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TheHow You Can Adopt a Child Handbook

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Myths about adoption




The Adoption Process


How Longan AdoptionTakes






Final Word

Myths about adoption

Costs vary by agency and may be related to how the agency is funded, where their children come from, and what services they provide to birth parents and adoptive families. Adoptions of healthy infants in the United States and of children from abroad typically cost between $5,000 and $25,000, and could possibly be higher in some
circumstances. The adoption of a child waiting in foster care can be virtually without cost if the family works directly with a public social services agency. In fact, many public agencies provide adoption subsidies for children who are waiting for a family. (Subsidies are discussed later in this book.) If the family works through a private adoption agency, the costs are likely to be higher, but rarely as high as they would be for adopting an infant. Finally, some private agencies may adjust their fees based on family income or other criteria.


Many people with modest incomes adopt every year. Adoption professionals who make decisions about placing children generally are more concerned about the family's financial stability and how well they manage the financial resources they do have than about the actual income.

MYTH 3: FAMILIES MUST OWN THEIR OWN HOME Families who rent homes or live in apartments adopt children all the time.



Single people, couples without children, and families who already have children by birth or by prior adoption can adopt. However, many private agencies and many foreign countries have specific requirements for the marital status, age, number of children, or religion of people who adopt their children.


There are a variety of resources for financial assistance to help families cover some of the costs of adoption. For example:

Many agencies charge fees on a sliding scale.


Adoption subsidies are available for many children adopted from foster care.


Increasing numbers of employers are offering adoption benefits to their employees.



Legal fees usually are a small portion of the adoption costs, except for independent adoptions handled by an attorney. The legal fees may be included in the agency's fees or may be an additional cost to the adopting family.

Adoption Terminology

State and county agencies (known variously as departments of social services, human services, children and family services, and so on) that are responsible for placing waiting children from foster care or institutional settings with adoptive families.


Non-profit or for-profit agencies licensed by the state that depend on fees and donations, rather than tax dollars, to operate. Some are private agencies that place infants or children born locally or from other countries, though some work with public agencies to place children who are in foster care.


These children also are referred to as children with "special needs." (NOTE: Internal Revenue Service [IRS] publications use the term "special needs.") The large majority of children adopted through state or county adoption agencies are considered waiting children. They come into the public welfare system (foster care) because of parental abuse, neglect, or abandonment. Many of these children have emotional and behavioral difficulties as a result of their experiences. Some also have physical and developmental disabilities. The majority of these children are school aged, some are brothers and sisters who need to be adopted together, and more than 50 percent are children of color. SPECIAL NEEDS

Same as the above definition for "waiting children." This book uses the term "waiting children"; however, the IRS and some state agencies use the term "special needs" in their publications.


Different agencies or organizations may have varying interpretations of the following terms. The definitions here are meant only to provide a general overview and may not match completely how a particular agency uses a specific term.

An OPEN ADOPTION is one in which last names, addresses, and telephone numbers typically are exchanged and the birth parent/s, the adoptive family, and, in some cases, the child may visit on a regular basis. In a fully open adoption, the birth parent/s and the adoptive family know each other and have ongoing communication about the child.

In a SEMI-OPEN ADOPTION, communication is more limited. Last names, addresses, and telephone numbers usually are not exchanged, sharing of photos or other information is less frequent, and all communication takes place through a third party, usually the adoption agency.

In a CLOSED ADOPTION, no identifying information about the birth family or the adoptive family is shared, and the families do not communicate. The adoptive family usually receives non-identifying background information about the child and the birth family before placement. After adoption, the records are sealed and typically are not available to the adopted child. For more information about the availability of adoption records, refer to the "Birth Parent Search" section under Planning for Your Child's Future later in this book.

IDENTIFIED ADOPTION In this type of adoption, the birth mother has identified the family whom she wishes to adopt her child.



These adoptions are arranged through an intermediary, such as a lawyer or a physician, rather than through a licensed adoption agency. The intermediary may find the birth mother, who plans to place her child for adoption, or may help the birth mother locate a family interested in adopting her child. NOTE: Independent adoptions are not legal in all states; check with your state department of social services.



