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MAINTENANCE

OF

WATERFRONT

FACILITIES

ARMY

TM-5-622

NAVY

MO-104

AIR FORCE

AFM 91-34

JUNE 1978

DEPARTMENTS OF THE ARMY,

THE NAVY AND THE AIR FORCE

NAVY:

SNDL: (2 copies each unless otherwise noted)

Part 1:

21A, 27G, 39B, 49, 51D1

Part 2:

A1 (I&L only), A2A (ONR only), A3, A4A, A5, A6

B5 (Wash DC only-25 copies)

C4F9, C4F6, C4F8 (San Clemente and Fallbrook only), C4F36, C4K

E3A (Wash DC only), E3C

FA6, FA7, FA10, FA18, FA23, FA24, FA25 (10 copies)

FB6 (Atsugi only), FB7, FB10, FB13, FB21, FB26, FB28, FB30, FB33, FB34, FB36

FC1, FC3, FC4, FC5, FC7, FC12

FE4 (Chesapeake, Edzell, Adak, Hanza, Homestead, Sabana Seca, Skaggs Isl., Winter Harbor only) FF1 (Wash DC only), FF3, FF19, FF38

FG2, FG3 (Cutter, Cheltenham, Thurso only), FG6 (Oahu only)

FKA1, FKA6A, FKA8,

FKM3, FKM8, FKM9 (Oakland only), FKM13, FKM15

FKN1 (25 copies), FKN2, FKN3, FKN5 (10 copies), FKN8, FKN10

FKP1B, FKP1E, FKP1J, FKP7 (5 copies), FKP14, FKP1M

FKR1A, FKR3C, FKR3G, FKR3H, FKR4B

FR1, FR3, FR4

FT1, FT6, FT22, FT28, FT37 (10 copies), FT55, FT73, FT78

V5, V8, V12, V16, V23

Additional copies may be obtained from:

U.S. Naval Publications and Forms Center

5801 Tabor Avenue

Philadelphia, PA 19120

AIR FORCE:

F

ARMY:

To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-34B, Requirements for TM 5-600 Series: Facilities Engineering:

Maintenance and Operation of Facilities.

ii

FOREWORD

This manual prescribes the criteria and procedures for inspection, maintenance, and repair of waterfront facilities at military installations. It establishes maintenance standards for and provides guidance for the selection, use, and installation of standard materials and equipment that will perform satisfactorily.

The use of the systems and procedures described in this publication, by personnel who have the responsibility for specifications, requisitions, procurement, inspection, storage, issue, application, and safety, should assure uniform, economical, and satisfactory maintenance and repair. When information in this publication varies from that contained in the latest issue of Federal or Military Specifications, the(se) Specification(s) shall apply. Reference to Federal, Military, or other Specifications is to the current issues of these specifications as identified by their basic number(s). In case of doubt, advice concerning any procedure may be obtained from:

(1)

Department of the Army Office of the Chief of Engineers DAEN-FEB

(2)

Department of the Navy Naval Facilities Engineering Command (1013) or its geographic Engineering Field Division (102)

(3)

Department of the Air Force Directorate of Engineering and Services AF/PRE

Recommendations or suggestions for modification, or additional information and instructions that will improve the publication and motivate its use, are invited and should be submitted through appropriate channels to the addresses listed above.

This publication supersedes Army TM-5-622 of 13 June 1946 and NAVDOCKS MO-104 of July 1963. It is certified that it has been reviewed and approved for official use in the Navy in accordance with Secretary of the Navy Instruction 5600.16.

iii

By Order of the Secretaries of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force:

BERNARD W. ROGERS

General, United States Army

Chief of Staff

Official:

J. C. PENNINGTON

Brigadier General, United States Army

The Adjutant General

D. G. ISELIN

Rear Admiral, CEC, US Navy, Commander

Naval Facilities Engineering Command

DAVID C. JONES, General, USAF

Chief of Staff

Official:

JAMES J. SHEPARD, Colonel, USAF

Director of Administration

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

SECTION 1. GENERAL ..................................................................................................................

