Animalogy: Dogs and Other Canids by Bassam Imam - HTML preview

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The Affenpinschers (Affen), sometimes referred to as ‘monkey terriers’ or ‘ratters’ date back to early 17th century Germany. This dog was an excellent ratter (rat killer). The Affen comes in black, fawn, gray, black and tan, gray and tan, and seldom reddish. Its feet and chest may be white. Its fur feels wiry.
Originally, Affens were larger. Later, they were bred to be mousers (house mouse killers). Long-skirted women had every reason to fear mice. But during their heyday Affens were placed in farms or any place where rats could live in.
Affens are tough and strong for their size. They’re
energetic, playful, alert, inquisitive, and protective of those whom they love. This is an energetic dog needing daily activity. According to an April 1950 AKC Gazette publication the Affen was brought to America in the mid-1930s. Note, standards and critiques of breeds were vague compared to today. Thanks to

the tenacious efforts of Bessie Mallie the Affen received official recognition.
The Affen is 10 to 15 inches tall and weighs 7 to 9 lbs. Afghan hounds are an ancient breed. These sight hounds are graceful, fast (not as fast as the greyhound, but they have better endurance), and convey a stately appearance.
Afghan hounds have long bodies, noticeably thick and long coats, and proudly carry their heads up.
Afghans date back to Ancient Egypt, 4000 years. They were ‘employed’ as sight hound hunters. They were bred to be fast, agile, and merciless in their hunting pursuits in ground terrain and mountains.
The Afghan hounds’ ancestors were brought to Afghanistan by tribal peoples. In Afghanistan they chased down gazelles, hares, and snow leopards. Countless generations of chasing fast prey and living in rugged and rough mountainous terrain in Afghanistan have made this breed of dog a tough and fast hunter. Afghan hounds were ‘brought’ to England during the 19th century by returning military personnel.
Afghan hounds tend to ‘attach’ themselves to one or two persons and may be cat like to others.
The Afghan hound is 27 to 29 inches tall and weighs 58 to 65 lbs.
Africanis (African Dog) is the ‘generic name’ used for the native dogs of Southern Africa. This dog is medium-sized, muscular, runs fast, and has a smooth gait. This dog forms close attachments to its human family. It’s a good guard dog, herder of animals and livestock. Africanis is territorial but friendly. The Africanis was bred and raised to be in open land. It needs roaming space and freedom. This is a healthy dog that can walk behind you for long distances without having to feel a need to lead.
The Africanis traces its ancestry to 5000 BC, Ancient Egypt. Although the Africanis is not a recognized breed Southern Africa is an incredibly large area with rich history and the Africanis has been used extensively as a special purpose dog. There are no precise height or weight measurements.
The Aidi or Atlas Mountain Dog is a North African
(Moroccan) dog that is 5000 years old.
The Aidi was employed to guard and protect people, flocks, and property from mountain predators. Aidis were prized for their readiness and preparedness to work and do what they had to. It is an independent thinker, has good vision, olfactory sense, and is powerful.
Trained Aidis can run on uneven, irregular terrain, skip from one rock to another, and have a keen sense for spotting snakes.

