Teaching Strategies by Dominick Saffioti - HTML preview
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Home schooling your child with a learning disability
Dominick SaffiotiIntroductionFull book available at Sonny’s EBook Depot
This book contains many strategies for teaching and recognizing a child with learning disabilities. It covers Social, Physical and emotional disabilities. All the information is from various book and web resources that I have gathered over the years.
My Intention is to give parents of children with a disability some ideas on how they can help their child succeed in there learning whether in a public school but manly when they are home schooled.I also have a book that is for the student. An Instructor’s View on Student Success.
The author makes no warranty or representation whatsoever, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to equipment, procedures, and applications described or referred to herein, there quality, performance, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose. The Author assumes no responsibility for any changes, errors, or monitions in this book. The Author specifically disclaims any liability, whatsoever including any direct, indirect, incidental, consequential, special, or exemplary damage resulting, in whole or in part from the reader’s use or reliance upon the information, instructions, procedures, warnings, cautions, applications or other matter contained in this book. The Author assumes no responsibility for the activities of the reader.ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER (AD/HD)
Attention deficit disorders are disorders characterized by serious and persistent difficulties in attention span, impulse control, and hyperactivity. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a chronic disorder that can begin in infancy and extend through adulthood. It can have a significantly negative effect on an individual's life at home, in school, or in the community. There are two types of attention deficit disorders: undifferentiated Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In undifferentiated ADD, the primary and most significant characteristic is inattentiveness but hyperactivity is not present. These students still manifest problems with organization and distractibility, even though they may seem quite and passive. These students also tend to be overlooked more easily in the classroom, and may be at a higher risk for academic failure than those with ADHD.
To be diagnosed as having ADHD a student must display, for six months or more, at least eight of the following characteristics prior to the age of seven:
1) Fidgets, squirms, or is restless.
2) Difficulty remaining seated.
3) Easily distracted.
4) Difficulty waiting for his/her turn.
5) Blurts out answers.
6) Difficulty following instructions.
7) Difficulty sustaining attention
8) Shifts from one uncompleted task to another
9) Difficulty playing quietly
10) Talks excessively
11) Interrupts or is rude to others
12) Does not appear to listen
13) Often loses things necessary for tasks
14) Frequently engages in dangerous actions
As many as 3.8 million school-age children, most of them boys, are believed to have attention deficit disorders. Symptoms may include a short attention span, impulsive behavior, and difficulty sitting still. The guidelines, which fall in line with those issued in recent, years by the National Institute of Mental Health, were created in consultation with child psychiatrists and psychologists. They suggest that the evidence favoring medications like Ritalin is stronger than the evidence about behavioral therapy.
Symptoms improve in at least 80 percent of children on stimulants, and medication should be switched if it is not working, the guidelines say. Critics say that many doctors and teachers turn to drugs like Ritalin as an easy fix and that their long-term effects are uncertain. The guidelines say any treatment should begin only after a diagnosis is certain and doctors, parents, and teachers have discussed appropriate treatment goals. The guidelines say drugs should be used with behavioral techniques, including time-outs for hitting. They call for rewarding children when they complete tasks, like homework.Strategies Bring to the student's attention role models with a similar disability to the student. Point out that this individual got ahead by a combination of effort and by asking for help when needed. Student monitoring, self management, discipline, and encouragement can be a very important aspect for academic success. Below are the two basic aspects of AD/HD facilitation. Self-monitoring techniques can be very effective in the school setting. Self-monitoring of attention involves cueing the student so that he/she can determine how well he/she is attending to the task at hand. Cueing can be done by providing an audio tone such as a random beep, timer, or the teacher can give the cue. Have the student note whether he/she was on or off task on a simple recording sheet. Self-monitoring techniques are more likely to be effective when tied to rewards and accuracy checks. Behavior management techniques should be used in the learning environment. By examining a student's specific problem behavior, understanding its past history and consequences, teachers can help students with AD/HD to develop behaviors that lead to academic and social successes. Provide supervision and discipline: Monitor proper behavior frequently and immediately direct the student to an appropriate behavior. Enforce the rules consistently. Avoid poke fun at the student and showing them your disappointment in them. Remember that students with AD/HD have difficulty staying in control. Providing encouragement and rewards more than punishment. Immediately praise any good behavior and performance. If rewards are not effective in motivating behavior change, find alternate ways to encourage the AD/HD students. Teach the student to reward him or herself. Encourage positive self-talk (like, "You did very well remaining in your seat today. ") This encourages the student to think positively about him or herself. Bring to the student's attention role models who have a disability similar to that of the student with impairment. Point out that this individual got ahead by a combination of effort and by asking for help when needed. If possible, reduce the amount of material present during activities by having the student put away unnecessary items. Have a special place for tools, materials, and books. Always reward more than you punish, especially with positive reinforcement. Try to be patient with an AD/HD student. Seat the students with AD/HD in the front of the class near the teacher with their backs to the rest of the class will help the student stay focused on them and not the distractions in the classroom. Surround students with AD/HD with good peer models, preferably students whom the AD/HD student views as significant peers. Encourage peer tutoring and cooperative/collaborative learning. A class that has a low student-teacher ratio will be helpful to a student with AD/HD. Avoid all distracting stimuli in the class room, try not to place students with AD/HD near air conditioners, high traffic areas, heaters, doors, windows, etc. as these items can distract the student with AD/HD. Avoid transitions, physical relocation, changes in schedule, and disruptions. Be creative; produce a somewhat stimuli-reduced study area with a variety of science activities.