Studies in the psychology of sex, volume 2 by Havelock Ellis. - HTML preview

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part has ever

allowed the possibility of such construction as mentioned is

terrible. I am fain to hope that the pages themselves are not to

be even mentioned for such gratuitous and quite at the time

undreamed and unwished possibility of morbid inferences--which

are disavowed by me and seem damnable."

It would seem from this letter[96] that Whitman had never realized that

there is any relationship whatever between the passionate emotion of

physical contact from man to man, as he had experienced it and sung it,

and the act which with other people he would regard as a crime against

nature. This may be singular, for there are many inverted persons who have

found satisfaction in friendships less physical and passionate than those

described in _Leaves of Grass_, but Whitman was a man of concrete,

emotional, instinctive temperament, lacking in analytical power, receptive

to all influences, and careless of harmonizing them. He would most

certainly have refused to admit that he was the subject of inverted

sexuality. It remains true, however, that "manly love"

occupies in his

work a predominance which it would scarcely hold in the feelings of the

"average man," whom Whitman wishes to honor. A normally constituted

person, having assumed the very frank attitude taken up by Whitman, would

be impelled to devote far more space and far more ardor to the subject of

sexual relationships with women and all that is involved in maternity than

is accorded to them in _Leaves of Grass_. Some of Whitman's extant letters

to young men, though they do not throw definite light on this question,

are of a very affectionate character,[97] and, although a man of

remarkable physical vigor, he never felt inclined to marry.[98] It remains

somewhat difficult to classify him from the sexual point of view, but we

can scarcely fail to recognize the presence of a homosexual tendency.

I should add that some friends and admirers of Whitman are not

prepared to accept the evidence of the letter to Symonds. I am

indebted to "Q." for the following statement of the objections:--

"I think myself that it is a mistake to give much weight to this

letter--perhaps a mistake to introduce it at all, since if

introduced it will, of course, carry weight. And this for three

or four reasons:--

"1. That it is difficult to reconcile the letter itself (with its

strong tone of disapprobation) with the general

'atmosphere' of

_Leaves of Grass_, the tenor of which is to leave everything open

and free.

"2. That the letter is in hopeless conflict with the

'Calamus'

section of poems. For, whatever moral lines Whitman may have

drawn at the time of writing these poems, it seems to me quite

incredible that the possibility of certain inferences, morbid or

other, was undreamed of.

"3. That the letter was written only a few months before his last

illness and death, and is the only expression of the kind that he

appears to have given utterance to.

"4. That Symonds's letter, to which this was a reply, is not

forth coming; and we consequently do not know what rash

expressions it may have contained--leading Whitman (with his

extreme caution) to hedge his name from possible use to justify

dubious practices."

I may add that I endeavored to obtain Symonds's letter, but he

was unable to produce it, nor has any copy of it been found among

his papers.

It should be said that Whitman's attitude toward Symonds was

marked by high regard and admiration. "A wonderful man is

Addington Symonds," he remarked shortly before his own death;

"some ways the most indicative and penetrating and significant

man of our time. Symonds is a curious fellow; I love him dearly.

He is of college breed and education, horribly literary and

suspicious, and enjoys things. A great fellow for delving into

persons and into the concrete, and even into the physiological

and the gastric, and wonderfully cute." But on this occasion he

delved in vain.

The foregoing remarks (substantially contained in the previous

editions of this book) were based mainly on the information

received from J.A. Symonds's side. But of more recent years

interesting light has been thrown on this remarkable letter from

Walt Whitman's side. The Boswellian patience, enthusiasm, and

skill which Horace Traubel has brought to his full and elaborate

work, now in course of publication, _With Walt Whitman in

Camden_, clearly reveal, in the course of various conversations,

Whitman's attitude to Symonds's question and the state of mind

which led up to this letter.

Whitman talked to Traubel much about Symonds from the

twenty-seventh of April, 1888 (very soon after the date when

Traubel's work begins), onward. Symonds had written to him

repeatedly, it seems, concerning the "passional relations of men

with men," as Whitman expressed it. "He is always driving at me

about that: is that what Calamus means?--because of me or in

spite of me, is that what it means? I have said no, but no does

not satisfy him. [There is, however, no record from Symonds's

side of any letter by Whitman to Symonds in this sense up to this

date.] But read this letter--read the whole of it: it is very

shrewd, very cute, in deadliest earnest: it drives me hard,

almost compels me--it is urgent, persistent: he sort of stands in

the road and says 'I won't move till you answer my question.' You

see, this is an old letter--sixteen years old--and he is still

asking the question: he refers to it in one of his latest notes.

He is surely a wonderful man--a rare, cleaned-up man--a

white-souled, heroic character.... You will be writing something

about Calamus some day," said W. [to Traubel], "and this letter,

and what I say, may help to clear your ideas.

Calamus needs clear

ideas; it may be easily, innocently distorted from its natural,

its motive, body of doctrine."

The letter, dated Feb. 7, 1872, of some length, is then

reproduced. It tells how much _Leaves of Grass_, and especially

the Calamus section, had helped the writer. "What the love of man

for man has been in the past," Symonds wrote, "I think I know.

What it is here now, I know also--alas! What you say it can and

should be I dimly discern in your Poems. But this hardly

satisfies me--so desirous am I of learning what you teach. Some

day, perhaps,--in some form, I know not what, but in your own

chosen form,--you will tell me more about the Love of Friends.

Till then I wait."

"Said W: 'Well, what do you think of that? Do you think that

could be answered?' 'I don't see why you call that letter driving

you hard. It's quiet enough--it only asks questions, and asks the

questions mildly enough,' 'I suppose you are right--

"drive" is

not exactly the word: yet you know how I hate to be catechised.

Symonds is right, no doubt, to ask the questions: I am just as

much right if I do not answer them: just as much right if I do

answer them. I often say to myself about Calamus--

perhaps it

means more or less than what I thought myself--means different:

perhaps I don't know what it all means--perhaps never did know.

My first instinct about all that Symonds writes is violently

reactionary--is strong and brutal for no, no, no.

Then the

thought intervenes that I maybe do not know all my own meanings:

I say to myself: "You, too, go away, come back, study your own

book--as alien or stranger, study your own book, see what it

amounts to." Some time or other I will have to write to him

definitely about Calamus--give him my word for it what I meant or

mean it to mean.'"

