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Table of Contents

Introduction ................................................................ 3
Singular Nouns – Part I .............................................. 4
Singular Nouns – Part II ............................................. 6
Singular Nouns – Part III ............................................ 7
Plural Nouns .............................................................. 9 Definite Article – Part I ................................................11 Definite Article – Part II ...............................................13 Indefinite Article ..........................................................14 Cardinal Numbers 1-10 .............................................. 16 Cardinal Numbers 11-20 ............................................ 18 Cardinal Numbers 21-99 ............................................ 19 Adjectives – Part I ...................................................... 21 Adjectives – Part II ..................................................... 23 There Is/There Are ..................................................... 24 25 Common Words – Part I ........................................ 26 25 Common Words – Part II ....................................... 27 Accent ......................................................................... 28 Personal Pronouns ..................................................... 30 Regular –ar Verbs ....................................................... 33 Regular –er Verbs ....................................................... 35 Regular –ir Verbs ........................................................ 37 Using Verbs ................................................................. 38 Common –ar Verbs ...................................................... 40 Common –er Verbs ...................................................... 41 Common –ir Verbs ....................................................... 42

Introduction

Are you planning to visit Spain?

 

Why not learn a little of the language before you come?

 

A basic grounding in Castilian Spanish (in other words, the Spanish spoken in Spain) will help you:

enter the real Spain
get to know the locals better enjoy its rich culture

Learning Spanish need not be difficult, boring, or time-consuming.

 

Just a quick 10 minutes a day with this mini-ebook will help you get to grips with the language.

 

Don´t spend hours each day watching television programmes that bore you!

 

Enjoy yourself - with family and friends - learning a little Spanish!

 

You’ll surely be well-rewarded for your efforts when that holiday comes!

Singular Nouns – Part I

What is a noun?

 

A noun is a word used to denote a:

person place
thing

All Spanish nouns are either masculine or feminine.

 

Usually - although not always - masculine nouns end with –o and feminine nouns end with –a

 

Examples of masculine nouns which end in –o would be:

vaso ..........glass plato ......... plate cuchillo ..... knife libro .......... book

Examples of feminine nouns ending in –a would be:

taza .......... cup mesa ........ table cuchara .... spoon cabeza ...... head Sometimes, with nouns relating to persons or animals, the –o or –a at the end will change, depending on whether it relates to male or female.

Some examples of this are:

 

gato .......... male cat gata .......... female cat

 

abuelo ...... grandfather abuela ...... grandmother

 

tío ............. uncle tía ............. aunt

 

chico ......... boy chica ......... girl

Singular Nouns – Part II

In Chapter 1, we said that Spanish nouns are either masculine or feminine, that nouns ending in –o tend to be masculine, whilst those ending in –a tend to be feminine.

There are, however, some exceptions to this rule.

 

Common examples of nouns ending in –a which are masculine are:

clima .................... climate
día ........................ day
idioma ................... language mapa .................... map
planeta .................. planeta
poema ................... poem
problema ............... problem
programa ............... programme sistema .................. system
sofá ........................ sofa
telegrama ............... telegramme tema ....................... theme, subject

In the same way, some nouns which end in –o are classed as being feminine, although there are not so many of them. Examples are:

 

mano ....................... hand radio ........................ radio

Singular Nouns – Part III

Unfortunately, not all Spanish nouns end in –o or –a.

 

1. Nouns ending in –d and –z tend to be feminine, as in:

 

edad .................... age paz ...................... peace

 

2. Nouns ending in –ión tend to be feminine, as in:

 

canción ............... song religión ................ religion

 

3. Nouns ending in –e tend to be masculine, as in:

 

aceite ................. oil diente ................. tooth

 

4. Nouns ending in –n tend to be masculine, as in:

 

andén ................ pavement/sidewalk corazón .............. heart

 

5. Nouns ending in –r tend to be masculine, as in:

 

azúcar ................ sugar lugar ................... place 6. Nouns ending in –l tend to be masculine, as in:

 

ángel .................. angel hotel ................... hotel

 

7. Singular nouns ending in –s tend to be masculine, as in:

 

autobús .............. bus interés ................ interest

 

Added to that, masculine nouns that end in a consonant often have a corresponding feminine form that ends in –a:

 

profesor/a ................ teacher doctor/a ................... doctor

Plural Nouns

There are various rules to follow when making nouns into the plural.

