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FM 3-35 (FMI 3-35 and FM 4-01.011)

April 2010

Army Deployment and Redeployment

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Headquarters, Department of the Army

This publication is available at

Army Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil) and

General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine

Digital Library at (http://www.train.army.mil).

*FM 3-35 (FMI 3-35 and FM 4-01.011)

Field Manual

Headquarters

No. 3-35 (4-01.011)

Department of the Army

Washington, DC, 21 April 2010

Army Deployment and Redeployment

Contents

Page

PREFACE

.............................................................................................................

iv

Chapter 1

OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................ 1-1

Force Projection ................................................................................................. 1-1

Deployment ........................................................................................................ 1-1

Operational Environment .................................................................................... 1-5

Army Force Generation ...................................................................................... 1-5

Chapter 2

PREDEPLOYMENT ........................................................................................... 2-1

Planning .............................................................................................................. 2-1

Training ............................................................................................................... 2-4

Initial Notification Activities ................................................................................. 2-6

Chapter 3

MOVEMENT ....................................................................................................... 3-1

Movement to the POE ........................................................................................ 3-1

Activities at the POE ........................................................................................... 3-3

Movement to the POD ........................................................................................ 3-6

Chapter 4

RSOI ................................................................................................................... 4-1

Overview ............................................................................................................. 4-1

Port Opening ...................................................................................................... 4-5

Reception ........................................................................................................... 4-6

Staging................................................................................................................ 4-8

Onward Movement ........................................................................................... 4-11

Integration ......................................................................................................... 4-12

Chapter 5

REDEPLOYMENT .............................................................................................. 5-1

Overview ............................................................................................................. 5-1

Movement ........................................................................................................... 5-2

Movement to POD .............................................................................................. 5-4

Movement to Home or Demobilization Station ................................................... 5-4

Closure Reporting............................................................................................... 5-5

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FMI 3-35, 15 June 2007 and FM 4-01.011, 31 October 2002.

i

Contents

Appendix A

DEPLOYMENT PROCESS ............................................................................... A-1

Appendix B

AUTOMATED MOBILITY SYSTEMS ............................................................... B-1

Appendix C

RESPONSIBILITIES .......................................................................................... C-1

Appendix D

UNIT MOVEMENT OFFICER ............................................................................ D-1

Appendix E

MOBILITY OFFICER ......................................................................................... E-1

Appendix F

INSTALLATION SUPPORT ............................................................................... F-1

Appendix G

A/DACG OPERATIONS .................................................................................... G-1

Appendix H

UNIT MOVEMENT PLAN .................................................................................. H-1

Appendix I

SPECIAL CARGO ............................................................................................... I-1

Appendix J

AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION TECHNOLOGY .............................................. J-1

Appendix K

SECURITY ......................................................................................................... K-1

Appendix L

SENIOR COMMANDERS ROLE IN DEPLOYMENT ......................................... L-1

GLOSSARY

.......................................................................................... Glossary-1

REFERENCES

.................................................................................. References-1

INDEX

.........................................................................................................

Index-1

Figures

Figure 1-1. ARFORGEN model. ............................................................................................ 1-5

Figure 3-1. Notional SPOE .................................................................................................... 3-3

Figure 3-2. Notional APOE .................................................................................................... 3-5

Figure 4-1. Theater with multiple ports and ISBs ................................................................... 4-9

Figure A-1. TC-AIMS II deployment process ......................................................................... A-4

Figure F-1. Installation deployment processing site .............................................................. F-2

Figure G-1. Notional APOE .................................................................................................... G-3

Figure G-2. Notional APOD ................................................................................................... G-6

Figure J-1. RFID/ITV data collection ....................................................................................... J-2

Figure J-2. AIT/RFID tags ....................................................................................................... J-3

Figure J-3. Fixed interrogator .................................................................................................. J-3

Figure J-4. Portable deployment kit (PDK) ............................................................................. J-3

Figure J-5. Handheld interrogator/reader ............................................................................... J-4

Figure J-6. Notional installation AIT laydown .......................................................................... J-5

Figure J-7. Notional APOE/APOD AIT laydown ..................................................................... J-6

Figure J-8. Notional SPOE/SPOD AIT laydown ..................................................................... J-8

Figure J-9. Vehicle marking .................................................................................................. J-10

Figure J-10. Container marking ............................................................................................ J-10

Figure J-11. Pallet marking ................................................................................................... J-11

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FM 3-35

21 April 2010

Contents

Tables

Table A-1. TC-AIMS II task-user matrix .................................................................................A-6

Table D-1. Functional reference list ...................................................................................... D-2

Table G-1. Minimum essential personnel for A/DACG (Per Shift) ........................................ G-3

Table G-2. Minimum essential equipment for A/DACG ......................................................... G-4

Table I-1. Preparing and documenting hazardous materials .................................................. I-2

21 April 2010

FM 3-35

iii

Preface

FM 3-35 is the Army’s authoritative doctrine for planning, organizing, executing, and supporting deployment and redeployment. This manual represents the culmination of our efforts to consolidate all deployment doctrine (FM 100-17, FM 100-17-3, FM 3-35.4, FM 100-17-5, and FM 4-01.011) into a single manual to align Army deployment doctrine with joint deployment doctrine.

FM 3-35 has five chapters and 12 appendices.

Chapter 1 presents an overview of force projection and the deployment process.