Again, a month later (May 24, 1888), Whitman speaks to Traubel of

a "beautiful letter" from Symonds. "You will see that he harps on

the Calamus poems again. I don't see why it should, but his

recurrence to that subject irritates me a little. I suppose you

might say--why don't you shut him up by answering him? There is

no logical answer to that I suppose: but I may ask in my turn:

'What right has he to ask questions anyway?'" W.

laughed a bit.

"Anyway the question comes back to me almost every time he

writes. He is courteous enough about it--that is the reason I do

not resent him. I suppose the whole thing will end in an answer

some day."

The letter follows. The chief point in it is that the writer

hopes he has not been importunate in the question he had asked

about Calamus three years before.

"I [Traubel] said to W.: 'That's a humble letter enough: I don't

see anything in that to get excited about. He doesn't ask you to

answer the old question. In fact he rather apologizes for having

asked it.' W. fired up 'Who is excited? As to that question, he

does ask it again and again: asks it, asks it, asks it.' I

laughed at his vehemence. 'Well, suppose he does? It does not

harm. Besides, you've got nothing to hide. I think your silence

might lead him to suppose there was a nigger in your wood pile.'

'Oh, nonsense! But for thirty years my enemies and friends have

been asking me questions about the _Leaves_: I'm tired of not

answering questions.' It was very funny to see his face when he

gave a humorous twist to the fling in his last phrase. Then he

relaxed and added: 'Anyway I love Symonds. Who could fail to love

a man who could write such a letter? I suppose he will yet have

to be answered, damn 'im!'"

It is clear that these conversations considerably diminish the force of

the declaration in Whitman's letter. We see that the letter which, on the

face of it, might have represented the swift and indignant reaction of a

man who, suddenly faced by the possibility that his work may be

interpreted in a perverse sense, emphatically repudiates that

interpretation, was really nothing of the kind. Symonds for at least

eighteen years had been gently, considerately, even humbly, yet

persistently, asking the same perfectly legitimate question. If the answer

was really an emphatic no, it would more naturally have been made in 1872

than 1890. Moreover, in the face of this ever-recurring question, Whitman

constantly speaks to his friends of his great affection for Symonds and

his admiration for his intellectual cuteness, feelings that would both be

singularly out of place if applied to a man who was all the time

suggesting the possibility that his writings contained inferences that

were "terrible," "morbid," and "damnable." Evidently, during all those

years, Whitman could not decide what to reply. On the one hand he was

moved by his horror of being questioned, by his caution, by his natural

aversion to express approval of anything that could be called unnatural or

abnormal. On the other hand, he was moved by the desire to let his work

speak for itself, by his declared determination to leave everything open,

and possibly by a more or less conscious sympathy with the inferences

presented to him. It was not until the last years of his life, when his

sexual life belonged to the past, when weakness was gaining on him, when

he wished to put aside every drain on his energies, that--being

constitutionally incapable of a balanced scientific statement--he chose

the simplest and easiest solution of the difficulty.[99]

Concerning another great modern writer--Paul Verlaine, the first of modern

French poets--it seems possible to speak with less hesitation. A man who

possessed in fullest measure the irresponsible impressionability of

genius, Verlaine--as his work shows and as he himself admitted--all his

life oscillated between normal and homosexual love, at one period

attracted to women, at another to men. He was without doubt, it seems to

me, bisexual. An early connection with another young poet, Arthur Rimbaud,

terminated in a violent quarrel with his friend, and led to Verlaine's

imprisonment at Mons. In after-years he gave expression to the exalted

passion of this relationship--_mon grand péché radieux_-

-in _Læti et

Errabundi_, published in the volume entitled _Parallèlement_; and in later

poems he has told of less passionate and less sensual relationships which

yet were more than friendship, for instance, in the poem, "_Mon ami, ma

plus belle amitié, ma Meilleure_" in _Bonheur_.[100]

In this brief glance at some of the ethnographical, historical, religious,

and literary aspects of homosexual passion there is one other phenomenon

which may be mentioned. This is the alleged fact that, while the phenomena

exist to some extent everywhere, we seem to find a special proclivity to

homosexuality (whether or not involving a greater frequency of congenital

inversion is not usually clear) among certain races and in certain

regions.[101] In Europe this would be best illustrated by the case of

southern Italy, which in this respect is held to be distinct from northern

Italy, although Italians generally are franker than men of northern race

in admitting their sexual practices.[102] How far the supposed greater

homosexuality of southern Italy may be due to Greek influence and Greek

blood it is not very easy to say.

It must be remembered that, in dealing with a northern country like

England, homosexual phenomena do not present themselves in the same way as

they do in southern Italy today, or in ancient Greece.

In Greece the

homosexual impulse was recognized and idealized; a man could be an open

homosexual lover, and yet, like Epaminondas, be a great and honored

citizen of his country. There was no reason whatever why a man, who in

mental and physical constitution was perfectly normal, should not adopt a

custom that was regarded as respectable, and sometimes as even specially

honorable. But it is quite otherwise today in a country like England or

the United States.[103] In these countries all our traditions and all our

moral ideals, as well as the law, are energetically opposed to every

manifestation of homosexual passion. It requires a very strong impetus to

go against this compact social force which, on every side, constrains the

individual into the paths of heterosexual love. That impetus, in a

well-bred individual who leads the normal life of his fellow-men and who

feels the ordinary degree of respect for the social feeling surrounding

him, can only be supplied by a fundamental--usually, it is probable,

inborn--perversion of the sexual instinct, rendering the individual

organically abnormal. It is with this fundamental abnormality, usually

called sexual inversion, that we shall here be concerned. There is no

evidence to show that homosexuality in Greece was a congenital perversion,

although it appears that Coelius Aurelianus affirms that in the opinion of

Parmenides it was hereditary. Aristotle also, in his fragment on physical

love, though treating the whole matter with indulgence, seems to have

distinguished abnormal congenital homosexuality from acquired homosexual

vice. Doubtless in a certain proportion of cases the impulse was organic,

and it may well be that there was an organic and racial predisposition to

homosexuality among the Greeks, or, at all events, the Dorians. But the

state of social feeling, however it originated, induced a large proportion

of the ordinary population to adopt homosexuality as a fashion, or, it may

be said, the environment was peculiarly favorable to the development of

latent homosexual tendencies. So that any given number of homosexual

persons among the Greeks would have presented a far smaller proportion of

constitutionally abnormal individuals than a like number in England.

