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Benito Pérez Galdós was born May 10, 1843, in Las Palmas, Grand CanaryIsland. The first school he attended was kept by English people; henceperhaps his great admiration for the English. He showed an early andlasting talent for music and drawing. In 1864 or 1865 he went alone toMadrid to study law, which he disliked. He made slow progress, butcompleted the course in 1869. Latin was his favorite study, and he neverpractised law.

His first writing was done for Madrid newspapers; he reported sessionsof the Cortes, and wrote all sorts of general articles.

During thisperiod he wrote two poetic dramas, never performed.

His failure to gainthe stage turned him to the novel, and he did not again attempt dramatill 1892. Dickens and Balzac most influenced his conception of thenovel. His first book, La fontana de oro, was published in 1870; thefirst of the Episodios nacionales, Trafalgar, in 1873. Since thenthe Episodios reached the number of forty-six; the Novelas de laprimera época (those based on history rather than on observation),seven; the Novelas españolas contemporáneas (based on observation),twenty-four; dramas and comedies, twenty-one; opera, one.

Galdós was never entirely dependent on his pen for his living; he alwayshad a slight income from family property. He never married. He traveledall over Europe at different times, and made a special study of Spain,journeying third class, in carriage and on horse, throughout thecountry, always by day, and usually in the company of a servant.Fondness for children was a distinctive trait. In 1897 he became amember of the Spanish Academy. He was a liberal deputy for Porto Ricofrom 1886 to 1890. In 1907

he was elected deputy from Madrid by theRepublican party, and retained the post for some years, but without anyliking for politics. In 1912 he became completely blind.

For many years he published his own works from the famous office atHortaleza 132; but handling no other books and cheated by anunscrupulous partner, he finally had to transfer the business to aregular firm. Galdós' novels have enjoyed an enormous sale, but at thelow price of two or three pesetas a volume, instead of the customaryfour or five. In 1914 Galdós was represented as in poverty, for reasonsnever made clear, and a public subscription opened for his benefit; anepisode sadder for the sponsors than for him. He died on Jan. 4, 1920.


I. The Background. —The closing decades of the nineteenth century saw acurious state of affairs in the drama of Spain. They were years whendogmatic naturalism, with its systematically crude presentation of life,was at its height in France, and France, during the nineteenth century,had more often than not set the fashion for Spain in literary matters.The baldness of Zola and the pessimism of de Maupassant were quicklytaken up on the French stage, and Henri Becque and the Théâtre libre served slices of raw life to audiences fascinated by a tickling horror.The same naturalism had, indeed, crossed the Pyrenees and found a fewhalf-hearted disciples among Spanish novelists, but, on the whole,Spanish writers resolutely refused to follow this particular Frenchcurrent.

During the years from 1874 to 1892, when Europe was permeated with thenew doctrine, the stage of Spain was dominated by one man, who gave nosign that he had ever heard the name of Zola. José Echegaray held theaudiences of Madrid for twenty years with his hectic and rhetoricalplays. The great dramatic talent of this mathematician and politiciandrew upon the cheap tricks of Scribe and the appalling situations ofSardou, and combined them with a few dashes of Ibsenian thesis and thehistorical pundonor, to form a dose which would harrow the vitals ofthe most hardened playgoer. Only a gift of sonorous, rather hollowlyrism and a sincere intention to emphasize psychology saved the work ofthis belated Romanticist from being the cheapest melodrama.

Romanticism is never wholly out of season in Spain, and that isdoubtless why the art of Echegaray held its own so long, for it wasneither novel nor especially perfect. In spite of the solitary andunrewarded efforts of Enrique Gaspar, a Spanish John the Baptist ofrealism in the drama, the reaction was slow in coming, and the year 1892may be said to mark its arrival. That was the date of Realidad, PérezGaldós' first drama. Two years later Jacinto Benavente made his débutwith El nido ajeno. In 1897

the brothers Quintero produced their firstcharacteristic work. It will be seen that although the contemporary eraof literature in Spain is generally considered to date from theSpanish-American war, the remarkable efflorescence of her drama was wellunder way before that event. The new school, of which Pérez Galdós isadmitted to be the father, is a school of literary and social progress,vitally interested in a new Spain, where the conditions of life may bemore just.

II. Galdós Turns from Novel to Drama. —When Realidad was performed,Galdós was the most popular novelist in Spain, the peer of any in hisown generation, and the master of the younger men of letters. He wasknown as a radical, an anti-clerical, who exercised a powerful influenceupon the thought of his nation, but, above all, as a marvelous creatorof fictional characters. He had revealed Spain to herself in nineteennovels of manners, and evoked her recent past in twenty historicalnovels.

He had proved, in short, that in his own sphere he was one ofthe great vital forces of modern times.

What persuaded this giant of the novel to depart from the field of hismastery and attempt the drama, in which he was a novice?

Was it becausehe desired a more direct method of influencing public opinion inSpain?[1] Was it, as Sra. Pardo Bazán suggests, with the hope ofinfusing new life into the Spanish national drama, which had been toolong in a rut? Both these motives may have been present, but I do notdoubt that the chief was the pure creative urge, the eagerness of anexplorer to conquer an unknown region. The example of certain Frenchnovelists, his contemporaries, was not such as to encourage him. Zola,Daudet, de Maupassant, the de Goncourts, had all tried the drama withindifferent success or failure. But Galdós held the theory[2]

that noveland drama are not essentially different arts, that the rules of one arenot notably divergent from the rules of the other.

Few or no dramaticcritics will subscribe to this opinion, which explains most of theweaknesses of Galdós' plays.

Again, Galdós had been working toward a dramatic form in his novels, bythe increasing use of pure dialog and the exclusion of narrative anddescription. This tendency culminated in the novelas dialogadas, Elabuelo and Realidad, and, later, in Casandra and La razón de lasinrazón. The inner reason for the gradual shift toward dialog wasincreasing interest in human motives and character, and a correspondingdistaste for colorful description. Galdós had never, like Pereda, takengreat delight in word pictures per se, though his early novels containsome admirable ones, and as he grew older his genius was more and moreabsorbed in the study of man.

His transition to the drama was not, then, so abrupt as might appear.But two things were against his success. First, few writers haveapproached the stage with so poor a practical equipment. His friendsassure us that, cut off as Galdós was from social diversions by hiscontinuous writing, he had hardly attended the theater once from hisuniversity days till the performance of Realidad, although it is truethat his lack of practical experience was compensated at first by thepersonal advice of a trained impresario, don Emilio Mario. Second, thedrama is above all the genre of condensation, and Galdós, even as anovelist, never condensed. His art was not that of the lapidary, noreven that of the short story writer. He has few novelas cortas to hiscredit, and he required pages and pages to develop a situation or acharacter.