1-1

Purpose....................................................................................................................................

1-1

Scope.......................................................................................................................................

1-1

Cooperation and Coordination ..................................................................................................

1-1

SECTION 2. JOINT SERVICE RESPONSIBILITY...........................................................................

1-1

Army ........................................................................................................................................

1-1

Navy ........................................................................................................................................

1-2

Air Force. .................................................................................................................................

1-2

SECTION 3. MAINTENANCE STANDARDS, POLICIES, AND CRITERIA ......................................

1-3

Standards.................................................................................................................................

1-3

Engineering ..............................................................................................................................

1-3

Related Published Material.......................................................................................................

1-3

SECTION 4. TERMINOLOGY .........................................................................................................

1-4

Primary Considerations ............................................................................................................

1-4

Types of Structures ..................................................................................................................

1-4

SECTION 5. PLANNING .................................................................................................................

1-9

Programming ...........................................................................................................................

1-9

Economic Requirement ............................................................................................................

1-9

Causes of Deterioration ............................................................................................................

1-9

Inspection.................................................................................................................................

1-9

SECTION 6. PREPARATION FOR WORK. ....................................................................................

1-10

Field Measurements .................................................................................................................

1-10

As-Built Drawings .....................................................................................................................

1-10

Sketches ..................................................................................................................................

1-10

Checking Structural Stability.....................................................................................................

1-10

SECTION 7. ACCESS TO WORK...................................................................................................

1-10

Divers.......................................................................................................................................

1-10

Rafts and/or Barges..................................................................................................................

1-10

v

page

Scaffolds .................................................................................................................................. 1-11

Ladders .................................................................................................................................... 1-11

Excavations.............................................................................................................................. 1-12

SECTION 8. SAFETY ..................................................................................................................... 1-12

Instructions............................................................................................................................... 1-12

Personal Protection .................................................................................................................. 1-12

Barricades and Safety Lines ..................................................................................................... 1-13

Traffic Control .......................................................................................................................... 1-13

Protection from Mechanical Damage........................................................................................ 1-13

Berthing.................................................................................................................................... 1-13

Currents ................................................................................................................................... 1-13

Changes in Tides...................................................................................................................... 1-14

CHAPTER 2 - TIMBER STRUCTURES

SECTION 1. PRESERVATION OF WOOD ..................................................................................... 2-1

Preservative Treatment ............................................................................................................ 2-1

Wood Destroying Organisms .................................................................................................... 2-1

Preservative Materials.............................................................................................................. 2-2

Pressure Treatment.................................................................................................................. 2-4

Handling of Treated Wood........................................................................................................ 2-5

Seasoning Checks or Cracks .................................................................................................... 2-6

Hardware.................................................................................................................................. 2-6

SECTION 2. INSPECTION ............................................................................................................. 2-6

Exposed Areas ......................................................................................................................... 2-6

Submerged Sections ................................................................................................................ 2-7

SECTION 3. - MAINTENANCE ......................................................................................................... 2-7

Replacement ............................................................................................................................ 2-7

Repair . .................................................................................................................................... 2-12

CHAPTER 3 - CONCRETE STRUCTURES

SECTION 1. CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY...................................................................................... 3-1

vi

page

Definition of Concrete...............................................................................................................

3-1

Components of Concrete..........................................................................................................

3-1

Desirable Properties of Concrete ..............................................................................................

3-2

Special Concretes for Waterfront Structures.............................................................................

3-3

SECTION 2. CAUSES AND TYPES OF DETERIORATION ............................................................

3-5

Causes of Concrete Deterioration. ............................................................................................

3-5

Types of Concrete Damage ......................................................................................................

3-6

SECTION 3. METHODS OF INSPECTION .....................................................................................

