCE'PTIBLE, _a._ not to be discovered; not to be perceived; small

 

IMPERFE'CTION, _s._ defect; failure; fault

 

IMPE'RIAL, _a._ belonging to an emperor, king, or queen; regal; monarchical

 

IMPE'RIOUS, _a._ commanding; powerful

 

IMPE'TUOUS, _a._ violent; forcible; vehement

 

IMPLA'CABILITY, _s._ irreconcileable enmity

 

IMPLI'CITLY, _ad._ with unreserved confidence

 

IMPO'RT, _v.a._ carry into any country from abroad IMPO'RTANCE, _s._ thing imported, or implied; consequence; matter

 

IMPO'RTANT, _a._ momentous; weighty; of great consequence; forcible

 

IMPO'SE, _v.a._ lay on as a burden or penalty; deceive; fix on

 

IMPO'SSIBLE, _a._ that which cannot be; that which cannot be done

 

IMPRE'GNABLE, _a._ invincible; unsubdueable

 

IMPRE'SSION, _s._ the act of pressing one body upon another; mark made by pressure; image fixed in the mind

 

IMPULSE, _s._ communicated love; the effect of one body upon another

 

IMPU'NITY, _s._ freedom from punishment; exemption from punishment

 

INABI'LITY, _s._ want of power; impotence

 

INACCE'SSIBLE, _a._ not to be reached or approached

 

INA'CTIVE, _a._ sluggish; slothful; not quick

 

INCA'LCULABLE, _a._ that which cannot be counted

 

INCAPA'CITATE, _v.a._ disable; weaken; disqualify

 

INCARNA'TION, _s._ the act of assuming body

 

INCE'NTIVE, _s._ that which kindles; that which provokes; that which encourages; spur

 

INCE'SSANT, _a._ unceasing; continual

 

I'NCIDENT, _s._ something happening beside the main design; casualty

 

INCLO'SURE, _s._ a place surrounded or fenced in

 

INCLU'DE, _v.a._ comprise; shut

 

INCONCE'IVABLE, _a._ incomprehensible

 

INCONSI'DERABLE, _a._ unworthy of notice; unimportant

 

INCONSI'STENT, _a._ contrary; absurd; incompatible

 

INCRE'DIBLE, _a._ surpassing belief; not to be credited

 

INCU'LCATE, _v.a._ impress by frequent admonitions INCU'RSION, _s._ an expedition

 

INDENTA'TION, _s._ an indenture; having a wavy figure

 

I'NDICATE, _v.a._ show; point out

 

INDI'CTMENT, _s._ an accusation presented in a court of justice

 

INDIGNA'TION, _s._ wrath; anger

 

INDISCRI'MINATE, _a._ without choice; impartially

 

INDISPE'NSABLE, _a._ not to be spared; necessary

 

INDIVI'DUAL, _a._ single; numerically one; undivided; separate from others of the same species

 

INDU'CE, _v.a._ persuade; enforce; bring into view

 

INDU'LGENCE, _s._ fond kindness; tenderness; favour granted

 

INDU'STRIOUS, _a._ diligent; laborious

 

I'NDUSTRY, _s._ diligence; cheerful labour

 

INEQUA'LITY, _s._ difference of comparative quantity

 

INE'VITABLE, _a._ unavoidable

 

INEXHA'USTIBLE, _a._ not to be spent or consumed; incapable of being spent

 

INEXPRE'SSIBLE, _a._ not to be told; unutterable

 

I'NFANTRTY, _s._ a body of foot soldiers; foot soldiery

 

INFA'TUATE, _v.a._ to strike with folly; to deprive of understanding

 

INFE'RIOR, _a._ lower in place, station, or value

 

I'NFIDEL, _s._ an unbeliever; a Pagan; one who rejects Christianity

 

I'NFINITE, _a._ unbounded; unlimited; immense

 

INFINITE'SSIMAL, _a._ infinitely divided

 

INFI'NITY, _s._ immensity; endless number

 

INFI'RMITY, _s._ weakness of age or temper; weakness; malady INFLA'TE, _v.a._ to swell; to make larger

 

INFLE'XIBLE, _a._ not to be bent; immoveable; not to be changed

 

INFLI'CT, _v.a._ to impose as a punishment

 

I'NFLUENCE, _s._ power of directing or modifying

 

INFLUE'NTIAL, _a._ exerting influence or power

 

INGE'NIOUS, _a._ witty; inventive

 

INGENU'ITY, _s._ wit; invention; genius; subtlety

 

INGLO'RIOUS, _a._ void of honour; mean; without glory

 

INGRA'TITUDE, _s._ unthankfulness

 

INHA'BITANT, _s._ dweller; one that lives in a place

 

INHE'RENT, _a._ existing in something else, so as to be inseparable from it; innate

 

INI'MITABLE, _a._ not able to be imitated; that which is incapable of imitation

 

INJU'RIOUS, _a._ hurtful; baneful; capable of injuring; that which injures; destructive

 

INJU'STICE, _s._ iniquity; wrong

 

INNU'MEROUS, _a._ innumerable; too many to be counted

 

INQUI'SITIVE, _a._ curious; busy in search; active to pry into everything

 

INSCRI'PTION, _s._ something written or engraved; title

I'NSECT, _s._ a small animal. Insects are so called from a separation in the middle of their bodies, whereby they are cut into two parts, which are joined together by a small ligature, as we see in wasps and common flies

INSE'NSIBLY, _ad._ imperceptibly; in such a manner as is not discovered by the senses

 

INSE'RT, _v.a._ place in or among other things

 

INSI'DIOUS, _a._ sly; diligent to entrap; treacherous INSI'GNIA, _s._ ensigns; arms

 

INSIGNI'FICANT, _a._ unimportant

 

INSI'PID, _a._ tasteless; void of taste

 

INSIPI'DITY, _s._ want of taste; want of life or spirit

 

I'NSOLENCE, _s._ petulant contempt

 

INSPE'CT, _v.a._ to examine; to look over

 

INSPE'CTION, _s._ prying examination; superintendence

 

INSPIRA'TION, _s._ infusion of ideas into the mind by divine power; the act of drawing breath

 

INSTABI'LITY, _s._ inconstancy; fickleness

 

I'NSTANT, _a._ _instant_ is such a part of duration wherein we perceive no succession; present or current month

 

I'NSTANTLY, _ad._ immediately

 

I'NSTINCT, _s._ natural desire or aversion; natural tendency

 

INSTITU'TION, _s._ establishment; settlement; positive law

 

INSTRU'CT, _v.a._ teach; form by precept; form authoritatively; educate; model; form

 

INSTRU'CTION, _s._ the act of teaching; information

 

INSUFFI'CIENT, _a._ inadequate to any need, use, or purpose; unfit

 

INTE'GRITY, _s._ honesty; straightforwardness; uprightness

 

INTELLE'CTUAL, _a._ relating to the understanding; mental; transacted by the understanding

 

INTE'LLIGENCE, _s._ commerce of information; spirit; understanding

 

INTE'LLIGIBLE, _a._ possible to be understood

 

INTE'MPERANCE, _s._ the act of overdoing something

 

INTE'NSE, _a._ excessive; very great

 

INTE'R, _v.a._ cover under ground; to bury INTERCE'PT, _v.a._ to hinder; to stop

 

I'NTERCOURSE, _s._ commerce; communication

 

I'NTEREST, _s._ concern; advantage; good; influence over others

 

INTERE'ST, _v.n._ affect; move; touch with passion

 

INTERLO'CUTOR, _s._ a dialogist; one that talks with another

 

INTERME'DIATE, _a._ intervening; interposed

 

INTE'RMINABLE, _a._ immense; without limits

 

INTE'RPRETER, _s._ one that interprets

 

INTERRU'PT, _v.a._ hinder the process of anything by breaking in upon it

 

INTERSE'CTION, _s._ point where lines cross each other

 

I'NTERSPACE, _s._ space between

 

INTERSPE'RSE, _v.a._ to scatter here and there among other things

 

INTERVE'NE, _v.n._ to come between

 

I'NTERVIEW, _s._ mutual sight; sight of each other

 

INTERWE'AVE, _v.a._ to intermingle; to mix one with another in a regular texture

 

I'NTIMATE, _a._ inmost; inward; near; familiar

 

INTONA'TION, _s._ the act of thundering

 

INTO'XICATE, _v.a._ to inebriate; to make drunk

 

I'NTRICATE, _a._ entangled; perplexed; obscure

 

INTRI'GUER, _s._ one that intrigues

 

INTRI'NSIC, _a._ inward; real; true

 

INTRODU'CTION, _s._ the act of bringing anything into notice or practice; the preface or part of a book containing previous matter

 

INTRU'DER, _s._ one who forces himself into company or affairs without right or welcome

 

INUNDA'TION, _s._ the overflow of waters; the flood; a confluence of any kind

 

INVA'LUABLE, _a._ precious above estimation

 