Owners must show that they are ‘the boss’ (alpha male), otherwise the Aidi will likely take over.
The Aidi is an outdoor dog. Apartment dwellers are not recommended to own this breed of dog. Aidis need to work and move about.
The Aidi is 24 inches tall and weighs 55 lbs.
The Ainu dog is slim, muscular, and compact dog. This dog is brave, fast, easily trained, energetic, faithful, and is a good hunter and guard.
The Ainu dog can challenge a large bear several times its size and weight. This is an outdoors dog that will not be suitable for apartment life. Long walks and a large yard or a place to run in are necessary.
The Ainu dog is a Spitz breed native to Japan and is sometimes referred to as a Hokkaido dog. They trace their history back to 1000 B.C.
Ainu dogs weigh 45-65 lbs. and are 18-22 inches tall. Airedale terriers (king of terriers) are the largest of the terrier dogs. The Airedale has a dense, wiry coat that is water resistant. Their heads are long and may appear rectangular at a glance. The head is held high.
Airedales originated in Yorkshire, England, in the mid-19th century. They were used in rat killing competitions by the Yorkshire working class. Airedales were placed near the banks of the Aire River and surrounding area. Rats that entered the water were duly chased by the Airedale Terrier then killed, if possible. They have a very strong bite.
Airedale males are 23 to 25 inches tall and weigh 55 to 65 lbs.
Airedales are multi-purpose dogs. They’ve been used for hunting (rats, coyotes, foxes, otters, fitches), guarding, doing police and military work, herding, sporting, search and rescue, aiding the physically challenged, and are good companion animals. They have an appearance of elegance and class. Teddy Roosevelt admired the Airedale terrier.
Two recognized breeds of Akitas are the original Japanese Akitas and the American standard Akitas. The exceptions to the 2 breed rule are in the U.S. and Canada. They’re considered one breed. I take the latter’s opinion.
The American version has a black mask while the Japanese doesn’t.
The Akitas trace their origins to the northern mountainous district of Japan. They were used to hold big game at bay until the hunter came. They were also used to bring back water fowl. Akitas have the physical appearance of a cold climate dog. They’re the largest of the spitz-type dogs. These dogs are beautiful, courageous, tough, dignified, detached to strangers, can be house broken, highly intelligent, good with children and other animals within the home. As with any other breed of dog correct socialization is essential. Akitas are prone to hypothyroidism.
Unfortunately, Akitas have been used in the dog fighting world. Cold-blooded criminals have used the strength, bravery, and size of this breed for evil purposes. Thankfully, the vast majority of Akitas are not bread for dog fighting.
Akitas are 26 to 29 inches tall and weigh 75 to 125 lbs. The Alapaha Blue Blood Bulldog is massively built,
powerful, hardworking, trainable, a good companion, and will fight to the death to protect its family, especially children. This is a very good guard dog.
The Alapaha looks like an enhanced/exaggerated bulldog. It looks menacing and is a tough as it looks. Originally a ‘Southern plantation dog’ and today is rare in number. A sustained rescue attempt was begun in 1979 by a dedicated group of southerners belonging to the Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog Association.
The Alapaha is 22 to 25 inches tall and weighs 75 to 100 lbs.
Alaskan huskies were bred to pull skis and to run long distances in the far north. This dog is not an official breed, but a category.
Alaskan huskies are the epitome of the ‘sled dog’ racers. These dogs are larger but slimmer than Siberian huskies. Their endurance is unmatched, even by the Siberian husky.
Alaskan huskies have an overall friendly demeanour, are good with children, intelligent, highly energetic, and easy to train.
Alaskan huskies fair better with access to the outdoors so they can move about. If kept indoors in an urban environment the owner/s must walk their dog regularly and allow it to use up much energy on activities.
Alaskan huskies are not big eaters. Surprisingly, they can get by with less food than expected. They need to be shown who is boss otherwise the owner will see rebellion and mischievous behaviour.
Furthermore, dog owners living in warmer climates should be warmed that Alaskan huskies are genetically and physically equipped for the northern colder climates. They should not be worked hard in warm weather.
Alaskan huskies should be well cared for by their mushers. Unfortunately, some owners overwork, underfeed, and chain their working dogs for extended periods of time. Sled or working dogs are helping their owners get their ‘bread and butter’. This is not the way to thank them.

Alaskan huskies are beautiful dogs. They have a ‘happy face expression’ and beautiful coats.
The Alaskan husky is 21 to 24 inches tall and weighs 75 to 85 lbs.
Alaskan malamutes (Malamutes) are the largest of the northern (Arctic) dogs. They are affectionate, kind, caring, good with children, and loyal to their masters. Like the Alaskan huskies, they’re beautiful dogs, and should not be considered good guard dogs. A friendly disposition and beauty will not scare away a criminal intruder. Alaskan malamutes need much activity; they were bred to be hard working dogs in the far north.
Apartment life may be difficult. Alaskan malamutes that are placed inside apartments or homes can be quite destructive if their ‘inherent drive’ is not satisfied. Do not overwork your dog in warm weather.
Alaskan malamutes have an inherent pack hierarchy sense. The human must be the leader. Otherwise, there’ll be rebellion. Unfortunately, some scrupulous breeders look only for the quick buck; breeding money making sled dogs, and disposing of the puppies that can’t make the grade.
The Alaskan malamute is 22 to 27 inches tall and weighs 70 to 100 lbs.
The American Alsatian was selectively bred from the Alaskan malamute, Anatolian Shepherd, German shepherd dog, Great Pyrenees, and English Mastiff.
The American Alsatian is a large dog, a good family dog, loyal to its master, also good with children and pets. Although the Alsatian is oblivious to strangers it’s not aggressive or antagonistic. If taken for regular walks or is allowed to perform activities this dog will be quiet and calm; individuals may appear relaxed and laid back.
The American Alsatian is tolerant of loud noises and is comfortable in a home environment. In addition, they have a weak prey drive and are not big barkers, whiners, or make other sounds that can be quite bothersome when performed at inopportune times.
The American Alsatian is one of the best American dog breeds.
Adult males are 25 to 29 inches tall and weigh 80 to 120 lbs.
The American bulldog is a muscular, agile, powerful (body and jaw), tough-looking dog. This dog has a broad face, and looks like a fighting dog, but in actuality it isn’t. Although the American bulldog (ABD) appears menacing it has a friendly temperament. Its jawbone is not as massive as that of the American Staffordshire terrier.