3-6

Visual . .....................................................................................................................................

3-6

Mechanical ...............................................................................................................................

3-7

Electronic .................................................................................................................................

3-8

SECTION 4. REPAIR METHODS ...................................................................................................

3-8

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................

3-8

Dry-Pack Mortar .......................................................................................................................

3-9

Cast-In-Place Concrete ............................................................................................................

3-10

Shotcrete..................................................................................................................................

3-13

Prepacked Concrete .................................................................................................................

3-13

Tremie Concrete ......................................................................................................................

3-14

Pumped Concrete ....................................................................................................................

3-14

Epoxy Resin .............................................................................................................................

3-15

Protective Coatings ..................................................................................................................

3-16

CHAPTER 4 - STONE MASONRY STRUCTURES

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................

4-1

Background ..............................................................................................................................

4-1

Design......................................................................................................................................

4-1

SECTION 2. METHOD OF INSPECTION .......................................................................................

4-1

Visual .......................................................................................................................................

4-1

Settlement................................................................................................................................

4-1

Documentation .........................................................................................................................

4-3

vii

page

SECTION 3. METHODS OF REPAIR . ...........................................................................................

4-3

Engineering Investigation .........................................................................................................

4-3

Weep Holes .............................................................................................................................

4-3

Shrinkage Cracks .....................................................................................................................

4-3

Tuck-Pointing ...........................................................................................................................

4-3

Grouting ...................................................................................................................................

4-4

CHAPTER 5 - RUBBLE-MOUND STRUCTURES

SECTION 1. STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS .................................................................................

5-1

Mound ......................................................................................................................................

5-1

Rubble......................................................................................................................................

5-1

Riprap ......................................................................................................................................

5-1

SECTION 2. CAUSES AND TYPES OF DETERIORATION ............................................................

5-3

Types of Damage .....................................................................................................................

5-3

Structural Damage ...................................................................................................................

5-3

SECTION 3. INSPECTION .............................................................................................................

5-5

Components .............................................................................................................................

5-5

Drainage ..................................................................................................................................

5-5

SECTION 4. METHODS OF REPAIR .............................................................................................

5-5

As-Built Drawings .....................................................................................................................

5-5

Replacing Components ............................................................................................................

5-5

CHAPTER 6 - STRUCTURES INVOLVING SOIL

SECTION 1. SOIL DESCRIPTION ..................................................................................................

6-1

Waterfront Use ........................................................................................................................

6-1

Definition..................................................................................................................................

6-1

Soil Classification .....................................................................................................................

6-1

SECTION 2. SOIL PLACEMENT ....................................................................................................

6-2

Types of Soil ...........................................................................................................................

6-2

Compaction Control..................................................................................................................

6-2

Types of Compaction ...............................................................................................................

6-3

viii

page

SECTION 3. INSPECTION .............................................................................................................

6-3

SECTION 4. REPAIR......................................................................................................................

6-3

Erosion.....................................................................................................................................

6-3

Sealing .....................................................................................................................................

6-4

Dewatering ...............................................................................................................................

6-4

Grouting ...................................................................................................................................

6-4

CHAPTER 7 - STEEL STRUCTURES

SECTION 1. CORROSION .............................................................................................................

7-1

Definition of Corrosion..............................................................................................................

7-1

Types of Marine Corrosion .......................................................................................................

7-1

SECTION 2. PROTECTIVE COATINGS .........................................................................................

7-1

Protection.................................................................................................................................

7-1

Surface Preparation .................................................................................................................

7-3

Recommended Coatings ..........................................................................................................

7-3

Coating Application ..................................................................................................................

7-3

Inspection of Coating................................................................................................................

7-4

SECTION 3. CATHODIC PROTECTION.........................................................................................

7-4

Definition..................................................................................................................................

7-4

Types of Systems.....................................................................................................................

7-4

SECTION 4. SUBSTITUTE MATERIALS FOR STEEL....................................................................