Chapter 2 spells out activities units engage in prior to being alerted for deployment.

Chapter 3 outlines the procedures involved in the movement of units from home station to the port of embarkation (POE) and from the POE to the port of debarkation (POD).

Chapter 4 details the process of reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (RSOI).

Chapter 5 explains redeployment.

New appendices were developed in response to requests from the field. These appendices cover installation support, duties of the Mobility Officer, organization and operation of an arrival/departure airfield control group, unit movement officer (UMO), and unit movement plan, and the influence of senior commanders on deployment.

Joint Publication 3-35 describes the joint process in terms of planning; pre-deployment; movement; and joint reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (JRSOI).

PLANNING PREDEPLOYMENT MOVEMENT JRSOI

REDEPLOYMENT

On the other hand, the Army process is defined by the phases of pre-deployment; movement (includes the fort to port and port to port segments); and RSOI. Planning occurs continuously throughout the entire process. In the current operating environment of persistent conflict, the rotation of Army forces is similar to the deployment process described in this manual.

PREDEPLOYMENT MOVEMENT RSOI

REDEPLOYMENT

PLANNING

FM 3-35 applies to the Active Army, the Army National Guard (ANG)/Army National Guard of the United States (ARNGUS), and the United States Army Reserve (USAR) unless otherwise stated.

Headquarters, U. S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, is the proponent for this publication. The preparing agency is the Deployment Process Modernization Office. Send comments and recommended changes on a DA Form 2028 ( Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) to Director, Deployment Process Modernization Office, ATTN: ATZL-DP, 2401 Quarters Road, Fort Lee, VA 23801.

21 April 2010

FM 3-35

iv

Chapter 1

Overview

The transformation of the Army was based on an environment characterized by a

wider spectrum of potential contingencies, increased uncertainty, and a more complex range of operational conditions. The situation demanded swift action by the United

States. The Army transformation plan focused on providing the joint force

commander with expeditionary capability with forces organized and equipped to be

modular, versatile, and rapidly deployable with institutions capable of supporting

them. Understanding and applying the deployment process outlined in this manual is

essential to achieving the desired expeditionary characteristics.

FORCE PROJECTION

1-1. Force projection is the military element of national power that systemically and rapidly moves military forces in response to requirements of full spectrum operations. It is a demonstrated ability to alert, mobilize, rapidly deploy, and operate effectively anywhere in the world. The Army, as a key member of the joint team, must be ready for global force projection with an appropriate mix of combat forces together with support and sustainment units. Moreover, the world situation demands that the Army project its power at an unprecedented pace. The flexible and rapidly deployable Army forces with sufficient depth and strength to sustain multiple, simultaneous operations contributes to defusing the crisis.

FORCE PROJECTION PROCESSES

1-2. Force projection encompasses a range of processes including mobilization, deployment, employment, sustainment, and redeployment. These processes have overlapping timelines that are repeated continuously throughout an operation. Each force projection activity influences the other. Deployment, employment, and sustainment are inextricably linked so one cannot be planned successfully without the others. The operational speed and tempo reflect the ability of the deployment pipeline to deliver combat power where and when the joint force commander requires it. A disruption in the deployment will inevitably affect employment. Force projection operations are inherently joint and require detailed planning and synchronization. Decisions made early in the process directly impact the success of the operation.

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Mobilization is the process by which the Armed Forces or part of them are brought to a state of readiness for war or other national emergency. This includes activating all or part of the Reserve Components as well as assembling and organizing personnel, supplies, and equipment.

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Deployment is movement of forces to an operational area in response to an order and is the focus of this manual.

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Employment prescribes how to apply force and/or forces to attain specified national strategic objectives.

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Sustainment is the provision of logistics, personnel services, and health service support necessary to maintain and prolong operations until successful mission accomplishment.

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Redeployment involves the return of forces to the home or demobilization station.

DEPLOYMENT

1-3. Deployment is composed of activities required to prepare and move forces, supplies, and equipment to a theater. This involves the force as it task organizes, tailors itself for movement based on the mission, concept of operations, available lift, and other resources.

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Chapter 1

1-4. The employment concept is the starting point for deployment planning. Proper planning establishes what, where, and when forces are needed and sets the stage for a successful deployment. Consequently, how the combatant commander (CCDR) intends to employ forces is the basis for orchestrating the deployment structure. All deployment possibilities must be examined as they dramatically influence employment planning. Deployment directly impacts the timing and amount of combat power that can be delivered in order to achieve the CCDR’s desired effects.

ARMY DEPLOYMENT GOALS

1-5. The Army Campaign Plan identifies the Army’s deployment goals as follows—

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Deploy and employ brigade combat team (BCT) capability in 4-7 days.

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Deploy and employ 3 BCTs with a division headquarters in 10 days.

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Deploy and employ 9 BCTs with multi-division headquarters in 20 days.

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Deploy and employ 15 BCTs with multi-division headquarters in 30 days.

1-6. Supporting metrics are being developed to synchronize these goals with the Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN) model that is discussed later in this chapter.

DEPLOYMENT PRINCIPLES

1-7. Four principles apply to the broad range of activities encompassing deployment—

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Precision applies to every activity and piece of data. Its effect is far-reaching, and the payoff is speed. For example, precise unit deployment lists (UDLs) ensures that correct lift assets are assigned against the requirement. Precision includes accurate weights, dimensions, and quantities. This degree of precision eases loading requirements and improves departure speed and safety. Precision allows units to meet the CCDR’s timeline and supports the concept of employment.