INVA'RIABLE, _a._ unchangeable; constant

 

INVESTIGATION, _s._ the act of investigating; the state of being investigated

 

INVI'NCIBLE, _a._ not capable of being conquered

 

INVI'SIBLE, _a._ not to be seen

 

I'RIS, _s._ the rainbow; the circle round the pupil of the eye

 

IRRA'DIATE, _v.a._ brighten; animate by heat or light; illuminate

 

IRRE'GULAR, _a._ deviating from rule, custom, or nature

 

I'RRIGATE, _v.a._ wet; moisten; water

 

I'RRITATE, _v.a._ provoke; tease; agitate

 

IRRITA'TION, _s._ provocation; stimulation

 

I'SLAND, _s._ a tract of land surrounded by water

 

I'SSUE, _v.a._ send forth

 

ITA'LIC, _s._ a letter in the Italian character

 

JA'VELIN, _s._ a spear; a dart; an implement of war

 

JE'ALOUSY, _s._ suspicion in love; suspicious fear; suspicious caution

 

JE'WEL, _s._ a precious stone; a teem

 

JO'CUND, _a._ merry; gay; lively

 

JO'URNEY, _s._ the travel of a day; passage from place to place

 

JO'YOUS, _a._ glad; gay; merry; giving joy

 

JUDI'CIOUS, _a._ prudent; wise; skilful

 

JU'GGLER, _s._ one who practises sleight of hand

 

JU'NCTION, _s._ union; coalition JU'STIFY, _v.a._ clear from imputed guilt; maintain

 

KANGARO'O, _s._ an animal found in Australia

 

KE'RNEL, _s._ anything included in a husk; the seeds of pulpy fruits

 

KI'NGDOM, _s._ the territories subject to a monarch; a different class or order of beings, as the mineral kingdom; a region

 

KNI'GHTHOOD, _s._ the character or dignity of a knight

 

KNO'WLEDGE, _s._ information

 

KNU'CKLE, _s._ joints of the fingers, protuberant when the fingers close

 

LABU'RNUM, _s._ a kind of tree

 

LA'MENTABLE, _a._ deplorable

 

LAMENTA'TION, _s._ expression of sorrow; audible grief

 

LA'NCEOLATE, _a._ in a lance-like form

 

LA'NDSCAPE, _s._ the prospect of a country; a picture of the prospect of a country

 

LA'NGUAGE, _s._ human speech; style; manner of expression

 

LA'NGUOR, _s._ faintness; softness; inattention

 

LA'RVA, _s._ an insect in the caterpillar state

 

LA'TENT, _a._ concealed; invisible

 

LA'TERALLY, _ad._ by the side

 

LA'TITUDE, _s._ latent diffusion; a certain degree reckoned from the Equator

 

LA'TTER, _a._ lately done or past; mentioned last of two

 

LA'VA, _s._ molten substance projected from volcanoes

 

LE'AFLET, _s._ a small leaf LE'GION, _s._ a body of Roman soldiers, consisting of about five thousand; military force; a great number

 

LE'NITY, _s._ mildness; gentleness

 

LENS, _s._ a glass spherically convex on both sides

 

LEVA'NT, _s._ east, particularly those coasts of the Mediterranean east of Italy

 

LEVI'ATHAN, _s._ a water-animal mentioned in the Book of Job

 

LI'ABLE, _a._ subject; not exempt

 

LI'BERAL, _a._ not mean; generous; bountiful

 

LI'BERATE, _v.a._ free from confinement

 

LI'BERTY, _s._ freedom, as opposed to slavery; privilege; permission

 

LICE'NTIOUSNESS, _s._ boundless liberty; contempt of just restraint

 

LI'CHEN, _s._ moss

 

LIEUTE'NANT, _s._ a deputy; in war, one who holds the next rank to a superior of any denomination

 

LI'GHTHOUSE, _s._ a house built either upon a rock or some other place of danger, with a light, in order to warn ships of danger

 

LI'NEAR, _a._ composed of lines; having the form of lines

 

LI'QUID, _a._ not solid; fluid; soft; clear

 

LI'QUOR, _s._ anything liquid; strong drink, in familiar language

 

LI'STEN, _v.a._ hear; attend

 

LI'TERALLY, _ad._ with close adherence to words

 

LI'TERARY, _a._ respecting letters; regarding learning

 

LI'TERATURE, _s._ learning; skill in letters

 

LI'TURGY, _s._ form of prayer

 

LOCA'LITY, _s._ existence in place

 

LOCOMO'TIVE, _a._ changing place; having the power of removing or changing place

 

LO'CUST, _s._ a devouring insect

 

LU'DICROUS, _a._ fantastic; laughable; whimsical

 

LU'MINARY, _a._ any body which gives light

 

LU'MINOUS, _a._ shining; enlightened

 

LU'NAR, _a._ that which relates to the moon

 

LU'PINE, _s._ a kind of pulse

 

LUXU'RIANT, _a._ superfluously plentiful

 

MACHINE, _s._ an engine; any complicated work in which one part contributes to the motion of another

 

MACHI'NERY, _s._ enginery; complicated workmanship

 

MAGAZI'NE, _s._ a storehouse

 

MA'GICAL, _a._ acted or performed by secret and invisible powers

 

MAGNANI'MITY, _s._ greatness of mind

 

MAGNA'NIMOUS, _a._ of great mind; of open heart

 

MAGNI'FICENT, _a._ grand in appearance; splendid; otherwise, pompous

 

MAJE'STIC, _a._ august; having dignity; grand

 

MAJO'RITY, _s._ the state of being greater; the greater number; the office of a major

 

MALE'VOLENCE, _s._ ill-will; inclination to hurt others

 

MA'LICE, _s._ hatred; enmity; desire of hurting

 

MALI'CIOUS, _a._ desirous of hurting; with wicked design

 

MALI'GNANT, _a._ envious; malicious; mischievous

 

MALI'GNITY, _s._ ill-will; enmity

 

MA'NDIBLE, _s._ a jaw MA'NKIND, _s._ the race or species of human beings

 

MA'NNER, _s._ form; method; way; mode; sort

 

MANUFA'CTORY, _s._ a place where a manufacture is carried on

 

MANOEUVRE, _s._ a stratagem; a trick

 

MARA'UDER, _s._ a soldier that roves in quest of plunder

 

MA'RGIN, _s._ the brink; the edge

 

MA'RINER, _s._ a seaman

 

MA'RITIME, _a._ that which relates to the sea

 

MA'RSHAL, _v.a._ arrange; rank in order

 

MA'RTYR, _s._ one who by his death bears witness to the truth

 

MA'RVELLOUS, _a._ wonderful; strange; astonishing

 

MA'SONRY, _s._ the craft or performance of a mason

 

MA'SSACRE, _s._ butchery; murder

 

MA'SSIVE, _a._ heavy; weighty; ponderous; bulky; continuous

 

MA'STERPIECE, _s._ chief excellence

 

MATE'RIAL, _a._ consisting of matter; not spiritual; important

 

MATHEMA'TICS, _s._ that science which contemplates whatever is capable of being numbered or measured

 

MA'XIM, _s._ general principle; leading truth

 

ME'ASURE, _s._ that by which anything is measured; proportion; quantity; time; degree

 

MECHA'NIC, _s._ a workman

 

MECHA'NICAL, _a._ constructed by the laws of mechanics

 

ME'DAL, _s._ a piece of metal stamped in honour of some remarkable performance

 

MEDI'CINAL, _a._ having the power of healing; belonging to physic

 

MEDITA'TION, _s._ deep thought; contemplation ME'DIUM, _s._ the centre point between two extremes

 

ME'LANCHOLY, _a._ gloomy; dismal; sorrowful

 

ME'LLOW, _a._ soft with ripeness; soft; unctuous

 

MELO'DIOUS, _a._ musical; harmonious

ME'MBRANE, _s._ a web of several sorts of fibres, interwoven for the wrapping up some parts; the fibres give them an elasticity, whereby they can contract and closely grasp the parts they contain

MEMBRA'NOUS, _a._ consisting of membranes

 

ME'MOIR, _s._ an account of anything

 

ME'MORABLE, _a._ worthy of memory; not to be forgotten

 

ME'MORY, _s._ the power of retaining or recollecting things past; recollection

 

MENA'GERIE, _s._ a place for keeping foreign birds and other curious animals

 

ME'NTION, _v.a._ to express in words or in writing

 

ME'RCHANDISE, _s._ commerce; traffic; wares; anything to be bought or sold

 

ME'RCHANTMAN, _s._ a ship of trade

 

META'LLIC, _a._ partaking of metal; consisting of metal

 

ME'TEOR, _s._ any body in the air or sky that is of a transitory nature

 

ME'TRICAL, _a._ pertaining to metre or numbers; consisting of verses

 

METROPO'LITAN, _a._ belonging to a metropolis

 