7-5

Alloys .......................................................................................................................................

7-5

Plastics.....................................................................................................................................

7-6

Rubber .....................................................................................................................................

7-7

SECTION 5. INSPECTION .............................................................................................................

7-7

General Considerations ............................................................................................................

7-7

Inspection Techniques..............................................................................................................

7-7

Specific Structures ...................................................................................................................

7-8

SECTION 6. MAINTENANCE OF STEEL STRUCTURES...............................................................

7-15

Structural Considerations .........................................................................................................

7-15

ix

page

Piling ........................................................................................................................................ 7-16

Supporting Components ........................................................................................................... 7-19

Utility Lines............................................................................................................................... 7-19

Mooring Fittings........................................................................................................................ 7-20

Drydocks .................................................................................................................................. 7-20

Floating Structures ................................................................................................................... 7-20

CHAPTER 8 - PLASTIC AND ELASTOMERIC STRUCTURES

SECTION 1. TYPES OF MATERIALS............................................................................................. 8-1

Fiberglass- Reinforced Plastics ................................................................................................ 8-1

Foams ...................................................................................................................................... 8-1

Rubbers.................................................................................................................................... 8-1

Plastic Wraps ........................................................................................................................... 8-1

Adhesives and Putties .............................................................................................................. 8-4

SECTION 2. CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES............................................................................... 8-4

Lay-Up Construction ................................................................................................................. 8-4

Spray-Up Construction ............................................................................................................. 8-4

Filament Winding ..................................................................................................................... 8-4

Foaming In-Place ..................................................................................................................... 8-4

Pier Wrapping .......................................................................................................................... 8-4

Patching In-Place ..................................................................................................................... 8-4

REFERENCES ................................ ........................................................................................................... Reference-1

GLOSSARY ................................ ................................................................................................................ Glosssary-1

Appendix A - Diver Inspection of Structures ................................................................................................ A-1

Appendix B - Inspection, Documentation, Maintenance, and

Certification of Graving Docks............................................................................................... B-1

INDEX ................................................................................................................................................. Index-1

x

FIGURES

No.

page

1-1

Open-type pier ....................................................................................................................

1-5

1-2

Example of a wharf .............................................................................................................

1-5

1-3

Example of a dolphin ..........................................................................................................

1-5

1-4

Graving dock with ship installed ..........................................................................................

1-6

1-5

Example of a marine railway ...............................................................................................

1-6

1-6

Example of a vertical lift drydock ........................................................................................

1-6

1-7

A quaywall ..........................................................................................................................

1-7

1-8

Example of a mole ..............................................................................................................

1-7

1-9

Example of a jetty ...............................................................................................................

1-7

1-10

Example of the placement of a breakwater..........................................................................

1-8

1-11

A groin ................................................................................................................................

1-8

1-12

Example of a seawall ..........................................................................................................

1-8

2-1

Example of brown rot ..........................................................................................................

2-1

2-2

Destruction of wooden piers by marine borers .....................................................................

2-2

2-3

Bankia (shipworm) infestation of wood planking ..................................................................

2-3

2-4

Surface of creosoted piling infested with Limnoria ...............................................................

2-3

2-5

Pier components .................................................................................................................

2-4

2-6

Fire-curtain wall.................................................................................................................. .

2-6

2-7

Wood pile replacement .......................................................................................................

2-8

2-8

Stringer splice .....................................................................................................................

2-9

2-9

Repair of string piece ..........................................................................................................

2-10

2-10

100% deterioration of chocks, lower wales, and fender piles ...............................................

2-11

2-11

Replacing tops of piles ........................................................................................................

2-12

2-12

A flexible PVC barrier installed on wooden piles..................................................................

2-13

2-13

Fender pile repair ................................................................................................................

2-14

3-1

Effect of water/cement ratio on 28-day compressive, flexural,

and tensile strengths.......................................................................................................