The ABD is faithful, trustworthy, courageous, tenacious, protective, and good with children. The breed was originally bred for bull baiting, guarding, and hunting. Out-breeding of the fighting instinct has resulted in a friendlier dog. Mind you, these are generalities. Any dog (male or female) from any breed can have a friendly hostile temperament; individuals and circumstance should be taken into consideration.
In addition, the general mood and health of the particular dog should not be ignored. For instance, a stranger who crosses a dog’s territory or path may be bitten, or worse yet viciously attacked. Ask yourself, what is the dog doing? Does it perceive me as a threat to it or its master? Am I getting too close to its territory? Always be careful when meeting a new dog. Never pet a dog without the owner’s permission, and slowly place your hand below the dog’s muzzle first. Hands coming down in a jackhammer method appear as an attack to some dogs. The dog cannot fend off the attack by lifting up its forelegs. It can bite your hand, however.
Sexual dimorphism is more apparent in the ABD than in most other breeds. The ABC is 22 to 28 inches tall and weighs 60 to 120 lbs.
The American Bully is massive and athletic-looking. Although it looks extremely menacing it has a happy and friendly temperament. This is an obedient dog that enjoys pleasing its owner. Good with children and will fight to the death to protect its family or if forced to defend itself. This dog is confident, strong, and hard-working.
The American Bully needs to be active; long daily walks or exercise area will do. If these conditions are satisfied this dog can live indoors.
American Bullies are 17 to 21 inches tall. Weight
distribution is broad and there is no maximum. Healthy adults are massive.
The American cocker spaniel (Cocker) is medium-sized, sturdy, and the smallest member of the sporting dogs. This dog is fast and has good endurance. As such, it needs to use up much of its pent up energy. It is gentle and if properly trained is good with its owner and children.
Cockers are good-natured, joyous, energetic, athletic, and willing to please. They were bred as gundogs; retrieving woodcocks. The American cocker spaniel is smaller than the English cocker spaniel; this became apparent in the 1930s. Cockers are very popular in the United States. Although popularity has dipped a bit, it’s still widely loved. Cockers can live indoors if they receive adequate
exercise. Cockers are 13.5 to 15.5 inches tall and weigh 24 to 29 lbs.

The American Pitt Bull Terrier (APBT) is a strong,
muscular, alert, tenacious, energetic, loving, protective, athletic, playful dog that has gotten a bad reputation by the press.
The APBT loves to please its master. In addition, it will fight to the death to protect its family and property. This is an incredibly strong and awesome breed. The APBT was originally bred to be a ‘sustained fighter’, to endure pain, to have a relentless drive, and to have a ‘sustained bite’.
Although the APBT looks ‘very menacing’ and ‘intimidating’ this dog will more likely show aggression towards another dog or another animal, if at all.
Proper socialization, the correct temperament, and firm leadership should remove these aggressive traits. As will all other breeds of dogs and individuals, there is NEVER A GUARANTEE. Remember, this applies to all breeds of dogs not just the APBT. We have to be fair about that. Bites and attacks, although horrible and sad, are more publicized if they’re committed by bull terrier type dogs, Rottweiler, Dobermans, or other large, tough dogs. Virtually any powerful dog can hurt any unarmed and unprepared human. APBT has a ‘sustained bite’; this means that unlike other dog breeds in general who bite and then snap back, this dog breed has the inherent ability to bite and not let go, unless made to do so.
A properly socialized APBT should be playful, loving, affectionate, and enjoy playing games like fetch. In addition, its athletic abilities can be used for agility trials, guarding, search and rescue, and obedience trials. The APBT has also been used for the sick and elderly.
APBT can live indoors but must be exercised daily. This is an athletic dog that loves activities.
The APBT’s forefathers were bred as fighters and bull baiters. It was humans who bred the forefathers of the APBT for fighting; they can also breed for a kind, loving dog. The biggest problems with dog fighting are the human participants. They’re the ones who breed, organize, sustain, wager, furnish, advertise, enjoy, punish and kill (has-been fighters), train, and provide the facilities.
Any person/s found guilty of organizing dog fighting events should face stiff criminal penalties. Furthermore, the organizer/s must also be liable for any suffering and deaths caused by their blood-sport.
Unfortunately, in big cities across North America and even out in the country, where fights can be hidden from the general public, there’s an increase in dog-fighting. Has-been Pitt bull type fighting dogs are sometimes found in garbage dumps. An occasional ‘sensational arrest’ as in the case of Michael Vick is few and far between. The guilty parties should be forbidden to own any animal for life, especially dogs.
‘Former owners’ are the most likely persons to ‘dump’ their ABPT or ‘mix breed’ into shelters. These persons were not qualified to own an APBT, and most likely any sort of dog. First time potential buyers of any pet (any breed of canine or noncanine)
should understand what it takes to properly care for their potential new family member.
Basically, dog fighting includes the following elements: A. Stealing companion animals for bait or for training as upcoming fighters.
B. Horrible training regimens, causing severe mental agony and/or physical pain.
C. Deprivation of food and water to toughen up the fighter. Afterwards, ‘the bait’ will be ‘granted’ in the form of a practice opponent in a pit or dangled on a tree branch; sometimes pasted with blood. The killing instinct has to be ‘all encompassing’ during every single fight.
D. Lack of respect for the dog fighter. Masters often bitch out or get physical with their dog fighter.
E. No mercy or compassion is shown if the dog fighter is maimed and is no longer able to fight or is killed. Sometimes losing fighters are killed outright after the match, done through beatings, shootings, kicking, or in rare instances being burned alive. The dog fighter can be tossed out into the street or into an already overcrowded shelter.
F. Spectators are from the rabble of society; illegal wagering, drugs, weapons, convicts, alcohol, and an atmosphere of enjoying blood, pain, and when applicable death. The feelings of the combatants are irrelevant. Winning is the only thing! G. Dog fighters who do survive and are lucky enough to be tossed away must live with horrible mutilating, and mental trauma injuries. Pitt bull terriers are present in shelters at disproportionately high levels.
H. Children are sometimes taken to these blood-sports. Without delving deeply into the psychological aspects, it is sad, and may be dangerous. Unless he/she dies, every single child will grow up to be an adult.
I. Some of the dogfighters that are tossed out or escape become a danger to the public at large.
J. Little or no veterinary medical care is available to the dog fighter, as that would entail the loss of ‘profits’ and ‘earnings’.
K. Food may consist of slop or if the fighting dog is lucky something approaching normal.