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Synchronization. Deployment activities must be synchronized to successfully close the force.

Effective synchronization of scarce lift assets and other resources maximizes their use.

Synchronization normally requires explicit coordination among the deploying units and staffs, supporting units and staffs, a variety of civilian agencies, and other Services. Realistic exercises and demanding training are paramount to successful synchronization.

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Knowledge. One of the more critical pieces at this stage of deployment is the knowledge upon which decisions are made. There is a short period of time during which the deploying commander must make crucial decisions on employment. These decisions set the tone for the remainder of the deployment. Many decisions are very hard to change and have significant adverse impacts if changed; others are irrevocable.

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Speed is more than a miles per hour metric. The proper focus is on the velocity of the entire force projection process, from planning to force closure. Critical elements of speed associated with force projection include agile (state-of-the-art) ports, submission of accurate information, safe and efficient loading, trained unit movement personnel at all levels, timely arrival of throughput enablers, maintaining unit integrity, delivering capability rather than entire units, and force tracking information

DEPLOYMENT PHASES

1-8. The Joint deployment process is divided into four phases -- deployment planning; predeployment activities; movement; and JRSOI. The terminology used to describe the Army deployment phases is in synch with the Joint process. The Joint process includes a planning phase at the outset whereas the Army considers planning to be woven through all the phases. Moreover, the movement phase in the Army process is discussed in two segments – fort to port and port to port. The Army relies on U.S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM) to provide the strategic lift to and from the port of embarkation (POE).

1-2

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21 April 2010

Overview

1-9. Deployments consist of three distinct but interrelated phases. A successful deployment requires implementation of each phase with seamless transitions and interactions among all of them. The phases are not always sequential and could overlap or occur simultaneously.

Predeployment Activities

1-10. An expeditionary Army requires that units are prepared for potential deployments consistent with ARFORGEN model. During predeployment units constantly plan for various contingencies and hone their deployment skills. When units train and exercise their predeployment activities, they become second nature and are accomplished efficiently. Not only should units be trained, personnel must be nearly 100 percent compliant with respect to Soldier readiness processing (SRP), encompassing those administrative, medical, and dental checks required to prepare a Soldier for deployment. This level of readiness and training requires school-trained, dedicated mobility officers, UMOs, hazardous cargo certifiers, and load planners. Their requirements are documented in organizational equipment lists (OEL), UDLs, and loaded into the Transportation Coordinators Automated Information for Movements System II (TC-AIMS II). In addition, units must acquire movement expertise, knowledgeable deployment support teams, joint deployment process improvement tools, and an understanding of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System (JOPES) to enable seamless deployment operations.

1-11. Movement requirements developed during deployment planning must be validated prior to deployment execution. Validation confirms the need for the movement requirement, shipment configuration, dimensions, and routing and ensures that all parties, including the chain of command, are cognizant of the requirement. Movement requirements are validated during execution planning by the supported CCDR who validates all joint force movement requirements for USTRANSCOM movement scheduling.

Movement

1-12. Fort-to-Port. The receipt of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) air tasking order and Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) port call message initiates POE operations and specifies the dates on which units must arrive at the POE. At the installation staging areas unit movement data is verified and equipment is inspected and configured for movement. It is then typically moved to the POEs by convoy or commercial surface transport. The installation coordinates and/or provides support to assist the deploying force by using non-deploying units, installation resources, or contracted support. Support may include load teams, materiel handling equipment (MHE), maintenance teams, arrival/departure airfield control groups (A/DACGs), and deployment support teams. Other support should be identified during deployment exercises and then written into installation deployment support plans. The Mission Support Element is a TDA-augmentation capability used by the mission commander to develop and maintain the deployment support plan.

1-13. Deploying units immediately configure for deployment, reduce/prepare vehicles and aircraft for movement, properly stow and tie down secondary loads, construct 463L pallets, and prepare the required documentation. The sea and air POEs should quickly initiate operations. MHE must be on hand, and procedures previously established for the joint inspection process at the aerial terminal commences. Units begin assembling equipment for air movement and chalks are staged awaiting sortie allocation. The POE

must offer sufficient staging and inclement weather facilities.

1-14. Port-to-Port. USTRANSCOM operates the Defense Transportation Service (DTS) and provides common user strategic transportation to support the CCDR for deployment. The port to port phase begins with strategic lift departures from POEs and ends with lift assets arrival in the designated theater PODs.

Fundamental to the success of the port-to-port movement is the ability of the CCDR to synchronize the arrival of airlift and sealift force packages so that vessels can be brought to a berth or offloaded in-stream with minimal delay. This ensures that cargo can be received and cleared from the port in a timely manner.

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FM 3-35

1-3

Chapter 1

Reception, Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration

1-15. RSOI is the process that delivers combat power to the Joint Force Commander (JFC) in the operational theater. The very nature of seizing the initiative demands expeditious processing of personnel and equipment throughout the deployment pipeline. Consequently, facilities must be available on or near the PODs for personnel reception and equipment staging and preparation (to include refueling). One of the essential requirements at the APOD is adequate parking and operational areas to sustain the required number of aircraft to meet the throughput requirements. RSOI support, whether provided by theater support contracts, external support contracts (primarily the Army Logistics Civil Augmentation Program or LOGCAP), or regionally available commercial host nation support, and/or military assets, must be sufficient to immediately support the arrival of deploying units. Effective RSOI matches personnel with their equipment, minimizes staging and sustainment requirements while transiting the PODs, and begins onward movement as quickly as possible. A plan to accomplish integration and maintain combat readiness must be understood, trained, and ready to implement upon arrival.