3-3

3-2

Exposure zones ..................................................................................................................

3-5

3-3

Concrete piles in advanced stage of deterioration ...............................................................

3-7

3-4

Sawtooth bit used to cut a slot for dry-packing ....................................................................

3-9

3-5

Excavation of irregular area of defective concrete where top of

hole is cut at two levels...................................................................................................

3-11

3-6

Details of forms for concrete replacement in bulkheads.......................................................

3-12

3-7

Typical squeeze-type concrete pump ..................................................................................

3-15

4-1

Masonry graving dock .........................................................................................................

4-2

4-2

Types of deterioration that will require repair .......................................................................

4-2

5-1

Concrete armor units...........................................................................................................

5-2

5-2

Cross section of semipermeable rubble-mound groin ..........................................................

5-4

5-3

Rubble-mound breakwater ..................................................................................................

5-4

5-4

Cave-in, indicating settlement of mole ................................................................................

5-6

5-5

The grouted sheating of face of a breakwater, which is exposed

to storms ........................................................................................................................

5-7

7-1

Galvanic system of cathodic protection ...............................................................................

7-5

7-2

Impressed current system of cathodic protection .................................................................

7-5

xi

FIGURES (continued)

No.

page

7-3

Typical example of corrosion damage to sheet piling ...........................................................

7-9

7-4

Hole in sheet piling causing soil subsidence . .......................................................................

7-9

7-5

Example of utility line properly emplaced .............................................................................

7-9

7-6

Examples of mooring fittings ................................................................................................

7-16

7-7

Repair of corroded steel pile.................................................................................................

7-17

7-8

Concrete-protected steel sheet piling....................................................................................

7-18

7-9

Repairing tie rods .................................................................................................................

7-19

8-1

Fiberglass-reinforced plastic mooring buoy ..........................................................................

8-2

8-2

Pontoon filled with urethane foam to impart buoyancy..........................................................

8-2

8-3

Synthetic rubber molded into pile cap. Shape keeps birds from

landing and snow from collecting.....................................................................................

8-3

8-4

PVC barrier being installed around marine-borer-damaged pile............................................

8-3

A-1

Cross section of piles with different damage ratings .............................................................

A-5

B-1

Designation of drydock features ...........................................................................................

B-5

TABLES

3-1

Relationship Between Methods of Expressing Water-to-

Cement Ratio ..................................................................................................................

3-2

3-2

Gradation of Aggregates for Tremie Concrete ......................................................................

3-4

7-1

Types of Corrosion ...............................................................................................................

7-2

7-2

Inspection Checkpoints for Utility Distribution Systems.........................................................

7-10

A-1

Inspection of Specific Structures ..........................................................................................

A-3

B-1

Inspection Frequencies ........................................................................................................

B-6

B-2

Inspection Checkoff List .......................................................................................................

B-7

B-3

Coating Systems for Maintenance of Drydocking Facilities...................................................

B-17

xii

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION

SECTION 1. GENERAL

1.1.1 PURPOSE. This manual is a guide for military

the installation departments concerned should be

personnel and civilian forces who are concerned with

continuous. Programs of properly planned and

the maintenance and repair of waterfront structures and

executed maintenance operations prevent undesirable

related facilities.

interruptions of production on military installations.

Measures for the protection of supplies in storage must

1.1.2 SCOPE. This manual, together with References

be coordinated with the storage service primarily

1-1, 1-2, and 1-3, describes the principal causes of

responsible for the care and preservation of stored

deterioration and failure of waterfront structures and

items. Supply officers, through normal channels,

facilities and prescribes measures for the maintenance

provide standard items of materials and equipment for

and repair of these installations to retain them in

waterfront maintenance.

continuous readiness for use by the Fleet and in military

marine operations. The scope of the maintenance and

1.1.3.2 Interservice and Interdepartmental

repair shall be governed by the present and proposed

Functions. Cooperation and coordination in conducting

future use of the structures and facilities, their

waterfront maintenance are encouraged at all levels of

anticipated life, and the cost of repair as compared to

command. Appropriate liaison should be established

complete rebuilding.