 

1. Nouns which end in a vowel just add –s:

libro + s = libros (books)
casa + s = casas (houses) debate + s = debates (debates)

2. Nouns which end in a consonant add –es:

 

pared + es = paredes (walls)

 

profesor + es = profesores (teachers)

 

3. Nouns which end in –ión drop the written accent and add –es:

 

conversación + es - ´ = conversaciones (conversations) televisión + es - ´ = televisiones (televisions)

 

4. Nouns which end in –z change the z to c and add –es:

luz .......... luces (lights) voz ......... voces (voices) 5. Nouns ending in –s and –x which do NOT have the spoken emphasis placed on the last syllable keep the same singular and plural:

lunes .......... Monday(s) tórax ........... thorax(es)

 

6. However, nouns ending in –s which have the spoken emphasis placed on the last syllable follow the general rule and add –es:

 

mes + es = meses (months) interés + es = intereses (interests)

Definite Article – Part I

What is the definite article?

 

In English, the definite article is the word “the”.

 

The English definite article is invariable.

In other words, it is the same regardless of whether the noun it introduces is masculine or feminine (although we do not really differentiate between masculine and feminine nouns in the English language), singular or plural.

On the other hand, the Spanish definite article is variable.

 

It is made to agree with the noun and therefore has four forms, depending on whether the noun it introduces is:

masculine singular feminine singular masculine plural feminine plural

The four forms of the Spanish definite article are as follows:

el is used for masculine singular nouns la is used for feminine singular nouns los is used for masculine plural nouns las is used for feminine plural nouns Examples of their use would be:

el niño ............... the boy la niña ............... the girl los niños ............ the boys las niñas ........... the girls

Definite Article – Part II

In Chapter 5, we learnt that the definite article in Spanish is variable, and agrees with the noun, depending on whether the latter is masculine, feminine, singular or plural.

There are, however, exceptions to this rule ...

With feminine nouns beginning with –a or –ha which have the spoken emphasis placed on the first syllable, the masculine definite article is used:

el agua ............... the water el hambre ........... the hunger This is - basically - because it sounds better.

Indefinite Article

What is the indefinite article?

 

The indefinite article is used when not referring to a specific thing.

 

The definite article is used when you are referring to a specific thing.

 

In English, the indefinite article can be:

a
an
some

Like the definite article, the indefinite article is variable and has four forms.

 

These are:

un ............... the masculine singular form una ............. the feminine singular form unos ........... the masculine plural form unas ............ the feminine plural form

Un and una can mean a, an or one. Examples of the indefinite article in use are:

un niño .......... a boy/one boy una niña ......... a girl/one girl unos niños ...... some boys unas niñas ...... some girls

Unos niños could, in fact, be referring to a mixed group of boys and girls.

 

This is because, with mixed groups, as long as there is at least one male member, the masculine plural noun is used.

Cardinal Numbers 1-10

You’ve already learnt how to refer to a noun using either the definite or indefinite article.

 

But what happens if you want to specify a number?

 

For this, you will need to know your cardinal numbers.

 

The cardinal numbers one to ten are as follows:

1 - uno
2 - dos
3 - tres
4 - cuatro
5 - cinco
6 - seis
7 - siete
8 - ocho
9 - nueve
10 - diez

If you just look over the previous chapter on the Indefinite Article, you’ll realize that the number one changes from uno to un before a masculine noun and from uno to una before a feminine noun.

For example:
un niño .......... one boy una niña ........ one girl Use uno when counting generically, as in:

one, two, three, four, etc uno, dos, tres, cuatro, etc

 

Use un or una when counting specifically, as in:

one banana, one apple, etc un plátano, una manzana, etc Following on from the last chapter, the cardinal numbers eleven through to twenty are as follows:

11 – once
12 – doce
13 – trece
14 – catorce
15 – quince
16 – dieciséis
17 – diecisiete
18 – dieciocho
19 – diecinueve
20 – veinte

In Spanish, the numbers 16 through to 19 are actually contractions.

 

For example, the Spanish for 16 – dieciséis – literally means ten and six, but joined together, as shown below:

dieciséis = diecisiete = dieciocho = diecinueve = diez y seis diez y siete diez y ocho diez y nueve The cardinal numbers twenty-one to thirty are:

21 – veintiuno
22 – veintidós
23 – veintitrés
24 – veinticuatro
25 – veinticinco
26 – veintiséis
27 – veintisiete
28 – veintiocho
29 – veintinueve
30 – treinta

You’ll notice that, like the cardinal numbers 16 to 19, the numbers 21 to 29 are contractions of the Spanish for twenty and one etc:

 

veintiuno = veinte y uno veintidós = veinte y dos, etc

 

Numbers between 40 and 100 are not usually done as contractions but add y uno ... y dos etc.