III. His Dramatic Technique.—His Success. —It is not to be wondered at,then, that Galdós found himself hampered by the time limit of the play.He uttered now and then rather querulous protests against theconventions (artificial, as he regarded them) which prevented him fromdeveloping his ideas with the richness of detail to which he wasaccustomed.[3] Such complaints are only confessions of weakness on thepart of an author. One has only to study the first five pages of anycomedy of the brothers Quintero to see how a genuine theatrical talentcan make each character define itself perfectly with its first fewspeeches. To such an art as this Galdós brought a fertile imagination,the habit of the broad canvas, a love of multiplying secondary figures,and of studying the minutiae of their psychology. Only by sheer geniusand power of ideas could he have succeeded in becoming, as he did, atruly great dramatist. Naturally enough, he never attained the technicalskill of infinitely lesser playwrights. His usual defects are, as onewould suppose, clumsy exposition, superfluous minor characters andscenes, mistakes in counting upon a dramatic effect where the audiencefound none, and tedious dilution of a situation. Bad motivation andunsustained characters are rarer. The unity of time is observed in Pedro Minio and Alceste; the unity of place, in Voluntad and Eltacaño Salomón.

Galdós was not an imitator of specific foreign models. His first play, Realidad, was a pure expression of his own genius. But it placed himat once in the modern school which aims to discard the factitiousdevices of the "well-made" play, and to present upon the stage a pictureof life approximately as it is. If he frequently deviated from thisideal (the farthest in La de San Quintín), it was due more to hisinnate romanticism, of which we shall speak later, than to a strainingfor effect. Never, except in the play just named, did he restore to thestock coincidences of Scribe and Pinero.

In the modern drama the conduct of the plot is of secondary importance,and character, ideas and dialog become the primary elements. In thefirst two Galdós needed no lessons. In naturalness and intensity ofdialog he never reached the skill which distinguishes the pure dramatictalents of contemporary Spain: Benavente, the Quintero brothers, LinaresRivas. Galdós'

dialog varies considerably in vitality, and it may happenthat it is spirited and nervous in some plays otherwise weak

( Electra, Celia en los infiernos), while in others, intrinsically more important( Amor y ciencia, Mariucha), it inclines toward rhetoric. Realidad and El abuelo, however, are strong plays strongly written. Galdósnever succeeded in forging an instrument perfectly adapted to his needs,like the Quinteros'

imitation of the speech of real life, or Benavente'sconventional literary language. It took him long to get rid of theold-fashioned soliloquy and aside. In his very last works, however, in Sor Simona and Santa Juana de Castilla, as in the novels Elcaballero encantado and La razón de la sinrazón, Galdós, throughsevere self-discipline, attained a fluidity and chastity of style whichplace him among the most distinguished masters of pure Castilian.

But at the same time signs of flagging constructive energy began toappear. Pedro Minio and the plays after it reveal a certainslothfulness of working out. The writer shrinks from the labor requiredto extract their full value from certain situations and characters, andhe is prone to find the solution of the plot in a deus ex machina.Fortunately, the last drama, Santa Juana de Castilla, does not sufferfrom such weaknesses, and is, in its way, as perfect a structure as Elabuelo.

Galdós experienced almost every variety of reception from audiences. Itis not recorded that any play of his was ever hissed off the stage, but Gerona ended in absolute silence, and was not given after the firstnight. Los condenados was nearly as unsuccessful. His greatest triumphwas at the first performance of Electra, when the author was carriedhome on the shoulders of his admirers. La de San Quintín and Elabuelo were not far behind. But neither success nor failure made thedramatist swerve a hair's breadth in his methods. Firmly serene in hisconsciousness of artistic right, he kept on his way with characteristicstubbornness and impassivity. Only on two occasions did he allow thecriticisms of the press to goad him into a reply. In the prefaces to Los condenados and Alma y vida he defended those plays and explainedhis aims and methods with entire self-control and urbanity.[4] But henever deigned to cater to applause. The attack upon Los condenados didnot deter him from employing a similar symbolism and similar motifsagain; and, after the tremendous hit of Electra, he deliberatelychose, for Alma y vida, his next effort, a subject and style whichshould discourage popular applause.[5] Such was the modesty,unconsciousness and intellectual probity of this man.

IV. The Development of Galdós. —M. E. Martinenche, writing in 1906,classified the dramatic work of Galdós into three periods, and as hisclassification has sometimes been quoted, it may be worth while torepeat it. In the first period, according to him, which extends from Realidad to Los condenados, Galdós presented broad moral theses, andaccustomed his countrymen to witness on the stage the clash of ideasinstead of that of swords.

Then ( Voluntad to Alma y vida) henarrowed his subjects so as to present matters of purely nationalinterest. In the succeeding works ( Mariucha to Amor y ciencia), hestrove to unite Spanish color with philosophic breadth, and to lay asideeven the appearance of polemic. Such a classification is ingenious, but,we feel, untenable. Aside from the fact that M. Martinenche was notacquainted with Galdós' third play, Gerona, which does not fit intohis scheme, it seems apparent that there is no essential difference inlocalization between La de San Quintín of the first period and Mariucha of the third; and that the former has no more general thesisthan Voluntad, of the second. And later plays, such as Casandra of1910, so closely allied to Electra, have come to disturb thearrangement.

The only division by time which it is safe to attempt must be verygeneral. No one will dispute that in his last years Galdós rose to aless particular, a more broad and poetic vision, to describe which wecannot do better than to quote some words of Gómez de Baquero.[6] "Thelast works of Galdós, which belong to his allegorical manner, offer asharp contrast to the intense realism, so plastic and so picturesque,"of earlier writings. First he mastered inner motivation and minutedescription of external detail, and from that mastery he passed to "theart, rather vague and diffuse, though lofty and noble, of allegories, ofpersonifications of ideas, of symbols." This tendency appeared even asearly as Miau (1888), then in Electra, and more strongly in Alma yvida, in Bárbara, and in most of the later plays. "Tired of imitatingthe concrete figures of life, Galdós rose to the region of ideas. Hisspirit passed from the contemplation of the external to therepresentation of the inward life of individuals, and took delight inwandering in that serene circle where particular accidents are onlyshadows projected by the inner light of each person and of each theme.His style became poetic, a Pythagorean harmony, a distant music ofideas." These words apply especially to Alma y vida, Bárbara, SorSimona, and Santa Juana de Castilla, but they indicate in generalGaldós' growing simplicity of manner and his increasing interest inpurely moral qualities.

V. The Subject-matter of His Plays. —Rather than by time, it is betterto classify Galdós' plays by their subject-matter, although thedifferent threads are often tangled. Galdós had three central interestsin all his work, novels and dramas alike: the study of characters fortheir own sake; the national problems of Spain; the philosophy of life.