and maintained between major commands and

installations in a geographical area. Cross-service

1.1.3 COOPERATION AND COORDINATION.

assistance shall be provided as necessary in the

interests of economy and maximum utilization of

1.1.3.1 Intraservice Functions. Cooperation and

manpower and equipment.

coordination of waterfront maintenance activities among

SECTION 2. JOINT SERVICE RESPONSIBILITY

1.2.1 ARMY. Staff, command, and technical

Requests for assistance should be forwarded

responsibility for maintenance and repair of waterfront

through channels to the Director of Facilities

structures at Army installations will conform to

Engineering, DAEN-FEZ, Office, Chief of Engineers,

assignments set forth in AR 420-10 [1-4].

Forrestal Building, Washington, D.C. 20314.

1-1

1.2.2 NAVY.

(3)

Dynamic Equipment Inspection/ Service

(preventive maintenance) programs

1.2.2.1 Naval Facilities Engineering Command. The

(4)

Trained and qualified personnel to

Naval Facilities Engineering Command is responsible

accomplish effective maintenance

for the provision of services to the operating forces of

(5)

Periodic supervisory personnel training,

the Navy in regard to shore facilities and related

education, and certification in maintenance programs

engineering material and equipment. This Command

that utilize work improvement maintenance techniques.

provides technical support, advice, and assistance

(6)

Inspections and instructions to assure that

regarding maintenance of grounds, buildings, and

labor, materials, and equipment are used properly and

structures and related services. This authority is

safely in accordance with pertinent regulations, and that

delegated to the Commanders and Commanding

operations are planned and supervised by qualified

Officers of NAVFAC's Engineering Field Divisions

personnel.

(EFDs) who provide overall technical guidance in

(7)

Coordination with civilian and other

operations and maintenance matters to these shore

governmental agencies that have similar maintenance

installations.

capabilities.

1.2.2.2 Commanding Officer. The Commanding

1.2.2.4 Engineering Field Divisions. Design and

Officer at each Naval shore installation is responsible

assistance for maintenance and repair are available at

for providing an adequate maintenance program. These

NAVFAC's Engineering Field Divisions. They also have

responsibilities are usually delegated to the Public

special expertise and responsibilities for wood

Works Centers or Public Works Departments, as

preservation. They can provide the latest available

appropriate.

information on specifications and procedures for wood

preservatives and treatments.

1.2.2.3 Public Works Center/Public Works

Department. At each Naval and Marine Corps

1.2.3 AIR FORCE.

Installation, the Commanding Officer of a Public Works

Center or the Public Works Officer is responsible to the

1.2.3.1 Directives. Policy and standards for the

activity Commanding Officer for the provision of:

maintenance, repair, and minor construction of

waterfront structures are set forth in Air Force Manuals

(1)

Inspections and surveys to determine and

85-1 and 86-1 [1-6, 1-7].

identify defective conditions (NAVFAC MO-322 [1-5]

sets up guidelines for inspection. It includes guides,

1.2.3.2 Major Command Level. Design and assistance

check-off forms, reports, and record systems to be used

for maintenance and repair are available at each Major

in the program.)

Command. Each major command will:

(2)

Recommendations for maintenance

standards and procedures that affect industrial

production or military operations.

1-2

(1)

Insure that effective preventive and

publication.

corrective maintenance measures are established and

accomplished at all installations under its jurisdiction.

1.2.3.3 Air Force Installations. The Base Civil

(2)

Provide qualified technical supervision for

Engineer will:

personnel engaged in these operations.

(3)

Provide for training of personnel engaged

(1)

Plan, initiate, and supervise the execution

in maintenance.

of maintenance.