40 – cuarenta
50 – cincuenta
60 – sesenta
70 – setenta
80 – ochenta
90 – noventa Consequently, the Spanish for sixty-two would be sesenta y dos.

Other examples are:

79 ...... setenta y nueve
86 ...... ochenta y seis
93 ...... noventa y tres

Adjectives – Part I

What is an adjective?

 

An adjective is a word used to describe or add information about a noun or pronoun, as in:

 

the white cat

In Spanish, most adjectives are variable and change form depending on whether the word they describe is masculine, feminine, singular or plural, as in:

el gato blanco ............... the white (male) cat la gata blanca ............... the white (female) cat los gatos blancos .......... the white (male) cats las gatas blancas .......... the white (female) cats

Many Spanish adjectives end in –o and, as we can see from the above example of blanco (white), this type of adjective has four forms:

blanco ....... masculine/singular form blanca ....... feminine/singular form blancos ..... masculine/plural form blancas ..... feminine/plural form

Adjectives that end in –e, however, do not change form for the masculine and feminine but remain the same for both:

el chico pobre .......... the poor boy la chica pobre .......... the poor girl However, they do change form from the singular to the plural by adding – s:

los chicos pobres ....... the poor boys las chicas pobres ....... the poor girls

Similarly, most adjectives which end in a consonant do not change form for the masculine and feminine, but they do change form for the plural by adding –es:

el hombre fiel .......... the faithful man la mujer fiel ............. the faithful woman los hombres fieles ... the faithful men las mujeres fieles .... the faithful women

Some adjectives of nationality which end in a consonant do not, however, follow this rule but add an –a to the feminine forms:

el hombre español .......... the Spanish man la mujer española ........... the Spanish woman los hombres españoles ... the Spanish men las mujeres españolas .... the Spanish women

Adjectives which end in –or, -án, ón and –ín also have a feminine form:

el hombre hablador ............ the talkative man la mujer habladora ............. the talkative woman los hombres habladores ..... the talkative men las mujeres habladoras ...... the talkative women

Adjectives – Part II

You’ll have probably noticed from the previous chapter that, as a general rule, in Spanish the adjective comes after the word it describes – unlike English where it comes before.

However, adjectives which express quantity (ie how much or how many) tend to be placed before the noun, for example:

 

mucho trabajo .......... much work poco dinero .............. little money

There are also occasions when a descriptive adjective can precede the noun, for example, when it refers to a quality which is inherent and usually taken for granted, as in:

la blanca nieve .......... the white snow

 

In Spanish, there are also just a few adjectives which have a different meaning depending on whether they are placed before or after the noun.

 

For example:

 

un hombre pobre ... a poor man (in the sense of unfortunate) un pobre hombre ... a poor man (in the sense of little money)

There Is/There Are

So far, you’ve learnt all about nouns, can describe them using adjectives, and know how to explain how many there are with the use of cardinal numbers.

Let’s now expand your ability to talk about nouns by using the Spanish for there is and there are.

 

This is very easy to do in Spanish, for there is just one word which can be used for either of these two expressions.

That word is: hay
(pronounced like the English word “eye”)

To recap, the word hay has two meanings:

 

there is there are

 

For example:

 

Hay una chica bonita en la calle. There is a pretty girl in the street.

 

Hay dos libros grandes en la mesa. There are two big books on the table. Hay can also be used in questions.

 

(By the way, the Spanish use two question marks – a reverse one at the start of the phrase/sentence plus a normal one at the end.)

¿Hay?
can mean two things: Is there?
Are there?

For example:

 

¿Hay una chica bonita en la calle? Is there a pretty girl in the street?

 

¿Hay dos libros grandes en la mesa? Are there two big books on the table?

 

Hay can also be used to answer questions: ¿Hay una chica bonita en la calle?

 

Sí. Sí hay. (Yes. Yes there is.)

 

¿Hay dos libros grandes en la mesa? No. No hay. (No. No there aren´t.)

 

So, depending on whether the answer is positive or negative, you just answer:

Sí hay. or
No hay. Simple, isn´t it?!