1. Character Study. —"Del misterio de las conciencias se alimentan lasalmas superiores," said Victoria in La loca de la casa (IV, 7), andthat phrase may serve as a guide to all his writings that are not purelyhistorical. The study of the human conscience, not propaganda, was thecentral interest of the early novel, Doña Perfecta, just as it was in Electra, and to a far greater degree in works of broader scope.

Yet the statement, often made, that Galdós was a realist, as if he wereprimarily an observer, a transcriber of life, requires to be modifiedwhere the dramas are concerned. Pure realism is present in his dramaticwork, but it does not occupy anything like the predominant place whichsome suppose. A "keen, minute, subtle study of the manners of humblefolk" ( Azorín) formed, indeed, the backbone of certain novels, but inthe later period, to which the plays belong, it was already overshadowedby other interests. In the dramas, realism is usually abandoned to thesecondary characters and the minor scenes. For genre studies of a purelyobserved type one may turn to the picture of a dry-goods store in Voluntad, to the parasites and the children in El abuelo, to thepeasants in Doña Perfecta and Santa Juana de Castilla, and to otherdetails, but hardly to any crucial scene or front-rank personage. Sotoo, Galdós'

humor, the almost unfailing accompaniment of his realism,is reserved for the background. Only in Pedro Minio, the sole truecomedy, is the chief figure a comic type. Not a single play of Galdós,not even Realidad, can be called a genuine realistic drama.

To demonstrate was Galdós' aim, not to entertain or to reproduce life.Hence, in the studies of unusual or mystical types, in which he grewsteadily more interested, one always feels the presence of a cerebral element; that is, one feels that these persons are not so much plastic,living beings as creations of a superior imagination. In this respectalso Galdós resembles Balzac. The plays having the largest proportion ofrealism are the most convincing. That is why Realidad, with itsimmortal three, La loca de la casa, with the splendidly-conceivedPepet, Bárbara, which contains extraordinarily successful studies ofcomplex characters, and especially El abuelo, with the lion of Albritand the fine group of cleanly visualized secondary characters, are theones which seem destined to live upon the stage.

We should like to emphasize the cerebral or intellectual quality ofGaldós' work, because it has been often overlooked. It contrasts sharplywith the naturalness of Palacio Valdés, the most human of Spain's recentnovelists. Nothing shows this characteristic of Galdós more clearly thanhis weakness in rendering the passion of love. The Quinteros, in theirslightest comedy, will give you a love-scene warm, living, straight fromthe heart. But the Galdós of middle age seemed to have lost thefreshness of his youthful passions, and Doña Perfecta, preciselybecause its story dated from his youth, is the only play which containsa really affecting love interest. Read the passional scenes of Mariucha, as of La fiera, Voluntad, or of any other, and you willsee that the intellectual interest is always to the fore. Examine thescene in Voluntad (II, 9) where Isidora, who has been living with alover and who has plucked up strength to break away from him, is soughtout by him and urged to return. The motif is precisely the same as thatused by the Quinteros in the third act of Las flores (Gabriel and RosaMaría), but a comparison of the handling will show that all theemotional advantage is in favor of the Quinteros. Galdós depicts apurely intellectual battle between two wills; while the creations of theAndalusian brothers vibrate with the intense passion of the human heart.For the same reason, Galdós, in remodeling Euripides' Alceste, wasunable to clothe the queen with the tenderness of the original, andsubstituted a rational motive, the desire to preserve Admetus for thegood of his kingdom, in the place of personal affection. The neglect ofthe sex problem in the dramas is indeed striking: in Amor y ciencia, Voluntad and Bárbara it enters as a secondary interest, but Realidad is the only play based upon it.

This may be the place to advert to Galdós' romantic tendencies, whichFrench critics have duly noted. In his plays Galdós, when imaginative,was incurably romantic, almost as romantic as Echegaray, and proof of itlies on every side. Sra.

Pardo Bazán coined his formula exactly when shechristened his dramatic genre "el realismo romántico-filosófico"( Obras, VI, 233). Many of the leading characters are pure romantictypes: the poor hero of unknown parentage, Víctor of La de SanQuintín; the outlaw beloved of a noble lady, José León, of Loscondenados; the redeemed courtesan, Paulina, of Amor y ciencia. Inhis fondness for the reapparition of departed spirits ( Realidad, Electra, Casandra, novela), a device decidedly out of place in themodern drama,[7] the same tendency crops out. Some of the speeches in Gerona (II, 12) might have been written in 1835; and the plot of Lafiera dates from the same era.

All this shows that Galdós was not, in the direction of pure realism, anoriginal creator. The Quintero brothers and Benavente excel him inpresenting a clear-cut profile of life, informed by a vivifying humanspirit.

2. National Problems. —Galdós is not the most skilled technician amongthe Spaniards who discuss, through the drama, the burning problems ofthe day. Linares Rivas excels him in this rather ephemeral branch ofdramaturgy. But Galdós has the great advantage of breadth. He is neverdidactic in the narrow sense.

He sometimes hints at a moral in the lastwords of a play, but he is never so lacking in artistic feeling as toexpound his thesis in set terms, like Echegaray and Brieux. Theintention speaks from the action.

Galdós has said that the three great evils which afflict Spain to-dayare the power of the Church, caciquismo or political bossism, and lafrescura nacional or brazen indifference to need of improvement. Allthree he tried to combat. In spite of the common belief, however, hisplays—thesis plays as they nearly all are in one way or another—seldomattack these evils directly.

Caciquismo is an issue only in Mariucha and Alma y vida, and in them occupies no more than a niche in thebackground. Sloth and degeneracy are a more frequent butt, and Voluntad, Mariucha, La de San Quintín, and, in less degree, Laloca de la casa, hold up to scorn the indolent members of thebourgeoisie or aristocracy,








motive,perhaps, Galdós devoted so much space to domestic finance. The oftenmade comparison with Balzac holds good also in the fluency with which hehandled complicated money transactions on paper, and in the businessembarrassment which overtook him in real life. He had a lurkingaffection for a spendthrift: witness Pedro Minio and El tacañoSalomón.

Against the organization of the Catholic Church Galdós harbored intensefeeling, yet he never displayed the bitterness which clericals are wontto impute to him. In view of his flaming zeal to remedy the backwardnessof Spain, a zeal so great as to force him into politics, which hedetested, Galdós' moderation is noteworthy. The dramas in which theclerical question appears are Electra, and Casandra. Doña Perfecta attacks, not the Church, but religious fanaticism, just as La fiera and Sor Simona attack political fanaticism; and the dramatist is sofar from showing bias that he allows each side to appear in its ownfavorable light. Thus, in Casandra, Doña Juana, the bigot, is a moreattractive figure personally than the greedy heirs. Doña Perfecta gives the impression of an inevitable tragic conflict between two stagesof culture, rather than of a murder instigated by the malice of any oneperson. One can even detect a growing feeling of kindliness toward theclergy themselves: there was a time when Galdós would not have chosen apriest to be the good angel of his lovers, as he did in Mariucha.