MI'CROSCOPE, _s._ an optical instrument, contrived to give to the eye a large appearance of many objects which could not otherwise be seen

 

MI'LITARY, _a._ engaged in the life of a soldier; soldierlike warlike; pertaining to war; affected by soldiers

 

MIND, _s._ intellectual capacity; memory; opinion

 

MI'NERAL, _s._ fossil body; something dug out of mines MI'NSTER, _s._ a monastery; a cathedral church

 

MI'NSTRELSY, _s._ music; instrumental harmony

 

MINU'TE, _a._ small; little; slender

 

MI'RACLE, _s._ a wonder; something above human power

 

MIRA'CULOUS, _a._ done by miracle

 

MI'RROR, _s._ a looking-glass

 

MI'SERY, _s._ wretchedness; calamity; misfortune

 

MISFO'RTUNE, _s._ calamity; ill-luck

 

MI'SSILE, _s._ something thrown by the hand

 

MI'SSIONARY, _s._ one sent to propagate religion

 

MI'XTURE, _s._ the act of mixing; that which is added and mixed

 

MO'ATED, _a._ surrounded with canals by way of defence

 

MO'DERATE, _a._ temperate; not excessive

 

MODERA'TION, _s._ state of keeping a due mean between extremities

 

MO'DESTY, _s._ decency; purity of manners

 

MODULA'TION, _s._ the act of forming anything to certain proportion; harmony

 

MO'LTEN, _part. pass._ the state of being melted

 

MO'MENT, _s._ an individual particle of time; force; importance

 

MOME'NTUM, _s._ the quantity of motion in a moving body

 

MO'NARCH, _s._ a sovereign; a ruler; a king or queen

 

MO'NASTERY, _s._ a residence of monks

 

MO'NEY, _s._ metal coined for the purposes of commerce

 

MO'NKEY, _s._ an animal bearing some resemblance to man; a word of contempt, or slight kindness

 

MO'NUMENT, _s._ anything by which the memory of persons or things is preserved; a memorial; a tomb

 

MO'RALIST, _s._ one who teaches the duties of life

 

MORA'LITY, _s._ the doctrine of the duties of life

 

MO'RNING, _s._ the first part of the day

MO'RTAR, _s._ a cement for fixing bricks together; otherwise, a kind of cannon for firing bomb-shells; a kind of vessel in which anything is broken by a pestle

MO'RTIFY, _v.a._ destroy vital properties, or active powers; vex; humble; depict; corrupt; die away

 

MO'SLEM, _s._ a Mussulman; relating to the Mahometan form of religion

 

MOSQUE, _s._ a Mahometan temple

 

MO'TION, _s._ the act of changing place; action; agitation; proposal made

 

MO'ULDED, _v.n._ be turned to dust; perish in dust

 

MO'UNTAINOUS, _a._ hilly; full of mountains; huge

 

MO'VEABLE, _a._ capable of being moved; portable

 

MULETE'ER, _s._ mule-driver; horse-boy

 

MULTIPLI'CITY, _s._ more than one of the same kind; state of being many

 

MU'LTITUDE, _s._ a large crowd of people; a vast assembly

 

MU'RMUR, _v.n._ grumble; utter secret and sullen discontent

 

MU'SSULMAN, _s._ a Mahometan believer

 

MU'TILATE, _v.a._ deprive of some essential part

 

MU'TUALLY, _ad._ reciprocally; in return

 

MY'RIAD, _s._ the number of ten thousand; proverbially any great number

 

NA'RROW, _a._ not broad or wide; small; close; covetous; near

 

NA'TION, _s._ a people distinguished from another people

 

NA'TIVE, _a._ original; natural NA'TIVE, _s._ one born in any place

 

NA'TURAL, _a._ produced or effected by nature; not forced; tender

 

NA'TURALIST, _s._ one who studies nature, more especially as regards inferior animals, plants, &c.

NA'TURE, _s._ constitution of an animated body; regular course of things; disposition of mind; native state or properties of anything; sort; species

NAU'TICAL, _a._ that which relates to a sailor

 

NA'VIGABLE, _a._ capable of being passed by ships or boats

 

NAVIGA'TOR, _s._ a sailor; seaman

 

NE'CESSARY, _a._ needful

 

NECE'SSITY, _s._ compulsion; want; need; poverty

 

NEGO'TIATION, _s._ treaty of business

 

NEI'GHBOURHOOD, _s._ vicinity; place adjoining

 

NE'ITHER, _pron._ not either; nor one nor other

 

NICHE, _s._ a hollow hi which a statue may be placed

 

NIDIFICA'TION, _s._ the act of building nests

 

NI'MBLY, _ad._ quickly; speedily; actively

 

NI'TROUS, _a._ impregnated with nitre

 

NOBI'LITY, _s._ high-mindedness; the highest class of people in civilized life

 

NO'BLE, _a._ magnificent; great; illustrious

 

NO'TICE, _s._ remark; heed; regard; information

 

NOTWITHSTA'NDING, _conj._ although; nevertheless

 

NO'XIOUS, _a._ hurtful; harmful; baneful; guilty

 

NU'MBER, _s._ many; more than one.

 

NU'MBERLESS, _a._ more than can be reckoned NU'MEROUS, _a._ containing many; consisting of many

 

NU'TRIMENT, _s._ food

 

OBE'DIENCE, _s._ submission to authority

 

OBE'ISANCE, _s._ courtesy

 

O'BJECT, _s._ that about which any power or faculty is employed

 

OBJE'CTION, _s._ adverse argument; criminal charge; fault found; the act of opposing anything

 

OBLI'QUE, _a._ not direct; not parallel; not perpendicular

 

OBLI'VION, _s._ forgetfulness

 

OBNO'XIOUS, _a._ hateful; hurtful; injurious

 

OBSERVA'TION, _s._ the act of observing, noticing, or remarking; note; remark

 

OBSE'RVE, _v.a._ watch; regard attentively note; obey; follow

 

O'BSTINACY, _s._ stubbornness

 

OBSTRU'CT, _v.a._ block up; oppose; hinder

 

OCCA'SION, _s._ occurrence; casualty; incident; opportunity; convenience

 

OCCA'SION, _v.a._ cause; produce; influence

 

O'CCUPY, _v.a._ possess; keep; take up; employ; use

 

OFFE'NSIVE, _a._ displeasing; disgusting; injurious

 

O'FFER, _v.a._ present itself; be at hand; be present

 

O'FFER, _v.a._ propose; present; sacrifice

 

O'FFICE, _s._ a public charge or employment; agency; business

 

OLFA'CTORY, _a._ having the sense of smelling

 

O'LIVE, _s._ a plant producing oil; the fruit of the tree; the emblem of peace

 

O'MINOUS, _a._ exhibiting bad tokens of futurity

 

OMI'SSION, _s._ neglect of duty; neglect to do something

 

OMNI'POTENT, _s._ the Almighty

 

OMNIPRE'SENCE, _s._ unbounded presence

 

OMNI'SCIENCE, _s._ boundless knowledge; infinite wisdom

 

O'NSET, _s._ attack; storm; assault

 

O'PAL, _s._ a precious stone

 

O'PALINE, _a._ resembling opal

 

OPPORTU'NITY, _s._ convenience; suitableness of circumstances to any end

 

OPPRE'SS, _v.a._ crush by hardship or unreasonable severity; overpower; subdue

 

OPPRE'SSOR, _s._ one who harasses others with unreasonable or unjust severity

 

O'PTICAL, _a._ relating to the science of optics

 

O'PTICS, _s._ the science of the nature and laws of vision

 

O'PULENT, _a._ rich

 

O'RACLE, _s._ something delivered by supernatural wisdom; the place where, or persons of whom, the determinations of heaven are inquired

 

O'RAL, _a._ delivered by mouth; not written

 

O'RATOR, _s._ a public speaker; a man of eloquence

 

O'RBIT, _s._ a circle; path of a heavenly body

 

O'RCHARD, _s._ a garden of fruit trees

 

O'RCHIS, _s._ a kind of flowering plant

 

O'RDER, _s._ method; regularity; command; a rank or class; rule

 

O'RDINANCE, _s._ law; rule; appointment

 

O'RDINARY, _a._ established; regular; common; of low rank

 

O'RDNANCE, _s._ cannon; great guns O'RGAN, _s._ natural instrument: as the tongue is the organ of speech. A musical instrument

 

ORGA'NIC, _a._ consisting of various parts co-operating with each other

 

O'RGANISM, _s._ organic structure

 

O'RIENT, _a._ eastern; oriental; bright; gaudy

 

ORI'GINAL, _a._ primitive; first

 

O'RNAMENT, _v.a._ embellish; decorate

 

OSCILLA'TION, _a._ the act of moving backward or forward like a pendulum

 

O'SSEOUS, _a._ bony; resembling bone

 

OSTENTA'TION, _s._ outward show; pride of riches or power

 

OSTRICH, _s._ a large bird

 

OTHERWISE, _ad._ in a different manner; by other causes; in other respects

 

OU'TLET, _s._ passage outward

 

OU'TSET, _s._ setting out; departure

 

OU'TWARD, _a._ external; opposed to _inward_.