These are adoptions of children who were born in or are nationals of other countries.



A home study, also called an adoption study, is a written description of you and your family prepared by an adoption agency or private adoption professional. It is used to determine which child would best fit into your home. The home study process should be an educational and enlightening experience for the prospective adoptive family.

Having a study performed by an adoption agency or licensed social worker often is the best way to proceed. The type of adoption likely will influence who should perform the home study. It is important to choose the appropriate adoption agency or licensed social worker to do your study so it will be accepted by the court. Check with your state or county department of social services for guidance in this area. You

can expect some or all of the following to be part of the process.

- interviews with the parent/s individually and together (if a couple)
- group meetings involving several applicant families

(many agencies do this)
- autobiographies written by each parent
- a home visit
- medical reports from your physician
- references from friends and associates
- proof of employment
- investigations into any criminal record, including

the state's child abuse registry
- participation in adoption information training classes
- personal finance information
- copies of tax returns

In the course of the home study process, you will have the opportunity to talk with your social worker about the following topics:

- why you want to adopt
- your readiness to parent
- your family's values
- your hopes and expectations for the adoptive child
- your family's strengths and weaknesses
- how your family handles crises and change
- where you'll get support or professional help, if needed

It's quite possible that, as you move through the adoption process, you'll be working with more than one social worker. PRE-PLACEMENT


This is the period of time after your home study is completed and before your child comes home.




Placement occurs when the child you plan to adopt moves into your home.



A child is placed with the foster/adopt family before the birth parents' rights have been legally terminated so there is still a possibility that the child may be reunited with his or her birth family. If the birth family's parental rights are terminated, the foster/adopt family will be considered the adoptive family for the child.


This is the time after the child has been placed in your home and before finalization. The social worker doing postplacement supervision will visit your home several times during the 6 to 12 months between placement and finalization to provide support for you and your child and to help you get other professional assistance, if needed, to make the placement successful. A certain number of visits are required by the courts before the adoption can be finalized.


This is when the court takes the necessary action to make the child a legal member of your family. Usually, your whole family will go to court with your adoption worker or lawyer.


This is not a specific period of time; instead, it is the active, rewarding, and challenging process of living as a family after the adoption has been legally finalized.


These organizations are designed to provide connections between prospective adoptive parents and adoption agencies that place children. Many states have their own state-operated exchange that keeps a listing of adoptable children waiting in their foster care system, as well as families who have completed their adoption home study with a state agency. Many states publish a photo listing book of the children waiting in their state.

Regional, national, and international exchanges are nonprofit organizations that serve waiting children and families in more than one state. They often publish in print or on the Internet a photo listing of waiting children, provide other services to help recruit adoptive families, make connections between prospective adoptive families and the agencies that have custody of the waiting children, and provide adoption information to prospective families. Some exchanges also list families who have completed home studies and are waiting to adopt.

The Adoption Process

The actual stepsof adoption may vary depending on the type of adoption being considered. In general, though, asyou begin the adoption process, you'll need to take most of the following steps:

Learn about adoption by reading, talking to other adoptive parents, searching the Internet, and contacting an adoptive parent group that welcomes prospective adoptive families.

Attend adoption information classes.

Consider your feelings about adoption and consider what type of adoption you want to pursue: infant, waiting child, international, open, semi-open, closed, agency, independent, or agency-assisted.

Interview several agencies or lawyers who do the kind of adoption you've chosen, attend orientation meetings, then select the agency or lawyer with whom you wish to work.

Begin your adoption home study.


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Find out what your agency, licensed social worker, or lawyer recommends you do to help locate the right child for your family. While you're waiting, continue your educational process.

Prepare for your child to come home. This may involve visits with the birth parent/s, if you're doing an open infant adoption; pre-placement visits with your child, if you're adopting a waiting child; or travel to the child's country and preparation to finalize the adoption, if you're adopting a child from abroad.

Bring your child home. In the case of an international adoption, petition the Immigration and Naturalization Service to make your child a naturalized citizen of the United States.

Begin the adjustment period as a new family.


Finalize the adoption.


Continue the life-long adoption experience.