For Galdós was not only by nature impartial, but he was fundamentallyreligious. It may be necessary to stress this fact, but only for thosewho are not well acquainted with his work. If the direct testimony ofhis friend Clarín be needed, it is there ( Obras completas, I, 34); butcareful attention to his writings could leave no doubt of it. Máximo in Electra repeats, "I trust in God"; Los condenados and Sor Simona are full of Christian spirit, and the last play, Santa Juana deCastilla, is practically a confession of faith.

The problems which concern Galdós the dramatist are, then, not so oftenthe purely local ones of the Peninsula as broader social questions. Thepolitical tolerance which it is the aim of La fiera to induce, is notneeded by Spain alone, though perhaps there more urgent; the comity ofsocial classes eulogized in La de San Quintín, the courage and energyof Voluntad, the charity of Celia en los infiernos, the thrift of El tacaño Salomón, and the divine love of Sor Simona, would profitany nation. The loftier moral studies which we shall approach in thenext section are, of course, still more universal.

One point should be made clear at once, however, and that is thatGaldós, with regard to social questions, was neither a radical nor anoriginal thinker. When one considers the sort of ideas which had beenbandied about Europe under the impulse of Ibsen, Tolstoy andothers,—the Nietzschean doctrine of self-expression at any cost, theright of woman to live her own life regardless of convention, the newtheories of governmental organization or lack of organization—onecannot regard Galdós as other than a social conservative, who could beconsidered a radical nowhere outside of Spain. In how many plays does aconventional marriage furnish the facile cure for all varieties ofsocial affliction ( Voluntad, La de San Quintín, La fiera, Mariucha, etc.)! The only socialist whom he brings upon thestage—Víctor of La de San Quintín—has received an expensiveeducation from his father, and, though compelled to do manual labor, itis apparent that he is not concerned with any far-reaching rationalreorganization of society, but only with the betterment of his ownposition. In Celia en los infiernos, a mere broadcasting of coin bythe wealthy will relieve all suffering; in El tacaño Salomón, thedeath of a rich relative lifts the spendthrift out of straits before hehas reformed. It is clear that in this order of ideas Galdós is strictlyconventional.

Various possible attitudes may be adopted by one who sees political andsocial evils, and desires to abolish them. The natural conservativedreams of a benevolent despotism as the surest path to improvement. Thisattitude Galdós never held, for he was born an optimist, and believed inthe regenerative power of human nature. The natural liberal believes ina reform obtainable through radical propaganda in writing and at thepolls. Such a man was the Galdós of the early novels and of some of thedramas,—the Galdós of La de San Quintín, of Voluntad, of Mariucha, full of exhortations to labor and change as the hope ofredemption. Then, there is a third attitude, likely to be that of olderpersons, whom sad experience has led to despair of political action, andto believe that society can be improved only through a conversion of therace to loyalty and brotherly love; in short, through practicalapplication of the Christian virtues. This change in Galdós' point ofview was foreshadowed in Alma y vida, where one tyranny (absolutism)is replaced by another (parliamentarism);




injustice continue to reign among men." In his old age thereformer appeared to renounce his faith in vote or revolution, and toplace himself by the side of Tolstoy. The note which rings withincreasing clearness is that of charity, of the healing power of love.There is something pathetic in the spectacle of this powerful geniuswho, as the shadow of death drew near him, became more and more absorbedin spiritual problems, and less in practical ones. Amor y ciencia, Celia en los infiernos, Sor Simona, Santa Juana de Castilla,reiterate that love is the only force which can relieve the sufferingand injustice of the world.

And, in harmony with the gentle theme of thelast plays, their form becomes simple and even naïve, while thecharacters are enveloped in a vaporous softness which suffuses them witha halo of humane divinity.

3. Galdós' Philosophy. —Before passing to a consideration of Galdós'ideas, we should examine for a moment his manner of conveying them. Hewas able to express himself in forceful, direct language when he chose,but he came to prefer the indirect suggestion of symbolism.

Symbolism, of course, is nothing but a device by which a person or ideais made to do double duty; it possesses, besides its obvious, externalmeaning, another meaning parallel to that, but hidden, and which must besupplied by the intelligence of the reader or spectator.

The interpretation of a symbol may be more or less obvious, and theesoteric meaning may be conveyed in a variety of ways.

Galdós hasexpressed his opinion about the legitimate uses of symbolism in hisprefaces to Los condenados and Alma y vida, in passages capital forthe understanding of his methods. In the earlier work he said, "To mymind, the only symbolism admissible in the drama is that which consistsin representing an idea with material forms and acts." This he didhimself in the famous kneading scene of La de San Quintín, in thefusion of metal in the third act of Electra, etc. "That the figures ofa dramatic work should be personifications of abstract ideas, has neverpleased me." Personified abstractions Galdós never did, we believe,employ in his plays, though critics have sometimes credited him withsuch a use.[8] Nevertheless we should remember that precisely this kindof symbolism was very popular in Spain in the seventeenth century, andgave rise to the splendid literary art of the autos sacramentales.Galdós then goes on to refute the allegation of certain critics that hewas influenced by Ibsen.

"I admire and enjoy," he says, "those of Ibsen's dramas which are saneand clear, but those generally termed symbolic have been unintelligibleto me, and I have never found the pleasure in them which those may whocan disentangle their intricate meaning." What a curious statement, inthe light of the other preface, written eight years later! "Symbolism,"he there wrote,

"would not be beautiful if it were clear, with asolution which can be arrived at mechanically, like a charade. Leave itits dream-vagueness, and do not look for a logical explanation, or amoral like that of a child's tale. If the figures and acts were arrangedto fit a key, those who observe them would be deprived of the joy of apersonal interpretation.... Clearness is not a condition of art." DidGaldós change his mind in the interval between writing these twoprefaces? I think not. The change merely illustrates the difference inviewpoint between an author and a reader. For very, very many persons inhis audiences have regarded the symbolism of Los condenados (if it bethere), of Electra, of Casandra, of Pedro Minio, of Santa Juanade Castilla, and especially of Alma y vida and Bárbara, with thesame feeling of hopeless bewilderment which Galdós experienced when heread The Wild Duck, The Master-builder and The Lady from the Sea.To the creator his creation is clear and lovely.

Leaving aside the question of influence, it cannot be denied that thesymbolism of Galdós has much in common with that of Ibsen. Both have thedelightful vagueness which permits of diverse interpretations,—in Almay vida the author was obliged to come to the rescue with his ownversion; in neither is the identification of person and idea carried sofar that the character loses its definite human contour; and both areemployed to convey a profound philosophy.