In a similar manner--though I do not regard the analogy as

complete--infanticide or the exposition of children was practised in some

of the early Greek States by parents who were completely healthy and

normal; in England a married woman who destroys her child is in nearly

every case demonstrably diseased or abnormal. For this reason I am unable

to see that homosexuality in ancient Greece--while of great interest as a

social and psychological problem--throws light on sexual inversion as we

know it in England or the United States.

Concerning the wide prevalence of sexual inversion and of homosexual

phenomena generally, there can be no manner of doubt.

This question has

been most fully investigated in Germany. In Berlin, Moll states that he

has himself seen between 600 and 700 homosexual persons and heard of some

250 to 350 others. Hirschfeld states that he has known over 10,000

homosexual persons.

There are, I am informed, several large cafés in Berlin which are almost

exclusively patronized by inverts who come here to flirt and make

acquaintances; as these cafés are frequented by male street prostitutes

(Pupenjunge) the invert risks being blackmailed or robbed if he goes home

or to a hotel with a café acquaintance. There are also a considerable

number of homosexual _Kneipen_, small and unpretentious bar-rooms, which

are really male brothels, the inmates being sexually normal working men

and boys, out of employment or in quest of a few marks as pocket money;

these places are regarded by inverts as very safe, as the proprietors

insist on good order and allow no extortion, while the police, though of

course aware of their existence, never interfere.

Homosexual cafés for

women are also found in Berlin.

There is some reason for believing that homosexuality is especially

prominent in Germany and among Germans. I have elsewhere referred to the

highly emotional and sentimental traits which have frequently marked

German friendships. Germany is the only country in which there is a

definite and well-supported movement for the defense and social

rehabilitation of inverts. The study of sexual inversion began in Germany,

and the scientific and literary publications dealing with homosexuality

issued from the German press probably surpass in quantity and importance

those issued from all other countries put together. The homosexual

tendencies of Germans outside Germany have been noted in various

countries. Among my English cases I have found that a strain of German

blood occurs much more frequently than we are entitled to expect; Parisian

prostitutes are said to be aware of the homosexual tastes of Germans; it

is significant that (as a German invert familiar with Turkey informed

Näcke), at Constantinople, the procurers, who naturally supply girls as

well as youths, regard Germans and Austrians as more tending to

homosexuality than the foreigners from any other land.

Germans usually

deny, however, that there is any special German proclivity to inversion,

and it would not appear that such statistics as are available (though all

such statistics cannot be regarded as more than approximations) show any

pronounced predominance of inversion among Germans. It is to Hirschfeld

that we owe the chief attempt to gain some notion of the percentage of

homosexual persons among the general population.[104] It may be said to

vary in different regions and more especially in different occupations,

from 1 to 10 per cent. But the average when the individuals belonging to a

large number of groups are combined is generally found to be rather over 2

per cent. So that there are about a million and a half inverted persons in

Germany.[105] This would be a minimum which can scarcely fail to be below

the actual proportion, as no one can be certain that he is acquainted with

the real proclivities of all the persons comprising a larger group of

acquaintances.[106] It is not found in the estimates which have reached

Hirschfeld that the French groups show a smaller proportion of homosexual

persons than the German groups, and a Japanese group comes out near to

the general average for the whole. Various authorities, especially

Germans, believe that homosexuality is just as common in France as in

Germany.[107] Saint-Paul ("Dr. Laupts"), on the other hand, is unable to

accept this view. As an army surgeon who has long served in Africa he can

(as also Rebierre in his _Joyeux et demifous_) bear witness to the

frequency of homosexuality among the African battalions of the French

army, especially in the cavalry, less so in the infantry; in the French

army generally he finds it rare, as also in the general population.[108]

Näcke is also inclined to believe that homosexuality is rarer in Celtic

lands, and in the Latin countries generally, than in Teutonic and Slavonic

lands, and believes that it may be a question of race.[109] The question

is still undecided. It is possible that the undoubted fact that

homosexuality is less conspicuous in France and the other Latin countries

than in Teutonic lands, may be due not to the occurrence of a smaller

proportion of congenital inverts in the former lands, but mainly to

general difference in temperament and in the social reaction.[110] The

French idealize and emphasize the place of women to a much greater degree

than the Germans, while at the same time inverts in France have much less

occasion than in Germany to proclaim their legal grievances. Apart from

such considerations as these it seems very doubtful whether inborn

inversion is in any considerable degree rarer in France than in Germany.

As to the frequency of homosexuality in England[111] and the United

States there is much evidence. In England its manifestations are well

marked for those whose eyes have once been opened. The manifestations are

of the same character as those in Germany, modified by social and national

differences, and especially by the greater reserve, Puritanism, and

prudery of England.[112] In the United States these same influences exert

a still greater effect in restraining the outward manifestations of

homosexuality. Hirschfeld, though so acute and experienced in the

investigation of homosexuality, states that when visiting Philadelphia and

Boston he could scarcely detect any evidence of homosexuality, though he

was afterward assured by those acquainted with local conditions that its

extension in both cities is "colossal." There have been numerous criminal

cases and scandals in the United States in which homosexuality has come to

the surface, and the very frequently occurring cases of transvestism or

cross-dressing in the States seem to be in a large proportion associated

with homosexuality.

In the opinion of some, English homosexuality has become much more

conspicuous during recent years, and this is sometimes attributed to the

Oscar Wilde case. No doubt, the celebrity of Oscar Wilde and the universal

publicity given to the facts of the case by the newspapers may have

brought conviction of their perversion to many inverts who were before

only vaguely conscious of their abnormality, and, paradoxical though it

may seem, have imparted greater courage to others; but it can scarcely

have sufficed to increase the number of inverts. Rather, one may say, the

development of urban life renders easier the exhibition and satisfaction

of this as of all other forms of perversion. Regarding the proportion of

inverts among the general population, it is very difficult to speak

positively. The invert himself is a misleading guide because he has formed

round himself a special coterie of homosexual persons, and, moreover, he

is sometimes apt to overestimate the number of inverts through the

misinterpretation of small indications that are not always conclusive.

The estimate of the ordinary normal person, feeling the ordinary disgust

toward abnormal phenomena, is also misleading, because his homosexual

acquaintances are careful not to inform him concerning their proclivities.