· Parents set up appropriate study space at home, with set times and routines established for study. Also, use this home area for parental review of completed homework, and periodic notebookand/or book bag organization. You can find all the worksheets you need to help you atSonny’s E Book Depot. Have a pre established consequence for misbehavior, always remain calm, state the infraction of the rule, and avoid debating or arguing with the student. Avoid publicly reminding students on medication to "take their medicine."Teacher Presentation Teachers consult with special education personnel to determine specific strengths and weaknesses of each student. Maintain eye contact during verbal instructions during the lesson. Give all directions in a clear and concise way. Be consistent with your daily instructions to the class this will help the student stay calm. When asking an AD/HD student a question, first say the student's name and then pause for a few seconds as a signal for him/her to pay attention. To help with changes in assignments, provide clear and consistent transitions between activities and notify the student with AD/HD a few minutes before changing activities. Repeat the instructions in a calm, positive manner. Some AD/HD students will need both verbal and visual directions. You can do this by providing the student with a model of what he/she should be doing. You can give an AD/HD student confidence by starting each assignment with a few questions or activities you know the student can successfully accomplish. Develop an individualized education program (EDP). By identifying each student's individual strengths and specific learning needs, you can design a plan for mobilizing those strengths to improve students’ academic and social performance. As the student shows improvement gradually reduce the amount of assistance, but keep in mind that these students need more help for a longer period than the student without a disability. When possible require a daily assignmentnotebook as necessary and make sure each student correctly writes down all assignments. If a student is not capable of this, the teacher should help the student. Initial the notebook daily to signify completion of homework assignments. (Parents should also sign.) Use the notebook for daily communication with parents. Hands On Gradually reduce the amount of assistance, but keep in mind that these students will need more help for a longer period than the student without a disability. Consider alternative activities/exercises that can be utilized with less difficulty for the student, but has the same or similar learningobjectives. Require a daily assignment notebook as necessary and make sure each student correctly writes down all assignments. If a student is not capable of this, the teacher should help the student. AD/HD students may need both verbal and visual directions. You can do this by providing the student with a visual model and a verbal description of what he/she should be doing. You can give an AD/HD student confidence by starting each lab assignment with a few questions or activities you know the student can successfully accomplish. To help with changes in assignments, provide clear and consistent transitions between activities and notify the student with AD/HD a few minutes before changing activities. Make sure all students comprehend the instructions before beginning their tasks (the AD/HD student will probably need extra assistance). Simplify complex directions and avoid multiple commands. Repeat instructions in a calm, positive manner. As a teacher always, help the students feel comfortable with seeking assistance (most students with AD/HD will not ask for help). Assigning only one task at a time will insure the student is not over whelmed. When the student has difficulty with an assignment, you might have to modify assignments as needed for the AD/HD student. Keep in mind that students with AD/HD are easily frustrated and they need assurance of things that are common in science, e.g., when an experiment does not turn out as expected. Stress, pressure, and fatigue can help reduce their self-control and can lead to poor behavior. Group Interaction and Discussion · Help the students feel comfortable in seeking assistance (most students with AD/HD will not ask for help, especially in a group activity). When the student feels comfortable gradually integrate the AD/HD student into the interactive systemReading Provide additional reading time. Use "previewing" strategies by being aware of the following reading problems: 1. Reversals when reading (i.e., "was" for "saw", "on" for "no", etc.) 2. Reversal when writing (b for d, p for q, etc.) 3. Transposition of letters and numbers (12 for 21, etc.) 4. Loss of place when reading, line to line and word to word. Shorten the amount of required reading and avoid oral reading for all assignments, clearly identify your expectations in writing. Make required book lists available prior to the first day of class to allow students to begin their reading early. Encourage the use of books-on-tape to support students reading assignments. Provide the students with chapter outlines, or handouts that highlight key points in their readings. During your lesson read aloud, material written on the chalkboard or that is presented in handouts or transparencies. Provide the student with published book summaries, synopses, or digests of major reading assignments to review beforehand, downloads for Cliff notes are available for computer use.Research Review and discuss with the student the steps involved in a research activity. Think about which step(s) may be difficult for the specific functional limitations of the student and with the student devise accommodations for that student. Consider alternative activities/exercises that can be utilized with less difficulty for the student, but has the same or similar learning objectives. Give extra time for certain tasks. Students with AD/HD may work slowly. Gradually reduce the amount of assistance, but keep in mind that these students will need more help for a longer period than the student without a disability. Testing Make sure you are testing knowledge and not attention span. Give extra time and frequent breaks for certain of the examination tasks (e.g., math related). Students with AD/HD may work slowly. Keep in mind that students with AD/HD are easily frustrated. Stress, pressure, and fatigue can result in reduction of self-control and lead to poor behavior. Testing accommodations (1) Use of a highlighter; (2) Computer with/without spell check/grammar/cut & paste features; and (3) Suitable setting such as private room and preferential seating.For more help go to my website www.sonnysebookdepot.com