Here is a very helpful checklist:

1. Read as much as possible about adoptions.
2. Talk to friends or acquaintances who have adopted.
3. Attend orientation sessions.
4. Decide what type of adoption most appeals to you, and review its most important points and features.
5. Interview several adoption agencies or other intermediaries.
6. Clarify and compare adoption fees.
7. Estimate all other potential expenses.
8. Apply for an adoption.
9. Have a home study conducted.
10. Begin the search for a child.
11. Select a child.
12. Review and adjust expense estimates, if necessary.
13. Prepare your home for the arrival of your child.
14. Educate yourself about effective parenting.
15. Seek and apply for adoption loans, if necessary, or for assistance (government, employer, and so on).
16. Add your child to your health plan.
17. Finalize the adoption. (With international adoptions, also apply for U.S. citizenship for your child.)
18. Get a new Social Security number for your child.
19. Get a new birth certificate for your child.
20. Update your will, life insurance policy, and other appropriate documents.

How Long an Adoption Takes

All prospective adoptive parents usually feel they are "waiting parents." Adoption can be a long, slow process. At this beginning stage, it can all seem a bit overwhelming.

The time it takes to bring a child home varies depending on the type of adoption or any unforeseeable circumstances that may arise. Here are some possible time tables:

Healthy Infant = 1 up to 7 years
International = 6 up to 18 months
Waiting Child = 4 up to 18 months

The finalization of an adoption usually occurs six months to a year after placement. Most international adoptions are finalized before the child leaves his or her country of origin. For an international adoption, it's important to naturalize the child as a U.S. citizen as soon as possible to ensure that he or she has the full protection of citizenship. Delaying naturalization could create problems; for example, if a young person gets in trouble with the law, citizenship could be denied.

1- State Laws and Fees

Since adoption is governed by state statute, each state makes its own laws, and each agency or other entity assisting in the adoption process sets its own fees for adoption services. When adopting a child of Native American heritage, the specific tribe likely will have their own adoption laws and procedures. If you're considering adopting a child from another country, you will find that each country's laws and requirements vary.

Unfortunately, at this time, there is no central rating service that checks on adoption agencies. You can call your local Better Business Bureau to see if any complaints have been filed against a particular agency or adoption intermediary. In addition, your state or county social services department should be able to provide you with the name of the government entity that oversees adoption to verify the reputation of an adoption agency or intermediary. Also, talk to families who have adopted and to members of adoptive parent support groups to get recommendations or warnings about the agencies in your area.

You should:


Compare adoption fees among adoption agencies, adoption attorneys, or other adoption intermediaries.

Clarify up front, in writing, exactly what the stated adoption fee will and will not cover. Some agencies or intermediaries may quote a fee, but later add other charges, such as post-placement fees and court costs. Ask about the payment plan. Do NOT pay 100 percent of the adoption costs in advance. Payments should be made as each step of the agency's or attorney's services are provided.

Be wary of agencies or intermediaries that charge high fees, want a retainer paid in full upon application without any provisions for a refund, guarantee a child, or want you to sign disclaimers before meetings or searching for a child for you.


This broad, sometimes loosely defined term is used for the various costs of working with a public or private adoption agency, or with an attorney or other intermediary. The adoption fee should include the costs of doing a home study, pre-adoptive counseling, identifying a child for your family, placement fees, and post-placement visits. For an independent adoption, the birth mother's living and delivery expenses may be included or may be separate expenses. For an international adoption, the adoption fee may or may not include the costs of visas, dossier preparation, document translation, and other expenses unique to adopting children from other countries. Adoptions of waiting children through state or county agencies may incur only minimal costs and often are free of charge.

Fees charged by private adoption agencies and
intermediaries can run from $5,000 to as high as $25,000, and possibly more. BE SURE you understand which services in the adoption process are included and which may be separate or additional fees.

