Cooperation Between Rivals: Informal Know-How Trading by Eric von Hippel - HTML preview

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(1) Richard R. Nelson, "The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research,"

Journal of Political Economy 67, no. 3 (June l959):297-306.

(2) P. S. Johnson, Co-Operative Research in Industry: An Economic Study (New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1973).

(3) The Havamal, with Selections from other Poems in the Edda, as quoted by Marcel Mauss in The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies, trans. Ian Cunnison (Glencoe, IL: The Free Press, 1954), xiv. Mauss makes a study of patterns of gift giving in a number of cultures, and finds the practice typically associated with strong obligations for recompense to be provided by the recipient of a "gift".


(4) Edward L. Nemeth, "Mini-Midi Mills--U.S., Canada, and Mexico," Iron and Steel Engineer 61, no. 6 (June 1984):27.

(5) Ibid., Table 1, pp. 30-34.

(6) Donald F. Barnett and Louis Schorsch, Steel: Upheaval in a Basic Industry (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1983), Table 4-3,p. 95.

(7) Authors who have empirically studied the net impact on productivity of minor process improvements find it to be large. See, especially, Samuel Hollander, The Sources of Increased Efficiency: A Study of Du Pont Rayon Plants (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965); and Kenneth E. Knight, "A Study of Technological Innovation: The Evolution of Digital Computers," unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, PA, 1963.

(8) Barnett and Schorsch, Steel: Upheaval in a Basic Industry, 85.

(9) Thomas J. Allen, Diane B. Hyman, and David L. Pinckney, "Transferring Technology to the Small Manufacturing Firm: A Study of Technology Transfer in Three Countries," Research Policy l2, no.4 (August 1983):199-211.

(10) Ibid., 202.

(11) Robert C. Allen, "Collective Invention," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 4, no.1 (March 1983):1-24.

(12) Ibid., 2.

(13) Ibid., 16.

(14) Robert Axelrod, The Evolution of Cooperation (New York: Basic Books, 1984).


(15) Edwin Mansfield, John Rapoport, et al., "Social and Private Rates of Return from Industrial Innovations," Quarterly Journal of Economics 91, no.2 (May 1977):221-40.

(16) H. M. Collins, "Tacit Knowledge and Scientific Networks," in Science in Context, edited by Barry Barnes and David Edge (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982), 44-64.

(17) Ibid., 59.

(18) Edwin Mansfield, "How Rapidly Does New Industrial Technology Leak Out?" Journal of Industrial Economics 34, no.2 (December 1985): 217-23.

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