A writer who has studied the phenomena of homosexuality is apt to be

misguided in the same way as the invert himself, and to overestimate the

prevalence of the perversion. Striving to put aside this source of

fallacy, and only considering those individuals with whom I have been

brought in contact by the ordinary circumstances of life, and with whose

modes of feeling I am acquainted, I am still led to the conclusion that

the proportion is considerable. Among the professional and most cultured

element of the middle class in England, there must be a distinct

percentage of inverts which may sometimes be as much as 5 per cent.,

though such estimates must always be hazardous. Among women of the same

class the percentage seems to be at least double, though here the

phenomena are less definite and deep-seated. This seems to be a moderate

estimate for this class, which includes, however, it must be remembered, a

considerable proportion of individuals who are somewhat abnormal in other

respects. As we descend the scale the phenomena are doubtless less common,

though when we reach the working class we come to that comparative

indifference to which allusion has already been made.

Taken altogether we

may probably conclude that the proportion of inverts is the same as in

other related and neighboring lands, that is to say, slightly over 2 per

cent. That would give the homosexual population of Great Britain as

somewhere about a million.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Taking all its forms _en bloc_, as they are known to the police,

homosexuality is seen to possess formidable proportions.

Thus in France,

from official papers which passed through M. Carlier's bureau during ten

years (1860-70), he compiled a list of 6342 pederasts who came within the

cognizance of the police; 2049 Parisians, 3709

provincials, and 584

foreigners. Of these, 3432, or more than the half, could not be convicted

of illegal acts.

[2] The chief general collection of data (not here drawn upon) concerning

homosexuality among animals is by the zoölogist Prof.

Karsch, "Päderastie

und Tribadie bei den Tieren," _Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol.

ii. Brehm's _Tierleben_ also contains many examples. See also a short

chapter (ch. xxix) in Hirschfeld's _Homosexualität_.

[3] H. Sainte-Claire Deville, "De l'Internat et son influence sur

l'education de la jeunesse," a paper read to the Académie des Sciences

Morales et Politiques, July 27, 1871, and quoted by Chevalier,

_L'Inversion Sexuelle_, pp. 204-5.

[4] M. Bombarda, _Comptes rendus Congrès Internationale de l'Anthropologie

Criminelle_, Amsterdam, p. 212.

[5] Lacassagne, "De la Criminalité chez les Animaux,"

_Revue

Scientifique_, 1882.

[6] Steinach, "Utersuchungen zu vergleichende Physiologie," _Archiv für

die Gesammte Physiologie_, Bd. lvi, 1894, p. 320.

[7] Féré, _Comptes-rendus Société de Biologie_, July 30, 1898. We may

perhaps connect this with an observation of E. Selous (_Zoölogist_, May

and Sept., 1901) on a bird, the Great Crested Grebe; after pairing, the

male would crouch to the female, who played his part to him; the same

thing is found among pigeons. Selous suggests that this is a relic of

primitive hermaphroditism. But it may be remembered that in the male

generally sexual intercourse tends to be more exhausting than in the

female; this fact would favor a reversion of their respective parts.

[8] E. Selous, "Sexual Selection in Birds," _Zoölogist_, Feb., 1907, p.

65; ib., May, p. 169. Sexual aberrations generally are not uncommon among

birds; see, e.g., A. Heim, "Sexuelle Verirrungen bei Vögeln in den

Tropen," _Sexual-Probleme_, April, 1913.

[9] See Moll, _Untersuchungen über die Libido Sexualis_, 1898, Bd. i, pp.

369, 374-5. For a summary of facts concerning homosexuality in animals see

F. Karsch, "Päderastie und Tribadie bei den Tieren auf Grund der

Literatur," _Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd.

ii, 1899, pp.

126-154

[10] Muccioli, "Degenerazione e Criminalità nei Colombi," _Archivio di

Psichiatria_, 1893, p. 40.

[11] _L'Intermédiare des Biologistes_, November 20, 1897.

[12] R.I. Pocock, _Field_, 25 Oct., 1913.

[13] R.S. Rutherford, "Crowing Hens," _Poultry_, January 26, 1896.

[14] This has now been very thoroughly done by Prof. F.

Karsch-Haack in a

large book, _Das Gleichgeschlechtliche Leben der Naturvölker_, 1911. An

earlier and shorter study by the same author was published in the

_Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. iii, 1901.

[15] See a brief and rather inconclusive treatment of the question by

Bruns Meissner, "Assyriologische Studien," iv, _Mitteilungen der

Vorderasiatischen Gesellschaft_, 1907.

[16] _Monatshefte für praktische Dermatologie_, Bd.

xxix, 1899, p. 409.

[17] Hirschfeld, _Die Homosexualität_, p. 739.

[18] Beardmore also notes that sodomy is "regularly indulged in" in New

Guinea on this account. (_Journal of the Anthropological Institute_, May,

1890, p. 464.)

[19] I have been told by medical men in India that it is specially common

among the Sikhs, the finest soldier-race in India.

[20] Foley, _Bulletin Société d'Anthropologie de Paris_, October 9, 1879.

[21] See, e.g., O. Kiefer, "Plato's Stellung zu Homosexualität," _Jahrbuch

für sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol. vii.

[22] Bethe, op. cit., p. 440. In old Japan (before the revolution of 1868)

also, however, according to F.S. Krauss (_Das Geschlechtsleben der

Japaner_, ch. xiii, 1911), the homosexual relations between knights and

their pages resembled those of ancient Greece.

[23] _Archiv für Kriminal-Anthropologie_, 1906, p. 106.

[24] _Zeitschrift für Sexualwissenschaft_, 1914, Heft 2, p. 73.

[25] Among the Sarts of Turkestan a class of well-trained and educated

homosexual prostitutes, resembling those found in China and many regions

of northern Asia, bearing also the same name of _batsha_, are said to be

especially common because fostered by the scarcity of women through

polygamy and by the women's ignorance and coarseness.

The institution of

the _batsha_ is supposed to have come to Turkestan from Persia. (Herman,

"Die Päderastie bei den Sarten," _Sexual-Probleme_, June, 1911.) This

would seem to suggest that Persia may have been a general center of

diffusions of this kind of refined homosexuality in northern Asia.

[26] Morache, art. "Chine," _Dictionnaire Encyclopédique des Sciences

Médicales_; Matignon, "La Péderastie en Chine,"

_Archives d'Anthropologie

Criminelle_, Jan., 1899; Von der Choven, summarized in _Archives de

Neurologie_, March, 1907; Scié-Ton-Fa, "L'Homosexualité en Chine," _Revue

de l'Hypnotisme_, April, 1909.