THE DEPLOYMENT PROCESS

1-16. A deploying unit is broken down into multiple segments to be moved through the deployment pipeline – typically personnel move by airlift and equipment by sealift from the port of embarkation to port of debarkation. The culmination of a deployment is bringing the separate entities of the unit back together to become a combat-ready force. A well organized and trained RSOI support organization executing a comprehensive plan is fundamental to success.

DEPLOYMENT PLANNING

1-17. The initial activity in planning a development plan using the military decision making process. The objective is to synchronize deployment activities to facilitate execution. The steps used in planning and preparation during predeployment activities include: analyze the mission, structure forces, refine deployment data, prepare the force, and schedule movement. Successful deployment planning requires knowledge of the unit’s deployment responsibilities, an understanding of the total deployment process, and an intellectual appreciation of the link between deployment and employment.

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Analyze the mission – The mission is examined and courses of action (COAs) are developed bearing in mind that the employment considerations are paramount. The primary purpose of a deployment is to provide the right force at the right place and at the right time.

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Structure forces – The COAs outline the ways (employment) and the means (forces) to accomplish the mission. Initially capabilities are identified but as the COAs are further defined the requirements are being translated into type units.

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Refine deployment data – As forces are identified the development of the time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) is begun. The supported combatant commander defines his intent for deployment which may be very specific and direct the sequence of units or just identify a general deployment timeline. In any case the intent should clearly express how the deployment postures the force for employment.

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Prepare the force – Force packages are developed, ensuring the right capabilities are in the proper combinations to meet the intentions of the supported combatant commander.

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Schedule the movement – The supporting combatant commands must clearly and completely define their mobility requirements and milestones based on the concept of operations. The right sequencing of forces will provide the commander with the capabilities required to achieve the desired objectives. Once the strategic lift schedule is put in motion it is difficult to change without losing use of the transportation capacity.

1-18. Deployment planning is a logical process that focuses on Soldiers, supplies, and equipment, ways to deploy them, and the required information to track them. In particular, deployment plans require detailed information. Knowing the right details will help to guide the unit through an effective deployment. The heart of deployment planning is an accurate list of Soldiers and equipment that will deploy—the UDL. The UDL is developed in TC-AIMS II and is validated by the commander. Its importance is exemplified by its 1-4

FM 3-35

21 April 2010

index-11_1.png

Overview

use: to manifest units for deployment and to update the TPFDD so appropriate lift is scheduled for the deployment.

OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

1-19. Today’s operational environments have given the Army cause to review its organizational structure.

The BCT is the primary organization for fighting tactical engagements. BCTs will have one of three standard designs: heavy brigade combat team, infantry brigade combat team, and Stryker brigade combat team and each will include battalion-sized maneuver, fires, reconnaissance, and sustainment units. The BCTs provide the CCDR with the capability to employ an integrated combat force sooner.

1-20. Logisticians and other sustainment personnel must be prepared to support a wide range of simultaneous operations: deployment, employment, sustainment, and redeployment. The theater sustainment command (TSC), expeditionary sustainment command (ESC), and sustainment brigades are responsible for establishing the support procedures and functional relationships to sustain multinational forces in a joint operations area.

1-21. The TSC plans, prepares, and executes, command and control of operational level sustainment (less medical) within an area of operations. The ESC is a rapidly deployable, regionally focused, forward-based command and control element for sustainment forces (less medical) under the operational control of the TSC. The sustainment brigade is subordinate to the TSC as a flexible, multifunctional sustainment organization (less medical) and tailored to support units within its assigned area of operation.

ARMY FORCE GENERATION

1-22. ARFORGEN is the structured progression of increased unit readiness over time resulting in recurring periods of availability of trained, ready, and cohesive units prepared for operational deployment in support of civil authorities and combatant commander requirements. ARFORGEN uses personnel, equipment, and training to generate forces to meet current and future requirements of combatant commanders. These cyclical readiness process forces commanders to recognize that all units are not ready all the time. Units must build their readiness over time as they progress through the three operational readiness cycles shown in figure 1-1—

Figure 1-1. ARFORGEN model.

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Reset. Units returning from operations or have experienced significant organizational changes are placed in the reset phase. Active Army units typically stay in the pool for 6 to 9 months, while Reserve Component units will probably stay up to 4 years. It is during this phase that replacement personnel arrive and are assigned additional duties, such as the UMO.

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Train/Ready. Units determined to be at a ready level are capable of beginning their mission preparation and collective training with other operational headquarters. They are eligible for 21 April 2010

FM 3-35

1-5

Chapter 1

sourcing; may be mobilized if required; and can be trained, equipped, resourced, and committed to meet operational requirements, if necessary. It is during this phase that the individual training that could not be accomplished during reset is completed and collective training is begun. A critical event that occurs during this phase is the handoff of units from the peacetime mission commander to the wartime commander. The handoff may involve a significant number of

changes to deployment data, once the wartime commander outlines the scope of the intended mission and the OEL transitions into the UDL.

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Available. Units are capable of conducting a mission under any combatant commander. All Active and Reserve Component units pass through a 1-year available force pool window.