 

OVERFLO'W, _v.a._ deluge; drown; overrun; fill beyond the brim

 

OVERTA'KE, _v.a._ catch anything by pursuit; come up to something going before

 

OVERTHRO'W, _v.a._ turn upside down; throw down; ruin; defeat; destroy

 

OVERWHE'LM, _v.a._ crush underneath something violent and weighty; overlook gloomily

 

PACI'FIC, _a._ mild; gentle; appeasing

 

PA'LACE, _a._ a royal house

 

PA'LTRY, _a._ worthless; contemptible; mean

 

PA'RADISE, _s._ the blissful region in which the first pair were placed; any place of felicity

 

PA'RALLEL, _a._ extending in the same direction; having the same tendency

 

PARALLE'LOGRAM, _s._ in geometry, a right-lined four-sided figure, whose opposite sides are parallel and equal

 

PA'RAPET, _s._ a wall breast high

 

PA'RCEL, _s._ a small bundle; a part of a whole

 

PA'RDON, _s._ forgiveness

 

PARO'CHIAL, _a._ belonging to a parish

 

PARO'TIDA-SA'LIVART, _a._ glands so named because near the ear

 

PA'RTICLE, _s._ any small quantity of a greater substance; a word unvaried by inflection

 

PARTICULAR, _s._ a single instance; a minute detail of things singly enumerated. IN PARTICULAR, peculiarly; distinctly

 

PARTICULARLY, _ad._ in an extraordinary degree; distinctly

 

PA'SSAGE, _s._ act of passing; road; way; entrance or exit; part of a book

 

PA'SSENGER, _s._ traveller; a wayfarer; one who hires in any vehicle the liberty of travelling

 

PA'SSIONATE, _a._ moved by passion; easily moved to anger

 

PA'SSIVE, _a._ unresisting; suffering; not acting

 

PA'STORAL, _a._ rural; rustic; imitating shepherds

 

PATHE'TIC, _a._ affecting the passions; moving

 

PA'THOS, _s._ passion; warmth; affection of the mind

 

PA'THWAY, _s._ a road; a narrow way to be passed on foot.

 

PA'TIENCE, _s._ the power of suffering; perseverance

 

PA'TIENTLY, _ad._ with steadfast resignation; with hopeful confidence

 

PA'TRIARCH, _a._ one who governs by paternal right; the father and ruler of a family

 

PA'THIMONY, _s._ an estate possessed by inheritance

 

PA'TRIOT, _s._ one who loves his country

 

PA'TRON, _s._ one who countenances, supports, or protects; defender

 

PEA'CEABLE, _a._ not quarrelsome; not turbulent

 

PE'CTORAL, _a._ belonging to the breast

 

PECU'LIAR, _a._ appropriate; not common to other things; particular

 

PECULIARITY, _s._ particularity; something found only in one

 

PE'DESTAL, _a._ the lower member of a pillar; the basis of a statue

 

PE'DIMENT, _s._ an ornament that finishes the fronts of buildings, and serves as a decoration over gates

 

PE'NANCE, _s._ infliction, either public or private, suffered as an expression of repentance for sin

 

PE'NDULOUS, _a._ hanging

 

PE'NETRATE, _v.a._ enter beyond the surface; make way into a body; affect the mind

 

PENINSULA, _s._ laud almost surrounded by water

 

PE'NURY, _s._ poverty; indigence

 

PE'OPLE, _s._ a nation; the vulgar

 

PERCEI'VE, _v.a._ discover by some sensible effects; know; observe

 

PERCE'PTIBLE, _a._ such as may be known or observed

 

PERFECTION, _s._ the state of being perfect

 

PERFO'RM, _v.a._ execute; do; accomplish

 

PE'RFORATE, _v.a._ pierce with a tool; bore

 

PERHA'PS, _ad._ peradventure; may be

 

PE'RIL, _s._ danger; hazard; jeopardy

 

PE'RIOD, _s._ length of duration; a complete sentence from one full stop to another; the end or conclusion

 

PE'RISIH, _v.n._ die; be destroyed; be lost; come to nothing

 

PE'RMANENT, _a._ durable; unchanged; of long continuance

 

PERNI'CIOUS, _a._ destructive; baneful

 

PERPENDICULAR, _a._ a straight line up and down

 

PERPE'TUAL, _a._ never-ceasing; continual

 

PERPLE'X, _v.a._ disturb; distract; tease; plague

 

PERPLE'XITY, _s._ anxiety; entanglement

 

PE'RSECUTE, _v.a._ to harass or pursue with malignity

 

PERSEVE'RANCE, _s._ persistence in any design or attempt; constancy in progress

 

PERTINA'CITY, _s._ obstinacy; stubbornness; constancy

 

PERTURBA'TION, _s._ restlessness; disturbance

 

PERU'SAL, _s._ the act of reading

 

PETI'TION, _s._ request; entreaty; single branch or article of prayer

 

PHA'LANX, _s._ a troop of men closely embodied

 

PHENO'MENON, _s._ appearance

 

PHILOSOPHER, _s._ a man deep in knowledge

 

PHILOSOPHICAL, _a._ belonging to philosophy

 

PHILO'SOPHY, _s._ moral or natural knowledge

 

PHY'SICAL, _a._ relating to nature or to natural philosophy; medicinal; relating to health

 

PICTO'RIAL, _a._ produced by a painter

 

PIC'TURESQUE, _a._ beautiful; magnificent

 

PI'LCHARD, _s._ a kind of fish

 

PI'LGRIMAGE, _s._ a long journey

 

PI'OUS, _a._ careful of the duties owed by created beings to God; godly; religious

 

PI'RATE, _s._ a sea robber

 

PISTA'CHIO, _s._ a dry fruit of an oblong figure

 

PI'TIABLE, _a._ that which deserves pity

 

PLA'CABLE, _a._ willing or able to be appeased

 

PLA'INTIVE, _a._ complaining; lamenting; expressive of sorrow

 

PLA'NETARY, _a._ pertaining to the planets; produced by the planets

 

PLANTATION, _s._ a place planted; a colony

 

PLAU'SIBLY, _ad._ with fair show

 

PLEA'SANT, _a._ delightful; cheerful; merry

 

PLEA'SANTRY, _s._ merriment; lively talk

 

PLEA'SURE, _s._ delight

 

PLE'NTIFUL, _a._ copious; fruitful; abundant

 

PLI'ABLE, _a._ flexible; easy to be bent; easy to be persuaded; capable of being plied

 

PLI'ANT, _a._ bending; flexible; easy to take a form

 

PLU'MAGE, _s._ feathers; suit of feathers

 

PNY'X, _s._ a place where assemblies of the people were held

 

PO'ETRY, _s._ sublime thought expressed in sublime language

 

POI'GNANCY, _s._ power of irritation; sharpness

 

POI'SON, _s._ that which taken into the body destroys or injures life; anything infectious or malignant

 

POLI'TE, _a._ glossy; smooth; elegant of manners

 

POLITICAL, _a._ that which relates to politics; that which relates to public affairs; also cunning, skilful

 

PO'PULAR, _a._ vulgar; familiar; well known

 

POPULARITY, _a._ state of being favoured by the people; representation suited to vulgar conception

 

POPULA'TION, _s._ the state of a country with respect to numbers of people

 

PO'RTABLE, _a._ manageable by the hand; supportable

 

PO'RTION, _s._ a part; an allotment

 

PORTMA'NTEAU, _s._ a chest, or bag, in which clothes are carried

 

POSI'TION, _s._ state of being placed; situation

 

PO'SITIVE, _o._ absolute; particular; real; certain

 

POSSE'SS, _v.a._ have as an owner; be master of; seize; obtain

 

POSSESSION, _s._ property; the thing possessed

 

POSSIBLE, _a._ having the power to be or to be done; not contrary to the nature of things

 

POSTE'RITY, _s._ succeeding generations

 

PO'TENTATE, _s._ monarch; prince; sovereign

 

PO'WER, _s._ command; authority; ability; strength; faculty of the mind

 

PRACTICABLE, _a._ capable of being practised

 

PRA'CTICAL, _o._ relating to action; not merely speculative.