(4)

Make certain that base civil engineer

(2)

Insure that in-house maintenance

personnel engaged in direct field supervision of

personnel are trained.

maintenance operations, or those who function

(3)

Investigate the occurrence of and reasons

independently of direct supervision, are technically

for failures and accidents.

competent and thoroughly familiar with the performance

(4)

Inspect and determine the effectiveness

of all phases of this activity, as outlined in this

of safety measures.

SECTION 3. MAINTENANCE STANDARDS, POLICIES, AND CRITERIA

1.3.1 STANDARDS. The standards or criteria contained

The services of qualified technical personnel will be

in this manual have been developed by the Army, Navy,

used to assist in the establishment of waterfront

and Air Force with the concurrence and approval of the

maintenance programs. A glossary of waterfront terms

Assistant Secretary of Defense (I&L). Compliance with

is provided in the back of this manual.

these standards is mandatory in order that the

maintenance of waterfront facilities at military

1.3.3 RELATED PUBLISHED MATERIAL.

installations will be uniform, will adequately support the

Requirements for the design and construction of

operational missions of the installations, and will permit

waterfront facilities are found in References 1-2, 1-3,

interservice assistance and support, where possible, in

and 1-8 through 1-13. References 1-14 and 1-15 are

the interest of efficiency and economy.

manuals prepared by the American Association of Port

Authorities on port design and construction and on port

1.3.2 ENGINEERING. The need and accomplishment

maintenance, respectively. Reference 1-16 is especially

of major repairs and rehabilitation of existing waterfront

important relative to inspection of waterfront structures.

facilities will be based on experience, judgment, and/or

Reference to other published materials, which provide

engineering evaluation. When waterfront structures are

related or more extensive information on specific areas

in an inactive status, the maintenance policies will be

of waterfront maintenance, is made where appropriate

consistent with the anticipated future mission of the

throughout this manual and its Appendixes.

installation and in accordance with the inactivation plan.

1-3

SECTION 4. TERMINOLOGY

1.4.1 PRIMARY CONSIDERATIONS. The upkeep of

waterfront structures and other harbor facilities falls into

1.4.1.4 Control of Marine Organisms. This control

the following areas of consideration: (1) Inspection, (2)

begins with the use of materials resistant to marine

Maintenance, (3) Repair and Reconstruction, and (4)

organisms when waterfront structures and other harbor

Control of Marine Organisms.

facilities are designed and constructed. The control is a

continuing requirement involving the taking of all known

1.4.1.1 Inspection. Inspection is the act of checking,

corrective measures and providing effective

visually and mechanically, the condition of facilities.

countermeasures to inhibit the growth of destructive

This inspection should be performed on a routine basis,

organisms in waterfront facilities.

as indicated in this manual. The evaluation of the

inspections will determine the degree of hazard involved

1.4.2 TYPES OF STRUCTURES. Waterfront facilities

with each structure. This degree of hazard will be used

are structures and facilities that provide service for:

to determine the priority sequence of repair and the

extent of repair required.

(1)

Transferring ordnance, other cargo, and

passengers

1.4.1.2 Maintenance. Maintenance is the recurrent

(2)

Refueling ships

day-to-day, periodic, or scheduled work that is required

(3)

Storing goods

to preserve or restore a facility to such a condition that it

(4)

Supplying utilities to home-based vessels

can be effectively utilized for its designed purpose. It

(5)

Berthing, constructing, overhauling, and

includes work undertaken to prevent damage to or

repairing ships

deterioration of a facility that otherwise would be more

(6)

Conducting military marine operations

costly to restore. Drainage is the single most important

(7)

Protecting the shoreline

maintenance procedure. Water on, in, below, above, or

anywhere near a structure creates special maintenance

1.4.2.1 Pier. A pier (Figure 1-1) is a deck structure

problems.

supported above the water on piles (open type), a solid-

fill structure retained by bulkheads (closed type with

1.4.1.3 Repair and Reconstruction. Repair is the