Generally, Active Army units will rotate through this pool 1 in every 3 years; Active Reserve units 1 in every 5 years; and Army National Guard units 1 in every 6 years.

1-23. Prior to the implementation of ARFORGEN, redeployment focused on returning the troops to their home station with minimal emphasis on equipment closure. That paradigm has now changed and it has become evident that redeployment is equally important as deployment in terms of future operations and the success of ARFORGEN. Units must rapidly close on their home station or mobilization site with their personnel and equipment to begin the reset phase.

1-24. As the ARFORGEN model matures, there should be corresponding improvements realized in deployment and redeployment; however, ARFORGEN is not just about preparing units for worldwide deployments. It changes the way the Army resources, recruits, organizes, trains, equips, sources, mobilizes, and sustains units on a recurring basis. The goal is to generate combat power on a sustained cyclic basis.

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21 April 2010

Chapter 2

Predeployment

The Army’s effort to be more responsive begins at home station. Predeployment

activities are actions taken to prepare forces for deployment and are not limited to the deploying unit, but include supporting units and the installation staff. Planning,

document preparation, equipment readiness, and training are the foremost

predeployment unit activities. This chapter discusses predeployment activities of the deploying unit as well as those in a support role. Moreover, deployments are a

function of dedicated personnel, attention to detail, and following the guidelines in regulations, doctrinal manuals, and other related source material.

PLANNING

2-1. The deployment planning process begins with the supported CCDR requesting the force requirements necessary to support the operation/contingency plan. The Secretary of Defense and the joint staff review the requirements before passing them to US Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM). USJFCOM

further passes the requirement to one of their three service component commands for sourcing. Forces Command (FORSCOM), the Army service component command to USJFCOM, analyzes the requirement for conventional forces, coordinates with other Army commands, and recommends a sourcing solution.

Unit commanders and staffs analyze the requirement and determine the personnel and equipment necessary to accomplish the stated mission. This deployment planning process may cover a period of several months or be compressed to days or even hours for crisis action planning.

DEPLOYMENT PLANNING

2-2. Contingency planning is typically used in those cases where the deployment and employment of forces is in response to anticipated operations. It is designed to produce a detailed operational plan for a potential event and relies heavily on a number of assumptions ranging from the threat to anticipated host nation support. Conversely, crisis action planning is accomplished in response to a time-sensitive, imminent threat that may result in an actual military operation. The plan is based on circumstances existing at the time planning occurs. In either contingency or crisis planning, prescribed procedures are followed to formulate and implement a response. Deployment planning is a key element of both contingency and crisis action planning and aims at delivering the right force, at the right place, and at the right time.

2-3. Planning for deployment is based on mission requirements and time. During deployment operations, supported combatant commanders are responsible for building and validating movement requirements, determining predeployment standards, and balancing, regulating, and effectively managing the transportation flow. Supporting combatant commands and agencies source requirements not available to the geographic combatant commander and are responsible for verifying supporting unit movement data, regulating the support deployment flow, and coordinating during deployment operations. Each of these activities is an element of effective deployment planning. To facilitate these processes, the joint planning and execution community (JPEC) uses a common framework of directives, guidance, and decision support tools within JOPES.

2-4. JOPES is the integrated, joint command and control system used to support military operational planning, execution, and monitoring activities. JOPES incorporates policies, procedures, personnel and systems, and underlying Global Command and Control System (GCCS) information technology support to provide senior-level decision-makers and their staffs with enhanced capability to plan and conduct joint 21 April 2010

FM 3-35

2-1

Chapter 2

operations. JOPES provides the mechanism to submit movement requirements to lift providers in the form of a TPFDD. The TPFDD is both a force and a transportation requirements document.

Time-Phased Force and Deployment Data

TPFDD is the JOPES data-based portion of the operational plan; it contains time-

phased force data, nonunit related cargo and personnel data, and movement data

for the operational plan including—

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In-place units.

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Units to be deployed to the joint operational area with a priority indicating

the desired sequence for their arrival at the POD.

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Routing of forces deployed.

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Movement data associated with deploying forces.

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Estimates of non-unit related cargo and personnel movements to be

conducted concurrently with the deployment of forces.

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Estimates of transportation requirements, which are fulfilled by common

user lift resources, as well as those requirements that can be fulfilled by

assigned or attached transportation resources

2-5. The geographic combatant commander begins preparation of COAs based on the tasking received from the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS). Combatant commanders receive tasking through the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan for contingency planning or guidance through a CJCS warning order during crisis action planning. These directives establish command relationships, identify the task/mission, and provide any planning constraints. In addition, these directives will either identify forces and strategic mobility resources and establish tentative timing for execution, or request the supported combatant commander develop these factors.

2-6. Force requirements are initially identified in the planning process during mission analysis and COA development. Force composition is derived from the troops apportioned for deployment/employment planning and the supported combatant commander’s need for a particular unit capability to accomplish the mission.

2-7. COAs outline the scheme of employment and force requirements to accomplish the assigned mission. The Services monitor development of COAs and begin planning for support forces, sustainment, and mobilization, if required. As force requirements are identified, TPFDD development commences for each COA. The supported combatant commander normally publishes a TPFDD Letter of Instruction (LOI) with planning guidance, procedures, and coordinating instructions. The intent of the supported combatant commander’s TPFDD LOI is to eliminate confusion, facilitate parallel planning, and expedite TPFDD

refinement by supporting commands, and agencies with a single set of instructions for input and management.