 

PRAE'TOR, _s._ a functionary among the ancient Romans

 

PRAI'RIE, _s._ a meadow

 

PRECAUTION, _s._ preservative caution; preventive measures

 

PRECE'PTOR, _s._ a teacher; an Instructor

 

PRE'CINCT, _s._ outward limit; boundary

 

PRECI'PITOUS, _a._ headlong; steep

 

PREDECE'SSOR, _s._ one who was in any state or place before another; ancestor

 

PREDOMINANCE, _s._ prevalence; ascendancy

 

PREDOMINANT, _a._ prevalent; ascendant; supreme influence PREDOMINATE, _v.n._ prevail; be supreme in influence

 

PREFI'X, _v.a._ appoint beforehand; settle; establish; put before another thing

 

PRELI'MINARY, _a._ previous; introductory

 

PREJUDICE, _s._ prepossession; judgment formed beforehand; mischief; injury

 

PREPARATION, _s._ anything made by process of operation; previous measures

 

PREROGATIVE, _s._ an exclusive or peculiar privilege

 

PRE'SCIENT, _a._ foreknowing; prophetic

 

PRESENT, _a._ not past; not future; ready at hand; not absent; being face to face; being now in view

 

PRESE'NT, _v.a._ offer; exhibit

 

PRESE'RVE, _v.a._ save; keep; defend from destruction or any evil

 

PRESU'MPTION, _s._ arrogance; blind confidence

 

PREVE'NT, _v.a._ hinder; obviate; obstruct

 

PRINCIPAL, _a._ chief; capital; essential; important; considerable

 

PRINCIPLE, _s._ constituent part; original cause

 

PRO'BABLE, _a._ likely

 

PRO'BABLY, _a._ very likely

 

PROBA'TION, _s._ proof; trial; noviciate

 

PROCEE'D, _v.n._ pass from one thing or place to another; go forward; issue; arise; carry on; act; transact

 

PRO'CESS, _s._ course of law; course

 

PROCE'SSION, _s._ a train marching in ceremonious solemnity

 

PRODI'GIOUS, _a._ enormous; amazing; monstrous

 

PRO'DUCE, _s._ amount; profit; that which anything yields or brings PRODU'CE, _v.a._ offer to the view or notice; bear; cause; effect

 

PRODU'CTION, _s._ the act of producing; fruit; product; composition

 

PROFESSION, _s._ vocation; known employment

 

PROFU'SE, _a._ lavish; too liberal

 

PROFUSION, _s._ extravagance; abundance

 

PRO'GRESS, _s._ course; advancement; motion forward

 

PROHI'BIT, _v.a._ forbid; debar; hinder

 

PROJE'CT, _v.a._ throw out; scheme; contrive; form in the mind

 

PRO'PAGATE, _v.a._ extend; widen; promote

 

PRO'PER, _a._ fit; exact; peculiar

 

PRO'PHECY, _s._ a declaration of something to come

 

PROPHE'TIC, _a._ foreseeing or foretelling future events

 

PROPORTION, _s._ symmetry; form; size; ratio

 

PROPOSITION, _s._ one of the three parts of a regular argument, in which anything is affirmed or denied; proposal

 

PROPRIETOR, _s._ possessor in his own right

 

PROPRI'ETY, _s._ accuracy; justness

 

PROSA'IC, _a._ belonging to or resembling prose

 

PROTE'CTOR, _s._ defender; supporter; guardian

 

PROTRU'DE, _v.a._ thrust forward

 

PROVI'DE, _v.a._ procure; furnish; supply; stipulate

 

PROVIDE'NTIAL, _a._ effected by Providence; referrible to Providence

 

PRO'VINCE, _s._ a conquered country; a region

 

PROVINCIAL, _a._ that which relates to provinces

 

PROVISION, _s._ the act of providing beforehand; measures taken beforehand; stock collected; victuals

 

PROVOCATION, _s._ an act or cause by which anger is raised; an appeal to a judge

 

PROXI'MITY, _s._ nearness

 

PTA'RMIGAN, _s._ (pronounced _tar-mi-gan_) a bird of the grouse species

 

PU'BLIC, _s._ the people; general view; open view

 

PU'LLEY, _s._ a small wheel turning on a pivot, with a furrow on its outside, in which a rope runs

 

PU'NISH, _v.a._ to chastise; to afflict with penalties or death for some crime

 

PU'NISHED, _a._ chastised

 

PU'PIL, _s._ a scholar; one under the care of a tutor

 

PU'RCHASE, _v.a._ acquire; buy for a price

 

PU'RITY, _s._ clearness; freedom from foulness or dirt; freedom from guilt; innocence

 

PU'RPOSE, _v.t._ intention; design; instance

 

PU'TRIFY, _v.n._ to rot

 

PU'ZZLE, _v.a._ perplex; confound; tease; entangle

 

PY'RAMID, _s._ a solid figure, whose base is a polygon and whose sides are plain triangles, their several points meeting in one

 

PYTHA'GORAS, _s._ the originator of the present system universe

 

PYTHAGORE'ANS, _s._ followers of Pythagoras

 

QUALIFICATION, _s._ accomplishment; that which makes any person or thing fit for anything

 

QUA'NTITY, _s._ any indeterminate weight or measure; bulk or weight; a portion; a part

 

QUA'RRY, _s._ game flown at by a hawk; a stone mine

 

RA'DIANT, _a._ shining; emitting rays RAMIFICA'TION, _s._ division or separation into branches; small branches; branching out

 

RA'NCID, _a._ strong scented

 

RAPA'CIOUS, _a._ given to plunder; seizing by violence

 

RAPI'DITY, _s._ celerity; velocity; swiftness

 

RA'PTURE, _s._ transport; haste

 

RA'TTLE, _s._ a quick noise nimbly repeated; empty and loud talk; a plant

 

RA'TTLESNAKE, _s._ a kind of serpent, which has a rattle at the end of its tail

 

REA'CTION, _s._ the reciprocation of any impulse or force impressed, made by the body on which such an impression is made

 

RE'ALISE, _v.a._ bring into being or act; convert money into land.

 

REA'SON, _s._ the power by which man deduces one proposition from another; cause; ground or principle; motive; moderation

 

REASONABLENESS, _s._ the faculty of reason

 

REASONING, _s._ an argument

 

REBE'LLION, _s._ insurrection against lawful authority

 

RECE'DE, _v.n._ fall back; retreat; desist

 

RECEI'VE, _v.a._ obtain; admit; entertain as a guest

 

RE'CENT, _a._ new; late; fresh

 

RECE'PTACLE, _s._ a vessel or place into which anything is received

 

RECOGNITION, _s._ review; renovation of knowledge; acknowledgment; memorial

 

RECOLLE'CTION, _s._ recovery of notion; revival in the memory

 

RECOMME'ND, _v.a._ make acceptable; praise another; commit with prayers

 

RECOMMENDA'TION, _s._ the act of recommending; that which secures to one a kind reception from another

 

RE'COMPENSE, _s._ reward; compensation

 

RECOMPENSE, _v.a._ repay; reward; redeem

 

RE'CORD, _s._ register; authentic memorial

 

RECREA'TION, _s._ relief after toil or pain; amusement; diversion

 

RE'CTIFY, _v.a._ to make right

 

RE'CTITUDE, _s._ straightness; rightness; uprightness

 

REDE'MPTION, _s._ ransom; relief; purchase of God's favour by the death of Christ

 

REDU'CE, _v.a._ bring back; subdue; degrade

 

REFLECTION, _s._ that which is reflected; thought thrown back upon the past; attentive consideration

 

REFLE'CTOR, _s._ considerer

 

REFRA'CT, _v.n._ break the natural course of rays

 

REFU'LGENT, _a._ bright; splendid

 

REGA'LIA, _s._ ensigns of Royalty

 

REGA'RD, _v.a._ observe; remark; pay attention to

 

RE'GIMENT, _s._ a body of soldiers under one colonel

 

RE'GION, _s._ tract of land; country

 

RE'GULAR, _a._ methodical; orderly

 

REINFO'RCE, _v.a._ strengthen again

 

REJE'CT, _v.a._ cast off; refuse; throw aside

 

RE'LATIVE, _s._ a near friend; a relation; a kinsman

 

RE'LATIVE, _a._ having relation

 

RELAXATION, _s._ the act of loosening

 

RELA'XED, _a._ slackened; loosened; let loose; diverted; eased; refreshed

 

RELEA'SE, _v.a._ quit; let go; slacken; free from RELE'NT, _v.n._ slacken; remit; soften; melt

 

RE'LIC, _s._ that which remains

 

RELIE'VE, _v.a._ ease pain or sorrow; succour by assistance; support; assist

 

RELI'GION, _s._ a system of divine faith and worship

 

RELU'CTANT, _a._ unwilling; acting with repugnance

 

REMAI'N, _v.n._ continue; endure; be left

 

REMAINDER, _s._ the part left

 

REMA'RKABLE, _a._ observable; worthy of note

 

RE'MEDY, _s._ a medicine by which any illness is cured; that which counteracts any evil; reparation

 

REME'MBER, _v.a._ bear in mind; not to

 

REMO'NSTRANCE, _s._ strong representation

 

REMO'RSELESS, _a._ without remorse

 

RE'NDER, _v.a._ restore; give back; represent; exhibit; give

 

REPEA'T, _v.a._ use again; do again; speak again

 

REPO'RT, _s._ rumour; popular fame; sound; loud noise

 