What is Galdós' philosophy? First and foremost, he believed that nothingin life is too insignificant or too wicked to be entirely despised.Sympathy with everything human stands out even above his keenindignation against those who oppress the unfortunate. A search throughhis works will reveal few figures wholly bad, too wicked to receive sometouch of pity. César of La de San Quintín and Monegro of Alma y vida are probably the closest to stage villains, and this precisely becausethey are a part of the melodramatic elements of those plays, not of thecentral thought.

A corollary of his universal sympathy is the doctrine, not veryprofound or novel, that opposite qualities complement one another, andmust be joined in order to give life a happy completeness. This threadruns through many plays, sometimes unobtrusively, as in La fiera, Amor y ciencia, La de San Quintín, sometimes erected into the dogmaof primary concern, as in Alma y vida (the union of spirit andphysical vigor), La loca de la casa (evil and good, selfishness andsacrifice), and Voluntad (practical sense and dreamy imagination).

This is one manifestation of that splendid impartiality, thatimpassiveness which enabled Galdós to retain his balance and serenity inthe trials of a stormy and disastrous era. Another evidence of hisdesire to present both sides of each question is found in those dramaswhich appear to contradict one another.

Pedro Minio supportsliterally, in a way to dishearten earnest toilers, the Biblicalinjunction to take no thought for the morrow, and to give away all thatone has; but El tacaño Salomón teaches thrift. Most of Galdós' writingadvocates change, advancement, rebellion against old forms; but Bárbara drives home the strange burden that all things must return totheir primitive state. I do not add El abuelo, with itsanti-determinist lesson, because Galdós never was a determinist; henever believed, as did Zola, that the secrets of heredity can be laidbare by a set of rules worked out by the human mind.

These citations prove, at least, that Galdós was careful not to becaught enslaved by any dogma, and they show, too, that he set no storeby the letter of the law, and prized only the spirit. That is the secretof his fondness for the dangerous situation of the beneficent lie, orjustifiable false oath, which brought him severe criticism when he firstused it in Los condenados (II, 16), and which nevertheless he repeatedin an equally conspicuous climax in Sor Simona (II, 10). Galdósdefended the lie through which good may come, in the preface to Loscondenados, with reasoning like that of a trained casuist; and such alie appears hypocritical upon the lips of Pantoja ( Electra, IV, 8),though it is not so intended. As a dramatic theme the idea is notentirely novel, for Ibsen, in the Wild Duck, had said that happinessmay be based upon a lie. As usual, Galdós provided his own antidote,for, with what appeared a strange inconsistency, and was really a desirefor balance, the lesson of the very drama, Los condenados, is that"man lives surrounded by lies, and can find salvation only by embracingthe truth, and accepting expiation."

This idea also can be paralleled inIbsen and Tolstoy, but it was overbold to exhibit both sides of theshield in the same play.

There still remain the major threads in the broad and varied fabric ofGaldós' ideology. Stoicism, that characteristic Spanish attitude ofmind, allured him often, and he succeeded in giving dramatic interest tothe least emotional of philosophies. In Realidad and Mariucha isfound the most explicit setting forth of that theory of life whichenables an oppressed spirit to rise above its conditioningcircumstances.[9] At times Galdós appeared to dally with Buddhism: atleast some critics have so explained the reincarnation of doña Juana in Casandra, novela. Another tenet of Buddhism, or, as some would haveit, of Krausism, was often in Galdós' thought, and is emphasizedparticularly in Los condenados and Bárbara. Every sin of man must beat some time expiated; and not alone sins actually committed against thestatutes, but sins of thought, sins against ideal justice, which is farmore exacting than any human laws.[10]

All these phases of thought spring from one mother-idea, theperfectioning of the human soul. For Galdós, in spite of the unfortunatetimes in which his life fell, in spite of the clearness with which heobserved the character of those times, was an unconquerable optimist. Hebelieved that Spain could be remade, or he would not have worked to thatend. He believed that humanity is capable of better impulses than itordinarily exhibits, and his life was devoted to calling forth generousand charitable sentiments in men. Whether through stoicism, which is thebeautifying of the individual soul, or through divine and all-embracinglove, which is the primal social virtue, Galdós worked in a spirit ofthe purest self-sacrifice for the betterment of his nation and ofhumanity. He had grasped a truth which Goethe knew, but which Ibsen andhis followers overlooked—that the price of advance, either in theindividual or in society, is self-control.

VI. The Position of Galdós as a Dramatist. —The enemies of Pérez Galdóshave often declared that he had no dramatic gifts, and should never havegone outside his sphere as a novelist.

Other distinguished writers,among them Benavente, consider him one of the greatest dramatists ofmodern times. The truth lies close to the second estimate, surely.Galdós will always be thought of first as a novelist, since as anovelist he labored during his most fertile years, and the novel bestsuited his luxuriant genius. But he possessed a very definite theatricalsense, and it would be possible to show, if space permitted, how itenabled him to achieve success in the writing of difficult situations,and how he never avoided the difficult.

Had Galdós entered the dramaticfield earlier in life, he might have been a more skilled technician, butas it is, El abuelo and Bárbara are there to prove him a creativedramatist of the first order.

From what has been said in the preceding sections, it will be evidentthat Pérez Galdós does not fit exactly into any single one of theconvenient classifications which dramatic criticism has formulated. Hisgenius was too exuberant, too varied. Of the three stages which mark theprogress of the modern drama, romanticism, naturalism, and symbolism,the second, in its strict dogmatic form, affected Galdós not at all.Realism, in the good old sense of the Spanish costumbristas, furnishesa background for his plays, but only a background. A picture of Spanishsociety does emerge from the dramas, indeed. It is a society in whichthere are great extremes of wealth and poverty, in which the old titledfamilies are generally degenerate and slothful, and the middle classesdisplay admirable spiritual qualities, but are too often unthrifty andinefficient. Of the laboring classes, Galdós has little to say. Bitterreligious and political intolerance creates an atmosphere of hatredwhich a few exceptional characters strive to dissipate. Galdós, however,was seldom willing to face these conditions frankly and tell us what hesaw and what must result from such conditions. In the later period ofhis life, to which the plays belong, the sincere study of reality wasswept away by a combination of romanticism and symbolism which liftedthe author into the realm of pure speculation, giving his work auniversal philosophic value as it lost in the representation of life.From the spectacle of his unfortunate land he fled willingly to thecontemplation of general truth. El abuelo, because it unites afaithful picture of local society and well-observed figures with asublime thought, is beyond doubt Galdós' greatest drama.

Menéndez y Pelayo pointed out that Galdós lacks the lyric flame whichtouches with poignant emotion the common things of life. He did notentirely escape the rhetoric of his race. And he was curiously littleinterested in the passions of sex—too little to be







extraordinarily vast and many-sided whenone compares it with that of his French contemporaries of thenaturalistic drama, who observed little except sex. He was not anexquisite artist; he was, judged by the standards of the day, naïve,unsophisticated, old-fashioned. But he was a creative giant, a loftysoul throbbing with sympathy for humanity, and with yearning for theinfinite.