2-8. It is at this point that USTRANSCOM begins a series of force flow conferences to review the proposed COAs and, in coordination with the supported combatant commander, prepares deployment closure estimates. As detailed planning continues after COA selection, force refinement begins with consideration of the forces and time available, identification of needed unsourced force capabilities, understanding of the anticipated operational environment, and consideration of the actual constraints imposed as part of the assigned mission.

2-9. Once force requirements are identified, selected forces must be organized and time-phased to support the concept of operations. Time-phasing requires careful consideration. Unit supplies and equipment moved by sealift must leave before the troops so that it is available to them upon their arrival. Moreover, some troops as the advance party must fly early to receive the unit equipment and organize it for the arrival of the main body.

2-10. All movement priorities and phasing are based on the supported CCDR’s required date for the deploying force capability. Movement data on the required delivery date, time phasing of units is documented in the TPFDD. Ideally, forces and supporting materiel are time phased to support the CCDR’s 2-2

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Predeployment

concept of operation. The CCDR must be able to track forces flowing into the theater to make the decision on when decisive operations can be initiated.

2-11. Finding the proper balance between projecting the force rapidly and projecting the right mix of combat power and materiel for the ultimate mission is critical. The CCDR must seek a balance of security, efficient deployment, adequate support, and a range of response options to the threat. The availability of mobility assets is most often a constraining factor, so difficult trade-off decisions continuously challenge supported commanders.

2-12. Flowing forces in accordance with a TPFDD results in the delivery of sequenced force packages to the combatant commander and makes the best use of the apportioned strategic lift, while at the same time providing situational awareness of arriving forces to the CCDR. Operational requirements and force flow decisions resulted in TPFDD sequence adjustments via requests for forces (RFF) during recent operations.

In addition, revised or updated deployment orders, commonly referred to as a deployment order, were used to alert and move affected units. The joint staff and services are developing future systems to provide the necessary agility to accomplish such real-time adjustments to the complex problem of revising the TPFDD

flow during execution.

2-13. USTRANSCOM analyzes TPFDDs for transportation feasibility in conjunction with the supported combatant commander during the planning process. Analysis is conducted using models, simulations, and transportation expertise. Dependable strategic transportation feasibility analysis depends on accurate combatant command analysis of theater transportation infrastructure capacity. The objective of TPFDD

maintenance is to systematically incorporate required changes while the plan is active. It is essential that units maintain up-to-date data so the JOPES database is accurate.

2-14. Units require extensive support to prepare for deployment. The support can include assistance related to equipment inspection, maintenance, property transfer, and loading. It can also include assistance in the staging areas and help with life support. These support requirements are usually identified in unit standing operating procedures (SOPs) and movement plans and installation SOPs. Installation and non-deploying units are tasked and contractors are hired to provide the support. Typical support includes—

z

Life support. The designated installations provide life support (i.e. meals, lodging, and medical support) at staging areas and POEs.

z

MHE/cargo handling equipment (CHE). Units must be specific when requesting MHE/CHE and identify the exact weight, dimensions, and characteristics of what is to be moved.

z

Containers. Units typically use containers to move their supplies and equipment. The containers may be unit-owned or are provided upon request.

z

Fuel. Deploying units that need to drain their fuel tanks or remove excess fuel must plan for the proper disposal of fuel.

MOVEMENT PLANNING

2-15. To meet contingency support requirements, units develop movement plans and SOPs. An effective movement plan contains sufficient detail to prepare units to execute strategic deployments while the SOP

outlines functions that should occur upon notification of a unit movement. In addition to movement plans and SOPs, units maintain movement binders containing movement information and instructions.

Unit Movement Plans

2-16. Movement plans define responsibilities, functions, and details for each part of a unit deployment from mobilization station or installation to reception in theater. There may be more than one plan required depending on the number of contingencies/operations plans (OPLANs) the unit must prepare to support.

Movement plans are written in a five-paragraph OPLAN format. Appendix H describes the steps in developing a unit movement plan and provides a sample plan that can be tailored to a deploying unit’s requirements.

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Chapter 2

2-17. Containerization must be addressed during deployment planning. The key to successfully using containerization operations to maximize shipping options is to identify units with high percentages of equipment compatible with containers.

2-18. The USTRANSCOM’s component commands schedule lift against the unit line number (ULN) to meet the earliest arrival date (EAD)-latest arrival date (LAD) window. AMC publishes airflow schedules to call forward personnel and equipment to the APOE. These schedules are in GCCS. The call forward schedules are movement directives that specify when units must have their equipment at the POE to meet the available-to-load dates (ALD). Based on these schedules, deploying units and their respective commands backward plan movements to the POE to meet the ALD. Movement directives (if published) provide windows by mode for cargo arrival at the POE.

Unit Movement SOP

2-19. The unit movement SOP defines the day-to-day as well as alert functions. The SOP defines the duties of subordinate units/sections that will bring the unit to a higher state of readiness. These duties can be written in separate annexes that can be easily separated and issued to leaders for execution. Functions addressed in the SOP could include unit property disposition, supply draw, equipment maintenance, vehicle and container loading, security, marshalling procedures, purchasing authorities, unit briefings, in-transit visibility (ITV), and other applicable deployment activities.