RE'PRESENT, _v.a._ exhibit; describe; personate; exhibit to show

 

REPRESENTA'TION, _s._ image; likeness; public exhibition

 

REPRIE'VE, _s._ respite after sentence of death

 

REPRI'SAL, _s._ something seized by way of retaliation for robbery or injury

 

RE'PTILE, _s._ an animal that creeps on many feet

 

REPU'BLIC, _s._ commonwealth; a government without a King or other hereditary head

 

REPU'GNANT, _a._ disobedient; contrary; opposite

 

REPU'LSE, _v.a._ beat back; drive off REPUTA'TION, _s._ character of good or bad; credit

 

REPU'TE, _s._ character; reputation

 

REQUE'ST, _s._ petition; entreaty; demand

 

RE'QUIEM, _s._ a hymn, in which they ask for the dead, requiem or rest

 

REQUISITE, _a._ necessary

 

RE'SCUE, _v.a._ set free from any violence, confinement, or danger

 

RESE'MBLE, _v. a_ to be like; to compare; to represent as like something else

 

RESE'NTMENT, _s._ anger; deep sense of injury

 

RE'SERVOIR, _s._ a receiver; a large basin which receives water

 

RESIDENCE, _s._ dwelling; place of abode

 

RESOU'RCE, _s._ resort; expedient

 

RESPECTIVE, _a._ particular; relating to particular persons or things

 

RESPIRA'TION, _s._ the act of breathing; relief from toil

 

RESPLENDENT, _a._ bright; shining; having a beautiful lustre

 

RESPONSIBLE, _a._ answerable; accountable

 

RESTRAINT, _s._ abridgment of liberty; prohibition; restriction

 

RETALIATION, _s._ requital; return of like for like

 

RETA'RD, _v.a._ hinder; delay

 

RE'TINUE, _s._ a number attending upon a principal person; train

 

RETROSPECTION, _s._ act or faculty of looking backward

 

RETU'RN, _s._ the act of coming back to the same place; act of restoring or giving back

 

REVELA'TION, _s._ discovery; communication; apocalypse; the prophecy of St. John, revealing future things

 

REVE'NUE, _s._ income; annual profits received from lands or other funds RE'VERENCE, _s._ veneration; respect; title of the clergy

 

REVE'RSE, _v.a._ turn upside down; overturn

 

RHINO'CERUS, _s._ a large animal with a horn on its nose

 

RHODODE'NDRON, _s._ the rose-bay

 

RI'BALDRY, _s._ mean, lewd, brutal language

 

RI'DICULE, _s._ contemptive mockery

 

RI'VET, _v.a._ fasten strongly

 

RI'VULET, _s_ a small river; streamlet; brook

 

ROMA'NTIC, _a._ wild; fanciful

 

ROO'KERY, _s._ a nursery of rooks

 

ROYA'LIST, _s._ adherent to a King

 

RU'BY, _s._ a precious stone of a red colour

 

RU'DIMEMT, _s._ the first principle

 

RU'GGED, _a._ rough; uneven; rude

 

RU'STIC, _a._ rough; rude; pertaining to the country

 

RUSTI'CITY, _s._ rural appearance; simplicity

 

SA'CRAMENT, _s._ an oath; an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace

 

SA'CRED, _a._ immediately relating to God; holy

 

SA'CRIFICE, _v.a._ offer to heaven; destroy or give up for the sake of something else; destroy; kill

 

SAGA'CITY, _a._ quickness of scent; acuteness of discovery

 

SA'LINE, _a._ consisting of salt; constituting bait

 

SA'NCTITY, _s._ holiness; goodness; purity

 

SA'NGUINARY, _a._ cruel; bloody; murderous SA'PPHIRE, _s._ a precious stone, of a blue colour

 

SAU'RIAN, _s._ a reptile belonging to the order of Sauris or lizards

 

SAVA'NNAH, _s._ an open meadow without wood

 

SCABBARD, _s._ the sheath of a sword or dagger

 

SCE'NERY, _s._ the appearances of places or things; the background of the scenes of a play

 

SCE'PTRE, _s._ the ensign of royalty borne in the hand

 

SCI'ENCE, _s._ knowledge; certainty grounded, on demonstration

 

SCIENTIFIC, _a._ producing demonstrative knowledge

 

SCREECH, _s._ cry of horror and anguish; harsh cry

 

SCRI'PTURE, _s._ sacred writing; the Bible

 

SCU'RRY, _a._ mean; vile; dirty; worthless

 

SCU'LPTURE, _s._ carved work

 

SE'AMAN, _s._ a sailor

 

SE'ASON, _s._ one of the four parts of the year; a fit time

 

SE'CRET, _s._ something studiously hidden; privacy; solitude; a thing unknown

 

SECRE'TE, _v.a._ put aside; hide

 

SECU'RITY, _s._ protection; safety; certainty

 

SEE'MING, _s._ appearance; show; opinion

 

SELE'CT, _v.a._ choose in preference to others rejected

 

SELE'CTION, _s._ the act of choosing; choice

 

SE'MI-GLO'BULAR, _a._ half circular

 

SE'MINARY, _s._ place of education

 

SE'NATOR, _s._ a public counsellor

 

SENSA'TION, _s._ perception by means of the senses SENSIBI'LITY, _s._ quickness of sensation; delicacy

 

SENSORIO'LA, _s. plur._ little sensoriums

 

SENSO'RIUM, _s._ the seat of sense; organ of sensation

 

SE'NTINEL, _s._ one who watches or keeps guard, to prevent surprise

 

SEPARATION, _s._ the act of separating; disunion

 

SE'QUEL, _s._ conclusion; consequence; event

 

SEQUE'STER, _v.a._ separate from others for the sake of privacy; remove; withdraw

 

SERE'NITY, _s._ calmness; mild temperature; peace; coolness of mind

 

SE'RIES, _s._ sequence; order; succession; course

 

SERRA'TED, _a._ formed with jags or indentures, like the edge of a saw

 

SE'RVANT, _s._ one who attends another, and acts at his command

 

SERVICEABLE, _a._ active; diligent; officious; useful; beneficial

 

SE'VERAL, _a._ different; divers; many

 

SHA'NTY, _s._ a temporary wooden building

 

SHE'LTER, _s._ cover; protection

 

SI'GNAL, _s._ a notice given by a sign; a sign that gives notice

 

SI'GNIFY, _v.a._ to declare; to make known; to declare by some token or sign; to express; to mean

 

SILT, _s._ mud; slime; consisting of mud

 

SI'MILAR, _a._ like; having resemblance

 

SIMPLICITY, _s._ plainness; not cunning; silliness

 

SIMULTANEOUS, _a._ acting together; existing at the same time

 

SINCE'RITY, _s._ honesty of intention

 

SI'NGER, _s._ one that tings; one whose profession or business is to sing

 

SI'NGULAR, _a._ single; particular SI'TUATE, _part. a._ placed with respect to anything else; consisting

 

SKE'LETON, _a._ the bones of the body preserved together, as much as can be, in their natural situation

 

SKI'RMISH, _s._ slight fight; contest

 

SLA'TY, _a._ having the nature of slate

 

SLEIGHT, _s._ artful trick; dexterous practice

 

SLU'GGISH, _a._ slow; slothful; lazy, inactive

 

SOBRI'ETY, _s._ soberness; calmness; gravity

 

SOCI'ETY, _s._ company; community

 

SO'CKET, _s._ a hollow pipe; the receptacle of the eye

 

SO'LDIER, _s._ a fighting man; a warrior

 

SO'LEMN, _a._ religiously grave; awful; grave

 

SOLE'MNITY, _s._ gravity; religious ceremony

 

SOLI'CITOUS, _a._ anxious; careful; concerned

 

SOLI'CITUDE, _s._ anxiety; carefulness

 

SO'LID, _a._ not liquid; not fluid; not hollow; compact; strong; firm; sound; true; profound; grave

 

SOLI'LOQUY, _s._ a discourse made by one in solitude to himself

 

SO'LITARY, _a._ living alone; not having company

 

SO'LITUDE, _s._ loneliness; a lonely place

 

SO'RROW, _s._ grief; pain for something past; sadness

 

SOU'THERN, _a._ belonging to the south

 

SO'VEREIGN, _s._ supreme lord.