25 Common Words – Part I

Below, you’ll find twenty-five commonly-used words. a ............................. to/at
agua (el) ................. water
ahora ...................... now
año (el) ................... year
antes ...................... before/earlier
aquí ........................ here
bien ........................ well
buen (o) ................. good
cada ....................... each
comida (la) ............. food/meal
como ...................... as/like
¿Cómo? ................. How?
con ......................... with
corto .......................short
cosa (la) ................. thing
cuando ................... when
¿Cuándo? .............. When?
de .......................... of/from/by
después ................. after/later
día .......................... day
diferente ................. different
donde ..................... where
¿Dónde? ................ Where?
en ........................... in/on/into
entre ....................... between/among

25 Common Words – Part II

And, here you have twenty-five more! gente (la) ................... people
lugar (el) .................... place
mal (o) ....................... bad
más ............................ more
menos ........................ less
mismo ........................ same
mucho ........................ much/many (pl) muy ............................ very
no ............................... no, not
noche (la) ................... night
nombre (el) ................. name
nuevo .......................... new
número (el) .................. number o ................................... or
otro ............................... other/another pequeño ........................ small
pero ............................... but
por ................................. for/by/along porque ........................... because si .................................... if
sí (with accent) .............. yes
también ......................... also
tan ................................. so
viejo ............................... old
y ..................................... and

Accent

When speaking or reading Spanish words, how do we know which syllable of the word should be emphasized?

 

With the exception of words which end in –mente, all Spanish words have just one syllable that is stressed or emphasized.

 

In words where there is no written accent, you can work out which syllable should be stressed by looking at the ending of the word:

 

1. Words which end in a consonant, EXCEPT –n or –s have the emphasis placed on the last syllable. For example:

 

español ..... Spanish

 

español (emphasis placed on last syllable)

 

2. Words which end in a vowel, -n or –s are stressed on the penultimate syllable (ie last but one). For example:

 

diferente ..... different

 

diferente (emphasis placed on last-but-one syllable)

Occasionally, the above rules are not followed.
When this happens, the word is given an acute accent to show which syllable should be stressed. For example:

árbol .......... tree (árbol)

 

número ...... number (mero) The written accent is also used for other reasons, outlined below.

 

1. To differentiate certain words, as in:

 

sí .......... yes (with a written accent on the “i”) si ........... if (with no written accent)

 

2. An accent is placed on certain words in interrogative or exclamative sentences, such as the word donde, when it is used as a question:

 

¿Dónde? .......... Where?

 

3. An accent is placed on the word o (or) when it comes between figures so that it’s not confused with the figure for zero:

 

3 ó 4 .......... 3 or 4

 

4. An accent occurs when i or u is preceded or followed by another vowel:

 

baúl .......... trunk

Personal Pronouns

What are Personal Pronouns?

Personal Pronouns are words like I, you, he, she, we, they. They are the words we use to replace nouns and it is useful to know them before starting on verbs and verb conjugations.

A complete list of the Spanish Personal Pronouns follows:

Singular yo ............. I
.............. you (familiar)
él ............... he
ella ............. she
usted .......... you (polite)

Plural nosotros ..... we (masculine or mixed group) nosotras ..... we (feminine)
vosotros ..... you (familiar, masculine or

mixed group)
vosotras ..... you (familiar, feminine)
ellos ............ they (masculine or mixed

group)
ustedes ....... you (polite)
Spanish Personal Pronouns are a little more complicated than their English equivalent. Some have feminine and masculine forms and there are a variety of ways of saying the English you. Let´s look at some of them a little closer.

The word nosotros – meaning we – is used either by an entirely male group or by a group containing at least one male.
If the group contains ONLY females, nosotras would be used. So, in Spanish, there are two ways to say we:

nosotros .......... we (masculine or mixed group) nosotras ...........we (purely female group)

 

The same rules apply to the Spanish equivalent of they:

 

ellos .................. they (when referring to a masculine or mixed group) ellas ................... they (when referring to a purely female group)

 

Now, let´s take a look at the various ways of saying you.

 

Firstly, the Spanish language has polite and familiar forms of the word you.

 

Usted is the polite (singular) form and would be used for addressing strangers/older people/bosses etc, in order to show respect.

 

is the familiar (singular) form and would be used when talking to family/friends/work companions etc.