Galdós wrote but five tragedies: Realidad, Los condenados, DoñaPerfecta, Alma y vida, Santa Juana de Castilla. Of them, DoñaPerfecta creates the deepest, most realistic tragic emotion, the tragicemotion of a thwarted prime of life; and after it, Santa Juana deCastilla, the tragedy of lonely old age. El abuelo and Bárbara,also, in some way intimate the mysterious and crushing power of naturalconditions,—the conception which is at the heart of modern tragedy.Galdós attained that serene vision of the inevitableness of sorrow tooseldom to be ranked with the foremost of genuine realists. Instead, hereaches a very eminent position as an imaginative philosopher.


Galdós is said to have written two verse dramas before he wastwenty-five, neither of which was ever staged. One, La expulsión de losmoriscos, has disappeared. The other, El hombre fuerte, was publishedin part by Eduardo de Lustonó in 1902. (See Bibliography.) It appearsfrom the extracts to be a character play with strong romantic elements.It is written in redondillas.

Some of Galdós' novels have been dramatized by others: El equipaje delrey José, by Catarineu and Castro, in 1903; La familia de León Roch,by José Jerique, in 1904; Marianela, by the Quinteros, in 1916; ElAudaz, by Benavente, in 1919.

1. Realidad, drama en cinco actos. Madrid, Teatro de la Comedia, March15, 1892. Condensed from the "novela en cinco jornadas" of the same name(1889). Ran twenty-two nights, but did not rouse popular enthusiasm.

Realidad presents the eternal triangle, but in a novel way.

Viera, theseducer, is driven by remorse to suicide, and Orozco, the deceivedhusband, who aspires to stoic perfection of soul, is ready to forgivehis wife if she will open her heart to him. She is unable to rise to hislevel, and, though continuing to live together, their souls arepermanently separated.

Realidad has superfluous scenes and figures, and a scatteredviewpoint. Nevertheless, it remains one of the most original andprofound of Galdós' creations, a penetrating study of unusualcharacters. There are two parallel dramatic actions, the first, moreobvious and theatrical, the fate of Viera; the second, of loftier moral,the relations of Orozco and Augusta, which are decided in a quiet scene,pregnant with spiritual values. Running counter to the traditionalSpanish conception of honor, this drama was fortunate to be as wellreceived as it was.

To understand the title one must know that Realidad, the noveladialogada, is only another version of the epistolary novel, Laincógnita, written the year previous. The earlier work gave, as Galdóssays ( La incógnita, pp. 291-93), the external appearance of a certainsequence of events; Realidad shows its inner reality.

Browningemployed a somewhat similar procedure in The Ring and the Book.

2. La loca de la casa, comedia en cuatro actos. Madrid, Teatro de laComedia, Jan. 16, 1893. This play, a success, is printed in two forms,one as originally written, the other as cut down for performance. In aforeword to the former version, the author protests against the brevitydemanded by modern audiences. It was doubtless to the long version thatGaldós referred when he included La loca de la casa in the list oftitles of his Novelas españolas contemporáneas.

This is a drama of two conflicting personalities, united by chance inmarriage: Pepet Cruz, a teamster's boy, grown rich after a hard strugglein America, and Victoria, the daughter of a Barcelona capitalist who hasmet with reverses.

Its merit lies in the study of these characters, especially in the veryhuman figure of Pepet, homely, rough, and unscrupulous, who resembles inmany ways Jean Giraud of Dumas' La Question d'argent. The theme, theconquest of a rude man by a Christian and mystic girl, is also the themeof Galdós' novel Ángel Guerra. The first two acts are the best; thethird borders on melodrama, and the last, though containing someexcellent comedy, is flat. The real flaw lies in the extensive use offinancial transactions to express a psychological contest; Victoria'svictory over Cruz is ill symbolized in terms of money.

The title is based on a pun: "la loca de la casa" is a common expressionfor "imagination. "[11]

3. Gerona, drama en cuatro actos. Madrid, Teatro Español, Feb. 3,1893. Never published by the author, but appeared in El cuentosemanal, nos. 70, 71, May 1 and 8, 1908.—Galdós' worst failure on thestage; it was withdrawn after the first night, and critics treated itmore severely than the audience.[12]

Gerona is a dramatization of the Episodio nacional (1874) of thesame name, which describes the siege of the city of Gerona and its finalsurrender to the French (May 6—Dec. 12, 1809).

There are many minorchanges from the novel; among them, a nebulous love story is added as asecondary interest.

To a reader the play does not appear so bad as the event indicated. Thefirst act is conceded to be a model; and, in spite of confused interestsand some wildly romantic speeches, the whole presents a vivid picture ofsiege horrors, without melodrama or exaggeration. Possibly the failurewas due to the fact that doctor Nomdedeu, the chief character, placeshis daughter's health ahead of patriotism, and to the final tableau, inwhich the defeated Spaniards lay down their arms before the


4. La de San Quintín, comedia en tres actos. Madrid, Teatro de laComedia, Jan. 27, 1894.—Aroused great enthusiasm, and received fiftyconsecutive performances in Madrid. Was given in Paris, in Spanish, in1900 (?).

This "furiously romantic" drama, Galdós' most meretricious play, isintended to symbolize the union of the worn-out aristocracy and thevigorous plebs to form a new and thriving stock. The duchess of SanQuintín, left poor and a widow, weds Víctor, a socialist workman ofdoubtful parentage. The last act is weak and superfluous, the devices ofthe action cheap, and the motivation often faulty. Víctor's socialism ismore heard of than seen, and it appears that he will be satisfied whenhe becomes rich. He is not a laboring man in any real sense, since hissupposed father gave him an expensive education. He is no true symbol ofthe masses.

However, the duchess Rosario is a charming figure, and the secondaryfigures are well done. There is excellent high comedy in the famous"kneading scene" of the second act, in which the duchess kneads doughfor "rosquillas" while her lover looks on.

The kneading is symbolic ofthe amalgamation of the upper and lower classes. Without doubt, thepopularity of this play in Spain is in part due to its propaganda.

Again, a punning title. "La de San Quintín" means "a hard-fought battle"(from a Spanish victory outside the French city of Saint-Quentin, in1557).

5. Los condenados, drama en tres actos. Madrid, Teatro de la Comedia,Dec. 11, 1894. (The Prólogo is important as a piece of self-criticismand an exposition of the author's aims.)—A failure, given three nightsonly, and severely criticized in the press.