[27] _Moeurs des Peuples de l'Inde_, 1825, vol. i, part ii, ch. xii. In

Lahore and Lucknow, as quoted by Burton, Daville describes "men dressed as

women, with flowing locks under crowns of flowers, imitating the feminine

walk and gestures, voice and fashion of speech, ogling their admirer with

all the coquetry of bayaderes."

[28] _Voyages and Travels_, 1814, part ii, p. 47.

[29] A. Lisiansky, _Voyage, etc._, London, 1814, p.

1899.

[30] _Ethnographische Skizzen_, 1855, p. 121.

[31] C.F.P. von Martius, _Zur Ethnographie Amerika's_, Leipzig, 1867, Bd.

i, p. 74. In Ancient Mexico Bernal Diaz wrote: _Erant quasi omnes sodomia

commaculati, et adolescentes multi, muliebriter vestiti, ibant publice,

cibum quarentes ab isto diabolico et abominabili labore_.

[32] Hammond, _Sexual Impotence_, pp. 163-174.

[33] _New York Medical Journal_, Dec. 7, 1889.

[34] J. Turnbull, "_A Voyage Round the World in the Year 1800_," etc.,

1813, p. 382.

[35] _Annales d'Hygiène et de Médecine Coloniale_, 1899, p. 494.

[36] Oskar Baumann, "Conträre Sexual-Erscheinungen bei die

Neger-Bevölkerung Zanzibars," _Zeitschrift für Ethnologie_, 1899, Heft 6,

p. 668.

[37] Rev. J.H. Weeks, _Journal Anthropological Institute_, 1909, p. 449. I

am informed by a medical correspondent in the United States that inversion

is extremely prevalent among American negroes. "I have good reason to

believe," he writes, "that it is far more prevalent among them than among

the white people of any nation. If inversion is to be regarded as a

penalty of 'civilization' this is remarkable. Perhaps, however, the Negro,

_relatively to his capacity_, is more highly civilized than we are; at any

rate his civilization has been thrust upon him, and not acquired through

the long throes of evolution. Colored inverts desire white men as a rule,

but are not averse to men of their own race. I believe that 10 per cent,

of Negroes in the United States are sexually inverted."

[38] Among the Papuans of German New Guinea, where the women have great

power, marriage is late, and the young men are compelled to live separated

from the women in communal houses. Here, says Moskowski (_Zeitschrift für

Ethnologie_, 1911, Heft 2, p. 339), homosexual orgies are openly carried

on.

[39] C.G. Seligmann, "Sexual Inversion Among Primitive Races," _Alienist

and Neurologist_, Jan., 1902. In a tale of the Western Solomon Islands,

reported by J.C. Wheeler (_Anthropophyteia_, vol. ix, p.

376) we find a

story of a man who would be a woman, and married another man and did

woman's work.

[40] Hardman, "Habits and Customs of Natives of Kimberley, Western

Australia," _Proceedings Royal Irish Academy_, 3d series, vol. i, 1889, p.

73.

[41] Klaatsch, "Some Notes on Scientific Travel Amongst the Black

Populations of Tropic Australia," Adelaide meeting of _Australian

Association for the Advancement of Science_, January, 1907, p. 5.

[42] In further illustration of this I have been told that among the

common people there is often no feeling against connection with a woman

_per anum_.

[43] Chevalier (_L'Inversion Sexuelle_, pp. 85-106) brings forward a

considerable amount of evidence regarding homosexuality at Rome under the

emperors. See also Moll, _Konträre Sexualempfindung_, 1899, pp. 56-66, and

Hirschfeld, _Homosexualität_, 1913, pp. 789-806. On the literary side,

Petronius best reveals the homosexual aspect of Roman life about the time

of Tiberius.

[44] J.A. Symonds wrote an interesting essay on this subject; see also

Kiefer, _Jahrbuch f. sex. Zwischenstufen_, vol. viii, 1906.

[45] See L. von Scheffler, "Elagabal," _Jahrbuch f. sex.

Zwischenstufen_,

vol. iii, 1901; also Duviquet, _Héliogabale (Mercure de France_).

[46] The following note has been furnished to me:

"Balzac, in _Une

Dernière Incarnation de Vautrin_, describes the morals of the French

_bagnes_. Dostoieffsky, in _Prison-Life in Siberia_, touches on the same

subject. See his portrait of Sirotkin, p. 52 et seq., p.

120 (edition J.

and R. Maxwell, London). We may compare Carlier, _Les Deux Prostitutions_,

pp. 300-1, for an account of the violence of homosexual passions in French

prisons. The initiated are familiar with the fact in English prisons.

Bouchard, in his _Confessions_, Paris, Liseux, 1881, describes the convict

station at Marseilles in 1630." Homosexuality among French recidivists at

Saint-Jean-du-Maroni in French Guiana has been described by Dr. Cazanova,

_Arch. d'Anth. Crim._, January, 1906, p. 44. See also Davitt's _Leaves

from a Prison Diary_, and Berkman's _Prison Memoirs of an Anarchist_; also

Rebierre, _Joyeux et Demifous_, 1909.

[47] D. McMurtrie, _Chicago Medical Recorder_, January, 1914.

[48] See Appendix A: "Homosexuality among Tramps," by

"Josiah Flynt."

[49] _Inferno_, xv. The place of homosexuality in the _Divine Comedy_

itself has been briefly studied by Undine Freün von Verschuer, _Jahrbuch

für sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. viii, 1906.

[50] Hirschfeld and others have pointed out, very truly, that inverts are

less prone than normal persons to regard caste and social position. This

innately democratic attitude renders it easier for them than for ordinary

people to rise to what Cyples has called the "ecstasy of humanity," the

emotional attitude, that is to say, of those rare souls of whom it may be

said, in the same writer's words, that "beggars' rags to their

unhesitating lips grew fit for kissing because humanity had touched the

garb." Edward Carpenter (_Intermediate Types among Primitive Folk_, p. 83)

remarks that great ethical leaders have often exhibited feminine traits,

and adds: "It becomes easy to suppose of those early figures--who once

probably were men--those Apollos, Buddhas, Dionysus, Osiris, and so

forth--to suppose that they too were somewhat bisexual in temperament, and

that it was really largely owing to that fact that they were endowed with

far-reaching powers and became leaders of mankind."