 

SPA'NGLE, _s._ any little thing sparkling and shining

 

SPA'NIEL, _s._ a dog used for sport in the field, remarkable for tenacity and obedience

 

SPEA'KER, _s._ one that speaks; the prolocutor of the Commons

 

SPE'CIES, _s._ a sort; class of nature; show

 

SPECIMEN, _s._ sample; a part of any thing exhibited, that the rest may be known

 

SPE'CTACLE, _s._ a show; sight

 

SPECTA'TOR, _s._ a looker-on; a beholder

 

SPECULA'TION, _s._ examination by the eye; view; spy

 

SPHE'RICAL, _a._ round; globular

 

SPI'CULA, _s. plur._ little spikes

 

SPI'CY, _a._ producing spice; aromatic

 

SPI'DER, _s._ the animal that spins a web for flies

 

SPI'RAL, _a._ curved; winding; circularly involved

 

SPI'RIT, _s._ breath; soul of man; apparition; temper

 

SPI'RITUAL, _a._ that which regards divinity; that which regards the soul; not temporal

 

SPLE'NDID, _a._ showy; magnificent; pompous

 

STABI'LITY, _s._ steadiness; strength to stand

 

STA'GNANT, _a._ motionless; still

 

STA'GNATE, _v.a._ lie motionless; have no stream

 

STA'NDARD, _s._ an ensign in war; a settled rate

 

STA'RLING, _s._ a bird that may be taught to whistle, and articulate words

 

STA'TESMAN, _s._ a politician; one employed in public affairs

 

STA'TION, _v.a._ place in a certain post or place

 

STA'TUE, _s._ an image; solid representation of any living being

 

STA'TURE, _s._ the height of any animal

 

STE'RIL, _a._ barren; unfruitful STO'IC, _s._ an ancient philosopher of a particular sect, that met under the _Stoa_ or portico of the temple

 

STO'ICAL, _a._ pertaining to the Stoics

 

STRA'TAGEM, _s._ an artifice in war; a trick by which some advantage is gained

 

STRU'CTURE, _s._ building; form

 

STRU'GGLE, _v.n._ labour; strive; contend

 

STU'DENT, _s._ a bookish man; a scholar

 

STUPE'NDOUS, _a._ wonderful; amazing; astonishing

 

STU'PIFY, _v.a._ make stupid; deprive of sensibility

 

SUB-DIVI'DE, _v.a._ to divide a part into more parts

 

SUBDIVI'SION, _s._ the act of subdividing; the parts distinguished by a second division

 

SUBDU'E, _v.a._ crush; oppress; conquer; tame

 

SUB'JECT, _s._ one who lives under the dominion of another; that on which any operation is performed

 

SUBME'RGE, _v.a._ to put under water; to drown

 

SUBMI'SSIVE, _a._ humble

 

SU'BSEQUENT, _a._ following in train

 

SUBSI'STENCE, _s._ competence; means of supporting life; inherence in something else

 

SU'BSTANCE, _s._ something real, not imaginary; wealth; means of life

 

S'UBSTITUTE, _s._ one placed by another to act with delegated power

 

SUBTERRA'NEOUS, _a._ living under the earth

 

SUBVE'RSION, _s._ overthrow; ruin

 

SU'CCEED, _v.a._ follow; prosper

 

SUCCE'SSFUL, _a._ prosperous; happy; fortunate SUCCE'SSION, _s._ a series of persons or things following one another; a lineage

 

SU'CCOUR, _s._ aid; assistance; help in distress

 

SU'CCULENT, _a._ juicy; moist

 

SU'DDEN, _a._ coming unexpectedly; hasty; violent

 

SU'FFER, _v.a._ bear; undergo; endure; permit

 

SUFFI'CE, _v.n._ be enough; be sufficient; be equal to the end, or purpose

 

SUFFI'CE, _v.a._ afford; supply; satisfy

 

SUFFI'CIENT, _a._ equal to any end or purpose

 

SU'LLY, _v.a._ spoil; tarnish; dirty; spot

 

SU'LTRY, _a._ hot and close

 

SU'MMON, _v.a._ call up; raise; admonish to appear

 

SU'MPTUOUS, _a._ costly; expensive; splendid

 

SUPE'RB, _a._ grand; pompous; lofty; magnificent

 

SUPERINCU'MBENT, _a._ lying on the top of something else

 

SUPERINDU'CE, _v.a._ bring in as an addition to something else

 

SUPERINTE'NDENCE, _s._ superior care; the act of overseeing with authority

 

SUPERINTEN'DENT, _s._ one who overlooks others authoritatively

 

SUPE'RIOR, _a._ higher; greater in dignity or excellence; preferable; upper

 

SUPERIO'RITY, _s._ pre-eminence; the quality of being greater or higher than another

 

SUPERSE'DE, _v.a._ make void by superior power

 

SUPERSTI'TIOUS, _a._ full of idle fancies or scruples with regard to religion

 

SUPPLY', _v.n._ fill up a deficiency; yield; afford; accommodate; furnish

 

SUPPLY', _s._ relief of want; cure of deficiencies

 

SUPPO'RT, _s._ act or power of sustaining; prop

 

SUPPO'RT, _v.a._ sustain; prop; endure

 

SUPPO'SE, _v.a._ admit without proof; imagine

 

SU'RFACE, _s._ superficies; outside

 

S'URPLUS, _s._ overplus; what remains when use is satisfied

 

SURROU'ND, _v.a._ environ; encompass; enclose on all sides

 

SURVE'Y, _v.a._ view as examining; measure and estimate land; overlook

 

SUSCE'PTIBLE, _a._ capable of anything

 

SUSPI'CION, _s._ the act of suspecting; imagination of something ill without proof

 

SWA'LLOW, _v.n._ take down the throat; take in

 

SY'CAMORE, _s._ a tree

 

SY'COPHANT, _s._ tale-bearer

 

SY'MMETRY, _s._ adaptation of parts to each other; proportion; harmony

 

SY'MPHONY, _s._ harmony of mingled sounds

 

SY'NAGOGUE, _s._ a Jewish place of worship

 

SY'STEM, _s._ any combination of many things acting together

 

SYSTEMA'TIC, _a._ methodical; written or formed with regular subordination of one part to another

 

TA'BLET, _s._ a small level surface; a surface written on or painted

 

TA'BULAR, _a._ set in the form of tables or synopses

 

TA'CTICS, _s._ the art of ranging men on the field of battle

 

TA'FFETA, _s._ a thin silk

 

TA'NKARD, _s._ a large vessel with a cover for strong drink TA'PER, _v.n._ grow gradually smaller

 

TA'TTOO, _v.a._ mark by staining on the skin

 

TA'WDRY, _a._ meanly showy; showy without elegance

 

TA'XATION, _s._ the act of loading with taxes; accusation

 

TE'CHNICAL, _a._ belonging to the arts; not in common or popular use

 

TE'LESCOPE, _s._ a long glass by which distant objects are viewed

 

TEA'CHER, _s._ one who teaches; an instructor

 

TE'MPERANCE, _s._ moderation in meat and drink; free from ardent passion

 

TE'MPERATE, _a._ moderate in meat and drink; free from ardent passion; not excessive

 

TE'MPERATURE, _s._ constitution of nature; degree of any qualities; moderation

 

TE'MPLE, _s._ a place appropriated to acts of religion; the upper part of the sides of the head

 

TE'MPORAL, _a._ measured by time secular; not spiritual

 

TEMPTA'TION, _s._ the act of tempting

 

TENA'CITY, _s._ adhesion of one part to another

 

TE'NDENCY, _s._ direction or course toward any place, object, inference, or result

 

TE'NDER, _a._ soft; sensible; delicate; gentle; mild; young; weak, as _tender_ age

 

TE'NDRIL, _s._ the clasp of a vine or other climbing plant

 

TE'NEMENT, _s._ anything held by a tenant

 

TENU'ITY, _s._ thinness; smallness; poverty

 

TE'RMINATE, _v.n._ have an end; be limited; end

 

TERMINA'TION, _s._ the end

 

TERRE'STRIAL, _a._ earthly TE'RRIBLE, _a._ dreadful; formidable; causing fear

 

TE'RRIER, _s._ a kind of dog

 

TE'RRITORY, _s._ land; country

 

TE'RROR, _s._ fear communicated; fear received; the cause of fear

 

TE'XTURE, _s._ the act of weaving; a web; a thing woven; combination of parts

 

THE'REFORE, _ad._ for this reason; consequently

 

THOU'SAND, _a._ or _s._ the number of ten hundred

 

TIDE, _s._ time; alternate ebb and flow of the sea

 

TI'MID, _a._ fearful; wanting courage

 

TI'MOROUS, _a._ fearful; terrified; susceptible of fear; capable of being frightened

TI'TLE, _s._ a general head comprising particulars; an appellation of honour; claim of right; the first page of a book, telling its name, and generally its subject

TO'CSIN, _s._ an alarm-bell

 

TO'RPID, _a._ motionless; sluggish

 

TO'RTURE, _s._ torments judicially inflicted; pain by which guilt is punished, or confession extorted

 

TO'RTURE, _v.a._ punish with tortures; torment

 

TOUR, _s._ (pronounced _toor_) a journey for pleasure

 

TOU'RIST, _s._ one who travels for pleasure

 

TO'WARD, _prep._ in a direction to; near to

 

TOW'ER, _s._ high building; fortress; an elevation

 

TRADI'TIONAL, _a._ delivered by tradition

 

TRA'GEDY, _s._ any mournful or dreadful event

 