Los condenados is an ambitious and fascinating excursion into symbolicethics. Salomé, the inexperienced daughter of a rich Aragonese farmer,elopes with a wild character, José León, who does not repent till hissweetheart loses her mind as a result of his perversity. No play ofGaldós contains more glaring weaknesses of construction or greater flawsin logic, many of them admitted by the author in his preface. To maketwo saintly characters take oath to a lie (II, 16) in an attempt to savea man's soul (spirit above letter) was, in Spain at least, a deliberatecourting of failure. And why introduce a bold example of a justified lieinto an indictment of false living? The purest romanticism reigns in theplay, as Martinenche has pointed out; José León and Salomé are not otherthan less poetic versions of Hernani and Doña Sol. Paternoy, the spiritof eternal justice, resembles Orozco of Realidad, and still more,Horacio of Bárbara.

The lesson conveyed is that we all live in the midst of lies, and thatsalvation is attained only by sincerity and by confession of one's ownfree will, not under compulsion. This is an idea familiar to Ibsen andTolstoy; the added element, that conditions fit for complete repentancecan be found only after death, is perhaps original. Martinenche thinksthe failure of Los condenados was due to the fact that the Spanishpublic was not accustomed to the spiritual drama. But one shouldremember that Calderón's autos are both spiritual and symbolic. Thefailure was more probably due to faults of form than to any

inherentweakness of theme.

6. Voluntad, comedia en tres actos. Madrid, Teatro Español, Dec. 20,1895. Coldly received. Ran six nights.

Voluntad, which contains some good genre scenes in a Madrid pettystore, is meant to show how energy, in the person of a wayward daughter,can repair the faults of sloth and laxness. But Isidora, who saves herfather's business, can hardly conquer the will of a dreamy idler whomshe loves.

Yet there is no real conflict of wills, only of events, and the lover'sconversion to a useful life by means of poverty is cheap, and the endingcommonplace. On the whole, the stimulating exhortation to will and workis run into a mold not worthy of it.

Galdós has, in fact, mingled here, with resulting confusion, two themeswhich have no necessary connection,—the doctrine of salvation by work,and the doctrine of the necessary union of complementary qualities.(Cf. page xxiv.) The latter theory is the central one in Voluntad, anda failure to discern this fact has led critics to some unwarrantedconclusions.

7. Doña Perfecta, drama en cuatro actos. Madrid, Teatro de la Comedia,Jan. 28, 1896. Adapted from the well-known novel (1876). Successful.

The novel Doña Perfecta, one of the best Galdós ever wrote, both as anartistic story and as a symbol of the chronic particularism of Spain,has been somewhat weakened in dramatization. The third act is almostunnecessary, the dénoûment hurried. One misses especially the first twochapters of the novel, which furnish such a colorful background for thestory. Yet, as a whole, the play gives a more favorable impression ofGaldós' purely theatrical talent than almost any other of his dramas.The second act, with its distant bugle calls at the end, is one of thebest he ever wrote, and the first is not far behind. It is to be notedthat the motivation, especially in the part of Perfecta, is made muchclearer here than in the novel; the play serves as a commentary andexegesis to the earlier tale. The gain in clarity is offset, however, bythe loss of the mysterious grandeur which clothes Perfecta in the novel.There, her reticences speak for her.

8. La fiera, drama en tres actos. Madrid, Teatro de la Comedia, Dec.23, 1896. Coldly received.

La fiera is allied in subject to the Episodios nacionales, althoughit is not taken from any of them. The year is 1822, the scene, the cityof Urgell, in the Pyrenees, attacked at that moment by the liberalsunder Espoz y Mina, and defended by the absolutists. A young liberal spyis loved by an absolutist baroness, and after numberless intriguesduring which the hero's life is in danger from friends and enemies, hekills first the leader of the liberals, then the commander of thefortress, "the two heads of the beast," and the lovers flee towardregions of peace.

As an appeal for tolerance, La fiera isunexceptionable, and Galdós, the radical, has painted the excesses ofboth sides with perfect impartiality. But as a drama, it is an exampleof wildly improbable romanticism, and might have been written in thethirties, except that in that case the comedy element would not be soinsipid as it is, but would have tasted of the pungent realism which wasthe virtue of the best romantics. The characters are unconvincing, thelove-story a poor parallel to Romeo and Juliet.

9. Electra, drama en cinco actos. Madrid, Teatro Español, Jan.

30,1901. A wild success. A French adaptation made a hit in Paris in 1905.

This "strictly contemporary" drama depicts a contest for the hand andsoul of Electra, an eighteen-year-old girl whose mother was a woman ofdubious life. She loves the young scientist Máximo, but Pantoja, thereligious adviser of the family with whom she stays, believing himselfher father, desires her to enter a convent. Since he cannot otherwisedissuade her from marriage, he tells her falsely that she is Máximo'shalf sister. She cannot be convinced that this is a lie until the spiritof her mother reassures her.

Concerning Electra and the battle which it excited between radicalsand clericals, one can consult contemporary periodicals, and Olmet yCarraffa, cap. XIV. Its estreno happened to coincide with a popularprotest against the forced retirement to a convent of a Señorita deUbao, and the Spanish public saw in the protagonist a symbol of Spain,torn between reaction and progress. Consequently, no play of Galdós hasbeen so unduly praised or so bitterly attacked. Two facts appear tostand out from the confusion: (1) Galdós did not deliberately trade uponpopular passions, since this play was written before the excitingjuncture of events arose; (2) The enormous vogue of Electra, its widesale and performance in many European countries, were not justified byits intrinsic value.

Electra appears now as a drama of secondary importance, with somecheap effectism, excellent third and fourth acts, and a weakly romanticending. The ghost of Eleuteria is less in place than the correspondingspirits of Realidad and Casandra, both because it is unnecessary forthe solution of the plot, and because it is an anachronism in a playdevoted to the eulogy of the modern and the practical. On the otherside, it is clear to an impartial reader that Galdós did not intend anattack on the clergy, much less an attack on religion. Máximo is carefulto affirm his belief in God. And Pantoja is not the scheming hypocritethat some have seen in him; he is a man of firm convictions and courage,sincere in his religious mysticism.

Galdós was interested in studyingsuch a character and in showing that his religion is not of the besttype.

A punning title. Beside the Greek allusion, Máximo's laboratory is a"taller de electrotecnia."

10. Alma y vida, drama en cuatro actos. Madrid, Teatro Español, April9, 1902. (Published with an important preface.) Succès d'estime.

This play is Galdós' vital contribution to the sentiment aroused inSpain by the Spanish-American war. The heroine, Laura, an invalidduchess of the late eighteenth century, is ruled by a tyrannicaladministrator, until freed by the love of a vigorous young hidalgo. Butthe effort of will involved exhausts the delicate girl, and she diesjust as the triumph of her partisans is announced. She was the divinebeauty of the soul; without her there is left only a tyranny of one sortor another, and evil, injustice, corruption, are perpetuated.