[51] English translation, _Primitive Folk_, in Contemporary Science

series.

[52] R. Horneffer, _Der Priester_, 2 vols., 1912. J.G.

Frazer, in the

volume entitled "Adonis, Attis, Osiris" (pp. 428-435) of the third edition

of his _Golden Bough_, discusses priests dressed as women, and finds

various reasons for the custom.

[53] Edward Carpenter, _Intermediate Types among Primitive Folk_, 1914.

[54] Westermarck, _Origin and Development of Moral Ideas_, vol. ii, ch.

xliii.

[55] "Italian literature," remarks Symonds, "can show the _Rime

Burlesche_, Becadelli's _Hermaphroditus_, the _Canti Carnascialeschi_, the

Macaronic poems of Fidentius, and the remarkably outspoken romance

entitled _Alcibiade Fanciullo a Scola_."

[56] The life of Muret has been well written by C.

Dejob, _Marc-Antoine

Muret_, 1881.

[57] F.M. Nichols, _Epistles of Erasmus_, vol. i, pp.

44-55.

[58] Burckhardt, _Die Kultur der Renaissance_, vol. ii, _Excursus_ ci.

[59] F. de Gaudenzi in ch. v of his _Studio Psico-patologico sopra T.

Tasso_ (1899) deals fully with the poet's homosexual tendencies.

[60] Herbert P. Horne, _Leonardo da Vinci_, 1903, p. 12.

[61] S. Freud, _Eine Kindheitserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci_, 1910.

[62] See Parlagreco, _Michelangelo Buonarotti_, Naples, 1888; Ludwig von

Scheffler, _Michelangelo: Ein Renaissance Studie_, 1892; _Archivo di

Psichiatria_, vol. xv, fasc. i, ii, p. 129; J.A.

Symonds, _Life of

Michelangelo_, 1893; Dr. Jur. Numa Praetorius, "Michel Angelo's

Urningtum," _Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol.

ii, 1899, pp,

254-267.

[63] J.A. Symonds, _Life of Michelangelo_, vol. ii, p.

384.

[64] Sodoma's life and temperament have been studied and his pictures

copiously reproduced by Elisár von Kupffer, _Jahrbuch für sexuelle

Zwischenstufen_, Bd. ix, 1908, p. 71 et seq., and by R.H. Hobart Cust,

_Giovanni Antonio Bazzi_.

[65] Cellini, _Life_, translated by J.A. Symonds, introduction, p. xxxv,

and p. 448. Queringhi (_La Psiche di B. Cellini_, 1913) argues that

Cellini was not homosexual.

[66] See the interesting account of Duquesnoy by Eekhoud (_Jahrbuch für

sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. ii, 1899), an eminent Belgian novelist who

has himself been subjected to prosecution on account of the pictures of

homosexuality in his novels and stories, _Escal-Vigor_

and _Le Cycle

Patibulaire_ (see _Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. iii, 1901).

[67] See Justi's _Life of Winkelmann_, and also Moll's _Die Konträre

Sexualempfindung_, third edition, 1899, pp. 122-126. In this work, as well

as in Raffalovich's _Uranisme et Unisexualité_, as also in Moll's

_Berühmte Homosexuelle_ (1910) and Hirschfeld's _Die Homosexualität_, p.

650 et seq., there will be found some account of many eminent men who are,

on more or less reliable grounds, suspected of homosexuality. Other German

writers brought forward as inverted are Platen, K.P.

Moritz, and Iffland.

Platen was clearly a congenital invert, who sought, however, the

satisfaction of his impulses in Platonic friendship; his homosexual poems

and the recently published unabridged edition of his diary render him an

interesting object of study; see for a sympathetic account of him, Ludwig

Frey, "Aus dem Seelenleben des Grafen Platen," _Jahrbuch für sexuelle

Zwischenstufen_, vols. i and vi. Various kings and potentates have been

mentioned in this connection, including the Sultan Baber; Henri III of

France; Edward II, William II, James I, and William III of England, and

perhaps Queen Anne and George III, Frederick the Great and his brother,

Heinrich, Popes Paul II, Sixtus IV, and Julius II, Ludwig II of Bavaria,

and others. Kings, indeed, seem peculiarly inclined to homosexuality.

[68] Schultz, _Das Höfische Leben_, Bd. i, ch. xiii.

[69] _De Planctu Naturæ_ has been translated by Douglas Moffat, _Yale

Studies in English_, No. xxxvi, 1908.

[70] P. de l'Estoile, _Mémoires-Journaux_, vol. ii, p.

326.

[71] Laborde, _Le Palais Mazarin_, p. 128.

[72] Thus she writes in 1701 (_Correspondence_, edited by Brunet, vol. i,

p. 58): "Our heroes take as their models Hercules, Theseus, Alexander, and

Cæsar, who all had their male favorites. Those who give themselves up to

this vice, while believing in Holy Scripture, imagine that it was only a

sin when there were few people in the world, and that now the earth is

populated it may be regarded as a _divertissement_.

Among the common

people, indeed, accusations of this kind are, so far as possible, avoided;

but among persons of quality it is publicly spoken of; it is considered a

fine saying that since Sodom and Gomorrah, the Lord has punished no one

for such offences."

[73] Sérieux and Libert, "La Bastille et ses Prisonniers," _L'Encéphale_,

September, 1911.

[74] Witry, "Notes Historiques sur l'Homosexualité en France," _Revue de

l'Hypnotisme_, January, 1909.

[75] In early Teutonic days there was little or no trace of any punishment

for homosexual practices in Germany. This, according to Hermann Michaëlis,

only appeared after the Church had gained power among the West Goths; in

the Breviarium of Alaric II (506), the sodomist was condemned to the

stake, and later, in the seventh century, by an edict of King

Chindasvinds, to castration. The Frankish capitularies of Charlemange's

time adopted ecclesiastical penances. In the thirteenth and fourteenth

centuries death by fire was ordained, and the punishments enacted by the

German codes tended to become much more ferocious than that edicted by the

Justinian code on which they were modelled.

[76] Raffalovich discusses German friendship, _Uranisme et Unisexualité_,

pp. 157-9. See also Birnbaum, _Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd.

viii, p. 611; he especially illustrates this kind of friendship by the

correspondence of the poets Gleim and Jacobi, who used to each other the

language of lovers, which, indeed, they constantly called themselves.