Deployment Binder

2-20. Units maintain deployment binders containing the unit movement plan; unit movement SOP; appointment orders; training certificates; recall rosters; a current OEL; copies of load cards and container packing lists; prepared copies of transportation requests; convoy movement requests and special handling permits; and blocking, bracing, packing, crating, tie-down (BBPCT) requirements. The binder also serves as a continuity bridge from one UMO to the next.

TRAINING

2-21. Individual and unit deployment training are essential in developing the skills required to rapidly project combat power.

DEPLOYMENT TRAINING

2-22. Units with deployment missions are required to have an appropriate number of personnel trained to perform special deployment duties. These duties include unit movement officer, unit loading teams, hazardous cargo certifying officials, and air load planners. Some commands and installations maintain a local capability to provide deployment training to ensure the supported units have ready access to the required training.

Unit Movement Officer

2-23. The commander is responsible for all aspects of deployment preparation, training, and execution and appoints the UMO as his designated representative. The UMO must know the unit’s mission and the commander’s intent for the appropriate coordination, planning, and execution to take place. Appendix D

provides more detailed information on the UMO.

Loading Teams

2-24. Units must have personnel trained in vehicle preparation and aircraft and rail loading/unloading techniques. The type and quantity of equipment to be loaded and the time available for loading determines the composition of the team. Training is arranged through the installation unit movement coordinator (UMC) and once completed the load teams are put on unit orders.

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Hazardous Cargo Certification

2-25. At least one individual will be on orders and trained to certify hazardous cargo at each unit level.

The hazardous cargo certifying official is responsible for ensuring the shipment is properly prepared, packaged, and marked. The certifying official is also responsible for personally inspecting the item being certified and signing the hazardous material (HAZMAT) documentation. Hazardous cargo certifiers must be trained at a Department of Defense (DOD) approved school within the past 24 months and receive refresher training every two years. Upon training completion, they are authorized to certify documentation for commercial and military truck, rail, sea and air. A common mistake occurs when the HAZMAT

certifier is sent with the advance party leaving no one to accomplish the HAZMAT inspections during departure operations.

Air Load Planning

2-26. Air load planners are appointed and trained to prepare, check, and sign unit aircraft load plans and in the planning and execution of airlift operations. The Air Mobility Command offers an Airlift Planners Course to those units aligned under the AMC Affiliation Program. The course is also taught at Fort Eustis, VA; Fort Bragg, NC; and Fort Campbell, KY.

COLLECTIVE TRAINING

2-27. Companies and battalions train to meet unit and individual training requirements for deployment operations. Deployments can occur at any time leaving the deploying unit with little or no time to correct training deficiencies. The objective of collective deployment training is to implant the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and abilities so it becomes a reflex activity executed with precision. Units must identify deployment as a mission essential task, annotate it on their mission essential task list (METL) and gain and maintain proficiency. Many Army training programs offer the opportunity to include deployment training in major training events.

2-28. Units with deployment missions normally participate in periodic Emergency Deployment Readiness Exercise (EDRE)/ Sealift Emergency Deployment Readiness Exercises (SEDRE). These events are designed to exercise unit or command movement plans for overseas deployment. EDREs/SEDREs may involve the unit moving to POEs and loading unit equipment on strategic sealift/airlift assets. Major commands, installation, and brigade level commands normally have SOPs and/or deployment regulations and policies establishing subordinate unit required activities in an hourly deployment sequence. These documents guide unit activities during EDREs/SEDREs.

2-29. Deployment training begins in the train/ready phase and ideally culminates in a meaningful deployment exercise that challenges all facets of unit deployment in a realistic venue. A well planned deployment exercise includes a process to assess the performance of the Soldiers, units, and support agencies. For the assessment to be effective it must identify the areas needing attention in terms of additional training, revision to a SOP, or coordination with one of the support agencies.

ROUTE AND LOCATION RECONNAISSANCE AND REHEARSAL

2-30. Reconnaissance of the route to pre-designated POEs and of the POEs themselves should be an ongoing activity. It may be accomplished through passive means such as map surveillance or, optimally, through site visits. Walking the terrain at the power projection platform and designated port facilities allows commanders to understand space limitation, see choke points, survey facilities, understand the simultaneous nature of the operation, and visualize the deployment operation. Terrain walks can be useful as a unit level activity, but are more beneficial when they involve all participating and supporting units.

2-31. Rehearsals validate deployment plans and permit commanders and unit movement officers to see possibilities and limitations. The physics of the operation can become plainly evident. Conducting rehearsals—

z

Orients participants.

z

Defines the standards.

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z

Visualizes and synchronizes the concept of the operation.

z

Highlights areas that need emphasis or change.

INITIAL NOTIFICATION ACTIVITIES

2-32. The CJCS publishes a formal warning order to prepare for possible military response to a crisis situation. The force provider/Army command then alerts the units and installations. Following receipt of a warning order the deploying unit reviews its deployment readiness status and modifies an existing movement plan or develops a new plan. The units next higher headquarters confirms the readiness status and identifies actions needed to raise the deficient unit to standard. The deploying unit—

z

Updates OEL and develops a UDL based on the warning order.

z

Identifies equipment shortages.

z

Reviews and updates training status

z

Reviews maintenance posture; performs scheduled services; begins expediting repairs; and calibrates equipment.

z

Identifies and reports personnel shortfalls.

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Reviews leave and pass status of personnel.

z

Reviews SRP.

z

Submits updated unit status report.

z

Reviews and tests unit recall procedures.

z

Reviews and updates vehicle load plans and container packing lists.

z

Validates and submit requisitions.