During the adoption process, activities will arise that will result in out-of-pocket expenses. Although these costs usually are minor, it's best to be prepared for them. For example, consider the costs related to the following possible activities:

traveling to and from the agency or lawyer's office completing and photocopying records and other paperwork


taking time off work for interviews and so on obtaining shots, passports, etc., if international travel is necessary


arranging for child care for any children you already have



Although the cost of the home study usually is included in the adoption fees, it can be a separate cost in some situations. For example, if you reside overseas, are doing an independent adoption, or have an independent professional (usually a licensed social worker) performing the home study but not the other pre- or post-placement services, the home study may be a separate cost. Some public agencies do charge for home studies, but some may reimburse you for that expense or have other methods to offset the expense when they place a child from their county or state with you. Depending on the agency, if this is a separate expense for you, a fee of $300 to $3,000 is not unusual.


These classes may be required as part of the adoption home study process. A registration fee to cover the costs of materials may be charged.


Home studies are considered current for a limited period of time, usually one or two years. In many states, courts want home studies updated after a year. Waiting for a child can take several years and thus the home study may need to be updated one or more times during the wait. You may want to adopt again after your first adoption is finalized and your home study will need to be updated, though if you choose to work with a different agency or wait several years to adopt again, you may have to start over completely. There will be an additional fee to update your home study, even if the cost of doing the original study was included in the adoption fee.


Sometimes adoptive parents must move as a result of a job transfer or military reassignment before completing the adoption process. In the best of situations, the adoption can be completed if your adoption agency is willing to collaborate with an adoption agency in your new location. Otherwise, you may have to start the adoption process all over again. In either case, new adoption expenses may be incurred. Adoption fees already paid to the original adoption agency often will not be refundable since that work has already been completed by the agency. If you're likely to have to move during the adoption process, you should clarify this in advance with the agency or adoption facilitator.


Finding the child that is right for your family is so important to a successful adoption. Search costs for this process can vary widely depending upon your desires and situation.

9- Attorney and Court Costs

All domestic adoptions must be finalized in a state court or, for some Native American children, in an Indian Tribal court. Many international adoptions are finalized in the child's country of origin; however, in some cases, the international adoption must be finalized in this country. Even when the adoption is finalized in the birth country, many families choose to finalize in the United States so they can share that important day with family and friends, in addition to getting a birth certificate in English. Your international adoption agency should be able to tell you where the finalization needs to occur. As stated previously, it's important that foreign-born adopted children become naturalized citizens of

the United States.

For a child to be legally adopted, the biological parents must voluntarily and legally relinquish their parental rights, or the courts must involuntarily terminate their rights. The adoptive parents are not responsible for these court costs. However, in some international and independent adoptions, the adoptive parents may have to pay the legal costs of

terminating the rights of the biological parent(s). It is very important to be sure that the parental rights of both biological parents have been relinquished or terminated before you adopt a child. The adoption cases that have received media attention and "movie-of-the-week" notoriety often result from parental rights not being correctly terminated. When a child is adopted, the court creates a new legal relationship between the child and the adoptive parents.

In those rare instances in which an adoptive placement is challenged, the legal expenses for the adoptive family can be extremely high. However, despite the impression given by the occasional sensational story in the media, few finalized adoptions - even independent adoptions of infants - are contested legally. Less than 1 percent are challenged, according to the North American Council on Adoptable Children.

You can take financial steps, such as establishing an emergency fund, to reduce the impact of a legal challenge to the adoption. But the best advice is to go carefully through all the steps of the adoption process to reduce the likelihood of a legal challenge in the first place. The safest way to avoid expensive court battles is to be certain, in advance, that the child you adopt is legally free to be adopted-that the parental rights of both biological parents have been relinquished or terminated by the courts.


1- Check with your child's agency to be sure you understand when each type of assistance is available and what you need to do to be sure the plans stay in effect for your child. Some private adoption agencies offer reduced fees based on your income. In the case of a waiting child, most offer sliding-scale fees and some require no fees. When considering an adoption agency, ask if they offer the benefit of sliding-scale fees.

BE SURE to apply for subsidies and receive subsidy agreements in writing before the adoption becomes final! It is preferable to negotiate the subsidy before the child is placed in your home, if at all possible. It is very difficult to obtain assistance after finalization.

2- Speak with your accountant about the current “Federal Adoption Tax Credit” available. (Congress passed legislation providing tax credits for families who adopt. This legislation became effective in January 1997.) Also, ask about “Dependency Exemption” . (Adoptive parents may take the same dependency exemption on their income taxes for their adopted children, and children placed with them for adoption but not yet finalized, as they would for their biological children. The exemption reduces their taxable income.)