[77] This letter may be found in Ernst Schur's _Heinrich von Kleist in

seinen Briefen_, p. 295. Dr. J. Sadger has written a pathographic and

psychological study of Kleist, emphasizing the homosexual strain, in the

_Grenzfragen des Nerven- und Seelenlebens_ series.

[78] Alexander's not less distinguished brother, Wilhelm von Humboldt,

though not homosexual, possessed, a woman wrote to him,

"the soul of a

woman and the most tender feeling for womanliness I have ever found in

your sex;" he himself admitted the feminine traits in his nature. Spranger

(_Wilhelm von Humboldt_, p. 288) says of him that "he had that dual

sexuality without which the moral summits of humanity cannot be reached."

[79] Krupp caused much scandal by his life at Capri, where he was

constantly surrounded by the handsome youths of the place, mandolinists

and street arabs, with whom he was on familiar terms, and on whom he

lavished money. H.D. Davray, a reliable eyewitness, has written "Souvenirs

sur M. Krupp à Capri," _L'Européen_, 29 November, 1902.

It is not,

however, definitely agreed that Krupp was of fully developed homosexual

temperament (see, e.g., _Jahrbuch f. sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. v, p.

1303 et seq.) An account of his life at Capri was published in the

_Vorwärts_, against which Krupp finally brought a libel action; but he

died immediately afterward, it is widely believed, by his own hand, and

the libel action was withdrawn.

[80] Madame, the mother of the Regent, in her letters of 12th October, 4th

November, and 13th December, 1701, repeatedly makes this assertion, and

implies that it was supported by the English who at that time came over to

Paris with the English Ambassador, Lord Portland. The King was very

indifferent to women.

[81] Anselm, Epistola lxii, in Migne's _Patrologia_, vol. clix, col. 95.

John of Salisbury, in his _Polycrates_, describes the homosexual and

effeminate habits of his time.

[82] Pollock and Maitland, _History of English Law_, vol. ii, p. 556.

[83] Coleridge in his _Table Talk_ (14 May, 1833) remarked: "A man may,

under certain states of the moral feeling, entertain something deserving

the name of love towards a male object--an affection beyond friendship,

and wholly aloof from appetite. In Elizabeth's and James's time it seems

to have been almost fashionable to cherish such a feeling. Certainly the

language of the two friends Musidorus and Pyrocles in the _Arcadia_ is

such as we could not use except to women." This passage of Coleridge's is

interesting as an early English recognition by a distinguished man of

genius of what may be termed ideal homosexuality.

[84] See account of Udall in the _National Dictionary of Biography_.

[85] _Complete Poems of Richard Barnfield_, edited with an introduction by

A.B. Grosart, 1876. The poems of Barnfield were also edited by Arber, in

the English Scholar's Library, 1883. Arber, who always felt much horror

for the abnormal, argues that Barnfield's occupation with homosexual

topics was merely due to a search for novelty, that it was "for the most

part but an amusement and had little serious or personal in it." Those

readers of Barnfield, however, who are acquainted with homosexual

literature will scarcely fail to recognize a personal preoccupation in his

poems. This is also the opinion of Moll in his _Berühmte Homosexuelle_.

[86] See appendix to my edition of Marlowe in the _Mermaid Series_, first

edition. For a study of Marlowe's "Gaveston," regarded as "the

hermaphrodite in soul," see J.A. Nicklin, _Free Review_, December, 1895.

[87] As Raffalovich acutely points out, the twentieth sonnet, with its

reference to the "one thing to my purpose nothing," is alone enough to

show that Shakespeare was not a genuine invert, as then he would have

found the virility of the loved object beautiful. His sonnets may fairly

be compared to the _In Memoriam_ of Tennyson, whom it is impossible to

describe as inverted, though in his youth he cherished an ardent

friendship for another youth, such as was also felt in youth by Montaigne.

[88] A scene in Vanbrugh's _Relapse_, and the chapter (ch. li) in

Smollett's _Roderick Random_ describing Lord Strutwell, may also be

mentioned as evidencing familiarity with inversion. "In our country," said

Lord Strutwell to Rawdon, putting forward arguments familiar to modern

champions of homosexuality, "it gains ground apace, and in all probability

will become in a short time a more fashionable vice than simple

fornication."

[89] These observations on eighteenth century homosexuality in London are

chiefly based on the volumes of _Select Trials_ at the Old Bailey,

published in 1734.

[90] Numa Praetorius (_Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, Bd. iv, p.

885), who has studied Byron from this point of view, considers that,

though his biography has not yet been fully written on the sexual side, he

was probably of bisexual temperament; Raffalovich (_Uranisme et

Unisexualité_, p. 309) is of the same opinion.

[91] A youthful attraction of this kind in a poet is well illustrated by

Dolben, who died at the age of nineteen. In addition to a passion for

Greek poetry he cherished a romantic friendship of extraordinary ardor,

revealed in his poems, for a slightly older schoolfellow, who was never

even aware of the idolatry he aroused. Dolben's life has been written, and

his poems edited, by his friend the eminent poet, Robert Bridges (_The

Poems of D.M. Dolben_, edited with a Memoir by R.

Bridges, 1911).

[92] A well-informed narrative of the Oscar Wilde trial is given by

Raffalovich in his _Uranisme et Unisexualité_, pp. 241-281; the full

report of the trial has been published by Mason. The best life of Wilde is

probably that of Arthur Ransome. André Gide's little volume of

reminiscences, _Oscar Wilde_ (also translated into English), is well worth

reading. Wilde has been discussed in relation to homosexuality by Numa

Praetorius (_Jahrbuch für sexuelle Zwischenstufen_, vol.

iii, 1901). An

instructive document, an unpublished portion of _De Profundis_, in which

Wilde sought to lay the blame for his misfortune on a friend,--his

"ancient affection" for whom has, he declares, been turned to "loathing,

bitterness, and contempt,"--was published in the _Times_, 18th April,

1913; it clearly reveals an element of weakness of character.

[93] T. Wright, _Life of Edward Fitzgerald_, vol. i, p.

158.

[94] Most of these were carelessly lost or destroyed by Posh. A few have

been published by James Blyth, _Edward Fitzgerald and_

'_Posh_,' 1908.