TRA'GIC, _a._ mournful, calamitous

 

TRA'GI-CO'MEDY, _s._ a drama compounded of merry and serious things TRAIN, _v.a._ draw along; entice; educate

 

TRA'NQUIL, _a._ quiet; peaceful

 

TRANQUI'LLITY, _a._ quietness; peace; freedom from trouble or annoyance

 

TRANSA'CT, _v.a._ manage; negotiate; perform

 

TRANSA'CTION, _s._ negotiation; management

 

TRA'NSIENT, _a._ short; momentary

 

TRANSI'TION, _s._ removal; passage from one to another; change

 

TRANSMI'T, _v.a._ send from one place to another

 

TRANSPA'RENT, _a._ clear; translucent

 

TRA'VEL, _s._ journey; labour; toil

 

TRA'VEL, _v.n._ make travels; move; go

 

TRA'VERSE, _v.a._ to cross; to lay athwart; to cross by way of opposition; to wander over

 

TREA'CHEROUS, _a._ faithless; guilty of deserting or betraying

 

TREA'CHERY, _s._ perfidy; breach of faith

 

TREA'SURER, _s._ one who has the care of money; one who has the charge of treasure

 

TRE'LLIS, _s._ a structure of iron, wood, or osier, the parts crossing each other like a lattice

 

TREME'NDOUS, _a._ dreadful; horrible

 

TRE'MOUR, _s._ the state of trembling or quivering

 

TRE'MULOUS, _a._ trembling; fearful; quivering

 

TREPIDA'TION, _s._ fear; terror; hurry; confused haste; terrified flight

 

TRI'ANGLE, _s._ a figure of three angles

 

TRIBU'NAL, _s._ the seat of a judge; a court of justice

 

TRI'BUTE, _s._ payment in acknowledgment; subjection TRI'PLE, _a._ threefold; treble

 

TRI'UMPH, _s._ victory; conquest

 

TRIU'MPHANT, _a._ victorious; celebrating a victory

 

TRO'PHY, _s._ something shown or treasured up in proof of victory

 

TRO'UBLE, _v.n._ disturb; afflict; tease; disorder

 

TRU'NCATE, _v.a._ maim; cut short

 

TRU'NNIONS, _s._ the knobs or bunchings of a gun, that bear it on the checks of a carriage

 

TUBE, _s._ a pipe; a long hollow body

 

TU'BULAR, _a._ resembling a pipe or trunk

 

TUMU'LTUOUS, _a._ uproarious; noisy

 

TU'NIC, _s._ part of the Roman dress, natural covering; tunicle

 

TU'NNEL, _s._ funnel; shaft of a chimney; passage underground

 

TU'RBAN, _s._ the covering worn by the Turks on their heads

 

TU'RPITUDE, _s._ shamefulness; baseness

 

TY'RANNY, _s._ severity; rigour

 

TY'RANT, _s._ an absolute monarch governing imperiously; a cruel and severe master; an oppressor

 

U'LTIMATE, _a._ intended as the last resort

 

UNABA'TED, _part._ not lessened in force or intensity

 

UNACCOU'NTABLE, _a._ not explicable; not to be solved by reason; not subject

 

UNA'LTERABLE, _a._ unchangeable; immutable

 

UNAPRROA'CHED, _a._ inaccessible

 

UNAWA'RE, _ad._ unexpectedly; without thought

 

UNCE'RTAINTY, _s._ want of certainty; inaccuracy UNCHA'NGEABLE, _a._ not subject to variation

 

UNCO'MFORTABLE, _a._ affording no comfort; gloomy

 

UNCU'LTIVATED, _a._ not instructed; uncivilised

 

UNDAU'NTED, _a._ unsubdued by fear; not depressed

 

UNDERGO', _v.a._ suffer; sustain; support

 

UNDERMI'NE, _v.a._ to excavate under

 

UNDIMI'NISHED, _a._ not to be lessened; incapable of being lessened

 

UNDISCO'VERED, _a._ not seen; not found out

 

UNDISTI'NGUISHABLE, _a._ not to be distinguished

 

UNFO'RTUNATE, _a._ unsuccessful; unprosperous

 

U'NIFORM, _a._ conforming to one rule; similar to itself

 

UNIFO'RMITY, _s._ conforming to one pattern

 

UNINHA'BITABLE, _a._ unfit to be inhabited

 

UNINI'TIATED, _part._ ignorant of; not conversant with

 

UNIVE'RSAL, _s._ the whole

 

U'NIVERSE, _s._ the general system of things

 

UNJU'STIFIABLE, _a._ not to be defended

 

UNMO'ULTED, _part._ unchanged in feather

 

UNPA'LATEABLE, _a._ nauseous, disgusting

 

UNRETA'LIATED, _part._ unreturned, applied to injuries

 

UNSA'Y, _v.a._ retract; deny what has been said

 

UNSUCCE'SSFUL, _a._ not having the wished event

 

UNSWA'THE, _v.a._ unbandage

 

UNVI'TIATED, _part._ pure; not defiled

 

UNWIE'LDY, _a._ unmanageable; not easily moving, or moved URGE, _v.a._ press; incite; provoke; solicit

 

U'SHER, _s._ an under-teacher; one whose business it is to introduce strangers, or walk before a person of high rank

 

UTE'NSIL, _s._ an instrument for any use, such as the vessels of the kitchen, or tools of a trade

 

VALE'RIAN, _s._ a plant

 

VA'LLEY, _s._ low ground; a hollow between two hills

 

VA'LUABLE, _a._ precious; worthy

 

VA'LUE, _s._ price; worth; rate

 

VAN, _s._ the front of an army; the first line

 

VANI'LLA, _s._ a plant, the fruit of which is used to scent chocolate

 

VA'NISH, _v.n._ lose perceptible existence; disappear; be lost; pass away

 

VA'RIANCE, _s._ discord; disagreement

 

VA'RIEGATE, _v.a._ diversify; stain with different colours

 

VA'RIOUS, _a._ different; several; diversified

 

VA'RY, _v.a._ change; change to something else

 

VA'TICAN, _s._ the palace of the Pope at Rome

 

VEGETA'TION, _s._ the power of producing the growth of plants

 

VEGETA'TIVE, _a._ having the power to produce growth in plants

 

VE'HICLE, _s._ a conveyance

 

VE'NERABLE, _a._ old; to be treated with reverence

 

VE'NISON, _s._ game; the flesh of deer

 

VENTILA'TION, _s._ the act of fanning

 

VENTILA'TOR, _s._ an instrument contrived to supply close places with fresh air

 

VE'NTURE, _v.n._ dare; run hazard; engage in

 

VE'RIFY, _v.n._ justify against the charge of falsehood; confirm; to prove true

 

VE'RILY, _ad._ in truth; certainly

 

VE'SSEL, _s._ any capacity; anything containing; the containing parts of an animal body

 

VESU'VIUS, _s._ a burning mountain near Naples

 

VICI'NITY, _s._ nearness; state of being near

 

VICI'SSITUDE, _s._ regular change; revolution

 

VI'CTIM, _s._ sacrifice; something destroyed

 

VI'CTORY, _s._ conquest; triumph

 

VI'GIL, _s._ watch; a fast kept before a holiday

 

VI'GOROUS, _a._ full of strength and life

 

VI'GOROUSLY, _ad._ energetically; forcibly; with force; without weakness

 

VI'LLAGE, _s._ a small collection of houses

 

VI'NDICATE, _v.a._ justify; clear; assert; revenge

 

VI'NTAGE, _s._ the produce of the vine for the year; the time in which grapes are gathered

 

VI'OLATION, _s._ infringement of a law

 

VI'OLENT, _a._ forcible; unseasonably vehement

 

VI'PER, _s._ a serpent; anything mischievous

 

VI'PERINE, _a._ belonging to a viper

 

VI'RULENT, _a._ poisonous; venomous; poisoned in the mind; malignant

 

VI'SIBLE, _a._ perceptible by the eye; apparent

VI'SION, _s._ sight; the faculty of seeing; the act of seeing; a supernatural appearance; a spectre; a phantom; a dream; something shown in a dream
VI'SUAL, _a._ using the power of sight

VI'TIATE, _v.a._ deprave; spoil; make less pure

 

VOLCA'NO, _s._ a burning mountain

 

VO'TARY, _s._ one devoted, as by a vow, to any particular service, worship, study, or state of life

 

VU'LTURE, _s._ a large bird of prey

 

WA'NTONLY, _ad._ sportively; carelessly

 

WEA'PON, _s._ an instrument of offence; something with which one is armed to hurt another

 

WI'LDERNESS, _s._ a desert

 

WI'STFUL, _a._ attentive; earnest; full of thought

 

WO'NDERFUL, _a._ admirable; strange; astonishing

 

WO'RSHIP, _v.a._ adore; honour; venerate

 

ZEST, _s._ relish

 

ZOOLO'GICAL, _a._ that which relates to animals

 

THE END.

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