These two ways of saying you also have plural forms.
If addressing more than one person to whom you should show respect, you would use ustedes (ie the plural of usted):

ustedes .......... you (polite, plural, masculine or feminine)

If the people you are addressing are family/friends/acquaintances, you would use the plural form of tú.
The plural form of also has masculine and feminine versions:

vosotros .......... you (familiar, plural, masculine or mixed group) vosotras ........... you (familiar, plural, purely female group) To recap on “you”:

one friend/family member –
one stranger/older person – usted
more than one friend/family member – vosotros/vosotras more than one stranger/older person – ustedes

In the written form, usted can be abbreviated to Ud or Vd.

 

Similarly, ustedes can be abbreviated to Uds or Vds.

This book concentrates on Castilian Spanish (ie the Spanish spoken in Spain) and you will find that the rules relating to vosotros/vosotras do not apply in Latin American countries.

Regular –ar Verbs

As with English, Spanish verbs are either regular or irregular.

 

There are three types of regular verbs in Spanish: those ending in –ar; those ending in –er; and those ending in –ir.

Examples of the infinitives of verbs in these three categories are: hablar .......... to speak
comer .............. to eat
vivir ................. to live

Today, we will concentrate on the first group – regular verbs ending in – ar such as hablar – and learn how to conjugate it in the present indicative tense.

If you were to conjugate the verb “to speak” in the present tense in English, it would be like this:

to speak (infinitive) I speak
you (singular) speak he/she speaks we speak
you (plural) speak they speak

You’ve already learnt about Spanish personal pronouns and how to use them in the previous lesson. Now, you just need to know the verb endings.
The present tense of hablar and all regular verbs ending in –ar would be as follows:

Singular
yo hablo ................................I speak
tú hablas ............................... you (familiar) speak él/ella/Vd habla ..................... he/she/you (polite) speak/s

Plural nosotros/as hablamos ........... we speak
vosotros/as habláis ................ you (familiar) speak ellos/ellas/Vds hablan ............ they/you (polite) speak

You conjugate regular –ar verbs by taking the infinitive (ie to speak) which, in this case, is:

 

hablar And remove the –ar ending in order to get the root, which would be habl (= hablar – ar)

 

To this root, you then add the following endings:

-o
-as
-a
-amos
-áis
-an

This results in the full conjugation of the present tense, as you saw above. Although we have used hablar as our example, the same rule would apply to any regular verbs which end in –ar.

Regular –er Verbs

In the last lesson, you learnt that the Spanish language has three types of regular verbs -ar, -er, and –ir verbs – as in:
hablar
comer
vivir

You also learnt how to conjugate –ar verbs in the present indicative tense using hablar as the example.

In this lesson, we’ll concentrate on regular verbs ending in –er, taking comer (to eat) as the example, and learn how to conjugate that in the present tense.

First of all, we’ll take the infinite (to eat) – comer – and find the root of the verb by knocking off the –er ending:

 

com ( = comer – er)

 

To this root, we’ll add the endings for the present tense of regular –er verbs, as follows:

-o
-es
-e
-emos
-éis
-en

Consequently, the present indicative tense of the verb comer would be:

Singular
yo como .............................. I eat
tú comes ............................. you (familiar) eat él/ella/Vd come ................... he/she/you (polite) eat/s

Plural
nosotros/as comemos ......... we eat
vosotros/as coméis .............. you (familiar) eat ellos/ellas/Vds comen .......... they/you (polite) eat

These same endings do not just apply to comer but to all regular –er verbs.

Regular –ir Verbs

You know how to conjugate regular –ar and –er verbs in the present indicative tense. Now let´s look at the last group – the verbs ending in – ir. We´ll take vivir (to live) as our example.

Once again, find the root of the verb by removing the ending which, in this case, will leave:

 

viv

Then, depending on the person you wish to speak in, add the endings: o
es
e
imos
ís
en

In other words, the full present tense of the verb vivir would be: Singular
yo vivo ....................................... I live
tú vives ...................................... you (familiar) live
él/ella/Vd vive ............................ he/she/you (polite) live/s

Plural
nosotros/as vivimos ................... we live
vosotros/as vivís ........................ you (familiar) live ellos/ellas/Vds viven ................... they/you (polite) live

Again, the above rules apply to any regular verb ending in –ir. You now know how to decline all regular verbs in the present indicative tense!

Using Verbs

Because verb endings vary so much more in Spanish than they do in English, it’s not always necessary to use the personal pronoun with the verb.