[95] It is as such that Whitman should be approached, and I would desire

to protest against the tendency, now marked in many quarters, to treat him

merely as an invert, and to vilify him or glorify him accordingly. However

important inversion may be as a psychological key to Whitman's

personality, it plays but a small part in Whitman's work, and for many who

care for that work a negligible part. (I may be allowed to refer to my own

essay on Whitman, in _The New Spirit_, written nearly thirty years ago.)

[96] I may add that Symonds (in his book on Whitman) accepted this letter

as a candid and final statement showing that Whitman was absolutely

hostile to sexual inversion, that he had not even taken its phenomena into

account, and that he had "omitted to perceive that there are inevitable

points of contact between sexual inversion and his doctrine of

friendship." He recalls, however, Whitman's own lines at the end of

"Calamus" in the Camden edition of 1876:--

"Here my last words, and the most baffling, Here the frailest leaves of me, and yet my strongest-lasting,

Here I shade down and hide my thoughts--I do not expose them,

And yet they expose me more than all my other poems."

[97] Whitman's letters to Peter Doyle, an uncultured young tram-conductor

deeply loved by the poet, have been edited by Dr. Bucke, and published at

Boston: _Calamus: A Series of Letters_, 1897.

[98] Whitman acknowledged, however (as in the letter to Symonds already

referred to), that he had had six children; they appear to have been born

in the earlier part of his life when he lived in the South. (See a chapter

on Walt Whitman's children in Edward Carpenter's interesting book, _Days

with Walt Whitman_, 1906.) Yet his brother George Whitman said: "I never

knew Walt to fall in love with young girls, or even to show them marked

attention." And Doyle, who knew him intimately during ten years of late

life, said: "Women in that sense never came into his head." The early

heterosexual relationship seems to have been an exception in his life.

With regard to the number of children I am informed that, in the opinion

of a lady who knew Whitman in the South, there can be no reasonable doubt

as to the existence of one child, but that when enumerating six he

possibly included grandchildren.

[99] While the homosexual strain in Walt Whitman has been more or less

definitely admitted by various writers, the most vigorous attempts to

present the homosexual character of his personality and work are due to

Eduard Bertz in Germany, and to Dr. W.C. Rivers in England. Bertz has

issued three publications on Whitman: see especially his _Der

Yankee-Heiland_, 1906, and _Whitman-Mysterien_, 1907.

The arguments of

Rivers are concisely stated in a pamphlet entitled _Walt Whitman's

Anomaly_ (London: George Allen, 1913). Both Bertz and Rivers emphasize the

feminine traits in Whitman. An interesting independent picture of Whitman,

at about the date of the letter to Symonds, accompanied by the author's

excellent original photographs, is furnished by Dr. John Johnston, _A

Visit to Walt Whitman_, 1898. It may be added that, probably, both the

extent and the significance of the feminine traits in Whitman have been

overestimated by some writers. Most artists and men of genius have some

feminine traits; they do not prove the existence of inversion, nor does

their absence disprove it. Dr. Clark Bell writes to me in reference to the

little book by Dr. Rivers: "I knew Walt Whitman personally. To me Mr.

Whitman was one of the most robust and virile of men, extraordinarily so.

He was from my standpoint not feminine at all, but physically masculine

and robust. The difficulty is that a virile and strong man who is poetic

in temperament, ardent and tender, may have phases and moods of passion

and emotion which are apt to be misinterpreted." A somewhat similar view,

in opposition to Bertz and Rivers, has been vigorously set forth by

Bazalgette (who has written a very thorough study of Whitman in French),

especially in the _Mercure de France_ for 1st July, 1st Oct., and 15th

Nov., 1913.

[100] Lepelletier, in what may be regarded as the official biography of

Verlaine (_Paul Verlaine_, 1907) seeks to minimize or explain away the

homosexual aspect of the poet's life. So also Berrichon, Rimbaud's

brother-in-law, _Mercure de France_, 16 July, 1911 and 1

Feb., 1912. P.

Escoube, in a judicious essay (included in _Préférences_, 1913), presents

a more reasonable view of this aspect of Verlaine's temperament. Even

apart altogether from the evidence as to the poet's tendency to passionate

friendship, there can be no appeal from the poems themselves, which

clearly possess an absolute and unquestionable sincerity.

[101] Sir Richard Burton, who helped to popularize this view, regarded the

phenomenon as "geographical and climatic, not racial,"

and held that

within what he called the Sotadic Zone "the vice is popular and endemic,

held at the worst to be a mere peccadillo, while the races to the north

and south of the limits here defined practice it only sporadically, amid

the opprobrium of their fellows, who, as a rule, are physically incapable

of performing the operation, and look upon it with the liveliest disgust."

He adds: "The only physical cause for the practice which suggests itself

to me, and that must be owned to be purely conjectural, is that within the

Sotadic Zone there is a blending of the masculine and feminine

temperaments, a crasis which elsewhere only occurs sporadically" (_Arabian

Nights_, 1885, vol. x, pp. 205-254). The theory of the Sotadic Zone fails

to account for the custom among the Normans, Celts, Scythians, Bulgars,

and Tartars, and, moreover, in various of these regions different views

have prevailed at different periods. Burton was wholly unacquainted with

the psychological investigations into sexual inversion which had, indeed,

scarcely begun in his day.

[102] Spectator (_Anthropophyteia_, vol. vii, 1910), referring especially

to the neighborhood of Sorrento, states that the southern Italians regard

passive _pedicatio_ as disgraceful, but attach little or no shame to

active _pedicatio_. This indifference enables them to exploit the

homosexual foreigners who are specially attracted to southern Italy in the

development of a flourishing homosexual industry.

[103] It is true that in the solitude of great modern cities it is

possible for small homosexual coteries to form, in a certain sense, an

environment of their own, favorable to their abnormality; yet this fact

hardly modifies the general statement made in the text.

[104] See especially Hirschfeld, _Die Homosexualität_, chs. xxiv and xxv.

[105] Ulrichs, in his _Argonauticus_, in 1869, estimated the number as

only 25,000, but admitted that this was probably a decided underestimate.

Bloch (_Die Prostitution_, Bd. i, p. 792) has found reason to believe that

in Cologne in the fifteenth century the percentage was nearly as high as

Hirschfeld finds it today. A few years earlier Bloch had believed

(_Beiträge_, part i, p. 215, 1902) that Hirschfeld's estimate of 2 per

cent, was "sheer nonsense."

[106] Hirschfeld mentions the case of two men, artists, one of them

married, who were intimate friends for a great many years before each