Adoption assistance is exempt from taxation. Like child support that a custodial parent receives from a divorced spouse, adoption assistance is not considered as income. However, the level or amount of assistance may affect whether the child can be claimed as a dependent and be listed as an exemption on your income taxes. (Refer to the previous section titled "Dependency Exemption.")

Up to $5,000 in employer-provided adoption benefits (up to $6,000 for special needs adoptions) per child may be excluded from your income. You may claim both a tax credit and an exclusion in connection with the adoption of an eligible child, but may not claim the same expenses twice. As with the tax credit, tax-free adoption benefits are gradually phased out once family income rises above $75,000.

$75,000. Employee Benefits Programs

Roughly a quarter of the nation's employers offer some form of adoption benefits to their employees, according to a 1995 study. Benefits, typically available only to the company's "regular" employees, may include:

direct reimbursement in the range of $2,000 to $10,000 upon actual placement (usually a flat amount designated for specific adoption expenses)

paid leave, in addition to or including vacation time, sick leave, or personal days
unpaid leave (personal, hardship, medical, or child care) (may range from 3 to 12 months)
medical expenses of the birth mother
adoption seminars and information classes, as well as counseling and support before and after placement

If you are a government employee, it's possible that additional adoption benefits may be available. Even if your employer doesn't currently offer adoption benefits, ask about their availability. You may be able to persuade your company to begin offering them. Work with other employees interested in adoption, gather information for the employer, and present your case. Also, find out if your employer offers an Employee Assistance Program (EAP). This benefit was designed to help employees deal with dramatic personal situations or problems. Talking with an EAP counselor could help reduce the stress and anxiety that is so often a part of the adoption process.

4- Loans

While it's far from ideal to borrow money for an adoption, adoptive families may find a loan necessary to cover the large and immediate expenses. In some cases, you may be able to pay the loan back quickly once you receive a tax credit or are reimbursed by your employer or the military. Possible loan sources include:

HOME EQUITY LOANS. Interest rates often are reasonable and the interest is tax deductible. Just remember, you're putting your home at risk.

INSURANCE. You may be able to borrow from the cash value of your life insurance policy.
LOW-INTEREST LOANS. Some banks offer lowinterest loans or credit lines for adoptive parents.
PRIVATE GRANT AND SPECIAL LOAN PROGRAMS. Adoption loans, both home equity and unsecured, may be obtained through the National Adoption Foundation. They also award grants to needy adoptive parents. (Refer to the Resource List for more information.)
RELATIVES - If you have loved ones who are generous and can afford to lend you the money, by all means ASK, and you stand a very good chance of your request being granted.

Two other possible sources prospective parents may be tempted to use for adoption expenses are credit cards and loans on retirement accounts, such as 401(k)s and profitsharing plans. Credit cards are an easy source of cash, but typically charge high interest rates. Loans on retirement plans offer somewhat lower interest rates; however, if you lose or change jobs and cannot repay the loan within a short time period, the loan becomes a taxable withdrawal. In addition to income taxes you'll have to pay on the withdrawal, you'll also have to pay a 10 percent penalty if you're younger than 59 1/2. Most financial planners recommend that you not tap these sources unless it's absolutely necessary.

The decision on whether to take out a loan to help pay for adoption expenses can be difficult and has serious consequences for the entire family. It's important as adoptive parents to maintain financial stability for the good of the child. Dipping into future retirement savings or running up credit card debt can add to your financial stress and family stress in general, as well as throwing your long-term goals and planning off course.

Final Word

Hopefully the information contained within this book will help to give any prospective adoptive parent a better understanding of what is required when it comes to adopting a baby.

Participation in adoption support groups can be helpful while you're waiting for a child, and is especially important following adoption. These groups are designed to help adoptive parents cope with the challenges of raising adopted children through the sharing

of experiences by fellow adoptive parents. Groups may have been formed independently or under the auspices of an adoption agency.

I wish you the best of luck and success with your adoption!



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