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Requests additional containers.

2-33. Army Commands normally pass a Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) project code to its subordinate elements which allow units to commit resources for deployment preparation. Deploying units receive the project code and funding guidance and use them to begin the supply requisition process.

2-34. The installation adjusts its plans and procedures to support the anticipated deployment and notify the elements (personnel, supply, maintenance, transportation, and training) that are required to support the deploying unit. Based upon a SDDC port call message or an AMC airflow message, the installation publishes schedules for movement to POE. Predeployment support from the installation is critical.

Installations facilitate the movement of forces from the installation to the POE. Previously installations could call upon a large pool of forces (sometimes called “pusher units”) to support deploying units but the availability of those forces has diminished. The challenge is to have the right balance of military from the deploying unit and other non-deploying personnel, government civilian employees, and contractors trained and organized to provide the required support. The U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) manages Army installations worldwide. IMCOM and its garrison commanders play a critical role in ensuring successful mobilization, demobilization, and force projection operations in CONUS and OCONUS. Installations should establish and maintain habitual relationships with all deployment support organizations - the USAF contingency response element (CRE) and the deployment and distribution support teams (DDSTs) from SDDC. Refer to Appendix F for detailed information about installation support.

2-35. The force provider/Army Command passes a detailed alert order to its subordinate elements. If not already provided, the Army Command receives the JCS project code that allows units to commit resources toward the deployment. To improve its readiness posture, the deploying unit cross-levels equipment and submits requisitions for unit basic load and other needed supply classes. The filling and receipt of supplies is dependent upon the deployment timeline and availability of stocks. Some units have been directed to leave equipment behind during rotations; equipment transfer can take time and should be included in the planning time. The unit also requests supplies to support movement operations (BBPCT, dunnage, containers, and 463L pallets). This is a continuing process within the deploying unit based on unit status and changes imposed as a result of force tailoring or higher headquarters guidance. The unit verifies that assigned ULNs are consistent with the unit’s movement increments for deployment. The unit also verifies 2-6

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equipment status compared to the UDL and updates load plans, equipment dimensions and weight, and declarations of dangerous goods. Once corrections are made, the unit prints and applies military shipping labels (MSLs) and attaches radio frequency (RF) tags. Additionally, the unit will identify the equipment that will accompany the troops and finalize the UDL as early as possible.

2-36. If not previously provided by the Army Command, the deploying unit activates derivative Department of Defense Activity Address Code (DODAAC) and derivative unit identification code (UIC).

The UMO finalizes lift and load plans, shipping documentation, and convoy clearances as secondary loads and pallets are built and containers are stuffed.

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Chapter 3

Movement

The Army has repositioned forces since its inception. Early movement was by road

and sea and rail was introduced during the Civil War. Movement of troops, supplies,

and equipment from the Continental United States to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the

Philippines began during the War with Spain and throughout its history the Army has

executed a wide array of deployments. The situation facing the Army today is very

different – the uncertainty of where we deploy, the likelihood of austere operational conditions, and the requirement to fight soon after completion of minimal RSOI

presents significant challenges for the foreseeable future. However, movement

remains at the core of deployment.

MOVEMENT TO THE POE

3-1. Movement to the POE normally begins with receipt of an execute order from the Army Command; the order, along with any additional guidance is forwarded to the appropriate subordinate commands, deploying units, and installations. SDDC issues a port call message that identifies the date the unit must have their equipment at the seaport of embarkation (SPOE) to meet the ALD. The port call message or the operations order for sealift will also normally include details for vehicle reduction and preparation. AMC

enters the aerial port of embarkation (APOE) and airflow scheduling information into Global Transportation Network (GTN). Scheduling information is also available in the JOPES. Based on port call messages and air schedules, the organization backward plans movements to the POEs. Deploying unit equipment normally moves from unit marshalling areas to a central staging area on the installation for further processing. The name, organization and responsibilities for these installation level staging or marshalling areas may differ; however, the functions performed to prepare units for movement are essentially the same.

3-2. Each installation has an associated strategic aerial port and/or seaport, but must be prepared to deploy from other ports as necessary. The proximity of the port facilities to the installation determines the type of movement and the numbers and types of assets required to complete the movement to the port. In some cases, the distance to APOE and SPOE is short, allowing units to maximize the use of organic equipment and convoys. In other cases, the distance to the APOE or SPOE is longer; in which case, units may have to rely heavily on commercial road and/or rail transport to complete the move to the port.

CONVOY OPERATIONS

3-3. In some cases, units convoy their vehicles and equipment to the POE. A convoy is a group of vehicles organized for the purpose of control and orderly movement under the control of a single commander. In the absence of policies to the contrary, a convoy consists of six or more vehicles. Vehicles in a convoy are organized into groups to facilitate command, control, and security and normally move at the same rate. Refer to FM 4-01.45 for specific guidance on planning and conducting convoy operations.

3-4. To assist in the centralized convoy management, FORSCOM has implemented a Mobilization Movement Control Automation System (MOBCON) in each state. The unit will submit a DD Form 1265

( Request for Convoy Clearance) and/or a DD Form 1266 ( Request for Special Hauling Permit) through the installation UMC. MOBCON uses the National Highway Network database to schedule and deconflict convoys within CONUS. The deconfliction process allows only one convoy to operate over a segment of 21 April 2010

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Chapter 3