Alma y vida is Galdós' most ambitious attempt to write a literarysymbolic drama on a grand scale. In it he resumes, with Aragonesestubbornness (to use his own words), the attempt made unsuccessfully in Los condenados, only this time the symbolism is not abstract, but hasa definite application to Spain.

The extreme care which Galdós took withthe costumes of the pastoral interlude in the second act, going to Parisfor advice on their historical accuracy, the spectacular and costlysettings, the length of time, four hours, consumed in the performance,the passages of verse,[13] all demonstrate that Galdós put his full willinto the elaboration of this drama. The result was disappointing.Audiences were bored, despite their desire to approve. They knew somesymbolism was involved, but could not decide upon its character untilthe author solved the problem in his Prólogo. He there defended thevagueness of his play, as more suggestive than clearness, and explainedthat Alma y vida symbolizes the decline of Spain, the dying away ofits heraldic glories, and the melancholy which pervades the soul ofSpain; the common people, though possessing reservoirs of strength, areplunged in vacillation and doubt. The sad ending is the most appropriateto the national psychology of the time. Warned by Electra, he says, hedeliberately avoided popular applause, and sought to gain the approvalof cultured persons.

Although the pathetic figure of Laura is most affecting, the author didnot fully reach the goal he had set for himself, yet "no mediocre mindor ordinary imagination could have conceived such vast thoughts."

11. Mariucha, comedia en cinco actos. Barcelona, Teatro Eldorado, July16, 1903. Given for the first time in Madrid on Nov. 10, 1903. A fairsuccess, especially in the provinces. The aristocratic portion of theMadrid public did not like it.

Mariucha carries a moral aimed directly at the Spanish people.

Like Voluntad, it preaches firm will and the gospel of labor; like La deSan Quintín, it points out a new path which the decayed aristocracy mayfollow in order to found a renovated Spain. In the exaltation ofstoicism (V, 4) it resembles Realidad.

Clericalism does not enter intothe discussion. Instead it is caciquism which Galdós attacks inpassing. The play overflows with daring and optimism; it is like atrumpet call summoning the Spanish youth to throw off the shackles oftradition and political tyranny, and to walk freely, confiding in itsown strength. One's best impulses must be followed, no matter what tiesmay be broken or what feelings hurt in the process. We recognize here afavorite doctrine of Ibsen.

Mariucha is not quite so good a drama as its theme deserves.

The twochief characters suffer from the weight of the message they bear, andare, in fact, rather symbols than characters or even types. The playpossesses, however, many interesting features.

One is the fact that the"good angel" of the play is a priest. His figure proves that Galdós grewin sympathy for the

representatives of religion, if not for bigots, ashe grew older.

Another is the protest against thoughtless charity, whichfosters shiftlessness. Galdós gave expression to a different point ofview in Celia en los infiernos.

12. El abuelo, drama en cinco actos. Madrid, Teatro Español, Feb. 14,1904. Adapted from the "novela en cinco jornadas" of the same title(1897). Galdós' greatest public success, next to Electra.

In this drama Galdós considers a general problem of inheritance ofcharacter. The aged, poor and nearly blind count of Albrit knows that ofhis two granddaughters one is not his son's child. Which? His efforts toread the characters of the children are vain, and when at last he learnsthe truth, it is to realize that the girl of his own race is fickle andvain while the bastard is generous and devoted. Then his pride knowsthat good may come out of evil, that honor lies not in blood, but invirtue and love.









practicallyconsidered. The plot is simple, the handling of it direct and skilful,there is no propaganda to interfere with the characters, who are few,interesting, and admirably drawn. The contrast between the lion ofAlbrit (so often compared to King Lear) and the playful children is amaster-stroke. Free from effectism, dealing only with inner values ofthe heart and morals, El abuelo can properly rank as one of themasterpieces of modern drama. Its theme is diametrically opposed to thetraditional Spanish conception of family honor (cf.

Realidad), and soits popularity at home is a sign that Galdós was able to educate hispublic to some extent.

In condensing the dialoged novel to a drama, Galdós made a number ofalterations in character and action, and all, in our opinion, for thebetter. Nevertheless, Manuel Bueno says:

"Prefiero, sin embargo, lanovela. Me llena más."

13. Bárbara, tragicomedia en cuatro actos. Madrid, Teatro Español,March 28, 1905. Coolly received.

The overshadowing figure of this drama is Horacio, governor of Syracusein 1815, who "entertains the idle moments of his tyranny modeling out ofhuman wickedness the ideal statue of justice." He forces the countessBarbara, who stabbed her brutal husband, to marry the latter's brother,instead of a chivalrous and mystical Spaniard whom she loves, and who isblamed for the murder. How does such an outcome represent ideal justice?It seems to teach that unhappiness, caused by oppression, must notprovoke any effort for freedom on the part of the victims.

Revolt mustbe punished and expiated. Letter is placed above spirit, and the themeis repeated often: "There is no change, no reform possible in the world.All things must return to their first state." How to reconcile suchdoctrine with the body of Galdós'


These considerations nonplussed contemporary audiences and critics, andcaused Martinenche to regard the play as an

"ironique divertissement,"intended to demonstrate that "Galdós'

art was supple and objectiveenough to set forth an idea apparently at variance with the generalinspiration of his theater."

Such an explanation would be in harmonywith Galdós' favorite custom of balancing one argument against another,but perhaps Bárbara may be interpreted in the light of Loscondenados, where also penance for both lovers was insisted upon. Inthe ideal justice, it makes no difference whether the crime committed isagainst oppression or against liberty. In the latter case, punishmentassumes the form of a liberal revolt; in the former, it appearsreactionary. This is why Galdós, holding the balance even, with theimpartiality which is the root of his character, seems in Bárbara toadvocate a static philosophy, whereas in most of his work he is theliberal whom Spain, a backward nation, needed.

In any case, Bárbara is a fascinating, enigmatic play, too elevatedever to be popular, but one which, on account of its closely studiedcharacters, delicate motivation and suggestive ideas ought always to bea favorite among the thoughtful. No other play arouses greater respectfor Galdós as an original creator.

14. Amor y ciencia, comedia en cuatro actos. Madrid, Teatro de laComedia, Nov. 7, 1905. Coldly received.

The redemption of an erring woman is a frequent dramatic theme, from theRomantic era to the present. Malvaloca, of the brothers Quintero,presents it, as does Palacio Valdés' novel Tristán, with a plot andspirit not unlike that of Amor y ciencia.

Here, love and science areforces which together heal and redeem the soul of Paulina, the repentantwife of a famous physician. Once more, as in Realidad, and as in Tristán, we are shown a husband who pardons. But here the treatment ofthe theme lacks vitality, and the abstract idea is not beautified by theveil of poetry which gives charm to Los condenados, Alma y vida, and Sor Simona.