For example, you could say:
Hablas español .............You speak Spanish Como mucha fruta ..........I eat a lot of fruit Vivimos en España ........We live in Spain

None of the above sentences need personal pronouns because it’s obvious from the ending of the verb who the subject is.

It is, however, sometimes necessary to include the personal pronoun in order to clarify who it is we are talking about, as in the case of vive. If left on its own, it could mean he/she lives or you live. Therefore you’d include the personal pronoun:

él vive ella vive Vd vive

Nevertheless, very often in conversation, it’s obvious who the subject is and, if this is the case, the personal pronoun is not included.

Sometimes, personal pronouns are included purely to add emphasis: Yo como carne y comes pescado I eat meat and you eat fish
When using two verbs in a row, the first is conjugated and the second

comes in the infinitive:

 

Deseo comer paella ..... I wish to eat paella

 

In Spanish, if you wish to imply negation, you place the word no before the verb:

 

El niño no come .................... The boy doesn´t eat No hablo español ................... I don´t speak Spanish

If you wish to use the interrogative form and ask a question, you have to remember to place a reversed question mark at the beginning of the sentence.

If using the verb alone, without the personal pronoun, this is all you have to do to form a question in the present tense. For example:

 

¿Hablas español? ............... Do you speak Spanish?

 

When including the personal pronoun, you just reverse the normal position of the verb and the pronoun. For example:

 

¿Habla Vd español? ............ Do you speak Spanish?

 

(as opposed to “Vd habla español”, which would mean “You speak Spanish.)

Common –ar Verbs

You know how to decline the present tense of regular –ar verbs so, here´s a list of 25 for you to practise with!
alquilar ..................... to rent
ayudar ..................... to help
bailar ........................ to dance
buscar ...................... to look for
comprar .................... to buy
contestar ................... to answer
dejar .......................... to allow, to leave
entrar (en) ................. to enter (into)
enviar ........................ to send
esperar ...................... to hope, to wait/for
ganar ......................... to earn, to win
gastar ........................ to spend
llegar ......................... to arrive
llevar ......................... to wear, to carry
mirar .......................... to look at, to watch
necesitar .................... to need
olvidar ........................ to forget
pagar ......................... to pay/for
preguntar ................... to ask
preparar ..................... to prepare
regresar ..................... to return
tomar ......................... to take, to drink
trabajar ...................... to work
viajar .......................... to travel
visitar .......................... to visit

Common –er Verbs

Here ‘s a list of 25 regular –er verbs.
aprender .................... to learn
beber ......................... to drink
ceder .......................... to give in
comer ......................... to eat
cometer ...................... to commit
comprender ................ to understand
correr .......................... to run
creer ........................... to believe
deber .......................... to have to, to owe depender (de) ............. to depend (on)
esconder ..................... to hide
exceder ....................... to exceed
leer .............................. to read
meter (en) ................... to put (into)
ofender ........................ to offend
poseer ......................... to possess
proceder ...................... to proceed, to come from prometer ...................... to promise
proveer ........................ to provide
responder .................... to reply
romper ......................... to break
sorprender ................... to surprise
suceder ........................ to happen
temer ........................... to fear
vender .......................... to sell

Common –ir Verbs

And, to finish off with, here’s a list of 25 regular –ir verbs. abrir .................... to open
admitir ................. to admit
asistir a ................ to attend
confundir ............. to confuse
cubrir ................... to cover
decidir .................. to decide
describir ............... to describe
descubrir .............. to discover
discutir ................. to argue, to discuss
dividir ................... to divide
escribir ................. to write
evadir ................... to evade
existir ................... to exist
fundir .................... to melt
hundir ................... to sink
imprimir ................ to print
ocurrir .................. to happen, to occur
omitir .................... to omit
partir ..................... to leave, to divide
permitir ................. to allow, to permit
recibir ................... to receive
subir ..................... to climb
sufrir ..................... to suffer
unir ....................... to unite
vivir ....................... to live
You have learnt a lot, haven’t you?!

Keep going over this e-book to refresh your memory. When you really know all it holds, there’s no doubt you’ve acquired an excellent grounding in the language! Give yourself a pat on the back!

Now, you just need to whiz over to Spain and get lots of practise!

 

Whether your interest in Spain is holidays, living, or you’re just an armchair traveler, discover all the information you need at:

 

http://www.top–tour–of–spain.com

 

See you in the sun!

 

Linda Plummer

 

http://www.top–tour–of–spain.com

 

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