Most of the aforementioned points apply to any fighting dog regardless of breed, except the final statement in letter ‘G’. Politicians simply aren’t doing enough. The biggest
victims, the dog fighters can’t vote, they’re animals, and certainly their ‘trainers’ don’t care about them. Usually, only big cases make big stories in the media.
The predecessor to the modern APBT was transported to America during the mid-19th century by Irish immigrants living in Boston. The American version of this bull terrier (APBT) was bred to be larger than its British counterpart.
The APBT is 15 to 22 inches tall most weigh 30 to 65 lbs. The American Staffordshire Terrier (AST) is 17 to 20 inches tall and weighs 55 to 70 lbs.
The UKC (United Kennel Club) uses the name American Pitt Bull Terrier while the AKC (American Kennel Club) uses the name American Pitt Bull Terrier.
ASTs are bred primarily for show. For in-depth information on this dog breed go to the go to the INFORMATION BOOTH section. ASTs are massive, powerful, and large-framed.
Although the American Foxhound (AFH) is similar in
appearance to its close relative the English foxhound it has been bred to be lighter in weight and taller.
The AFH was bred to move about and run; hence it is a very active and energetic dog. Furthermore, this dog is friendly, easy-going, kind, and loving. However, during a hunt it is courageous and very tenacious. The dog must be on a leash if taken for a walk as its nose may pick up an interesting scent. If the dog isn’t ‘secured’ it may go off to in search of the target animal. In addition, this dog is not good in extended kennel living and may not be suitable for indoor living. Daily activity is a must; as this dog is highly energetic and active. The AFH has an inherent pack mentality, therefore it is generally dog-to-dog friendly. However, this may not be so with other species of animals.
Be advised that this dog loves to bay and bark. Neighbours may not like this.
The AFH are derived from the English hounds that were transported to America in the mid-17th century. George Washington is the father of the AFH; even mentioning them in many of his journals.
AFH may be 21-25 inches tall and weigh between 65-75 lbs. American pit bull terriers (APBT) who are properly
socialized are not ‘automatic attackers’ or ‘automatic fighters’. However, most dog breeds bite then pull or snap back. APBTs have an inherent ability to be ‘sustained biters’; not letting go, sometimes having to be killed to do so.

Laws pertaining to Breed Specific Legislation (BSL) must be obeyed. If a ‘LEGISLATIVELY ILLEGAL DOG OWNER’ is dead against this law, go about changing it in a lawful manner. Otherwise, any bite or attack upon a human or companion animal will result in criminal and/or civil action.
The Basenji (Congo dog, bark-less dog) is athletic, small, energetic, playful, alert, and independent.
The Basenji traces its origin in Ancient Egypt 5000 years ago. Today, Africans prize Basenji’s for their hunting skills, quickness, speed, and their stealth (no barking).
Basenjis (hound group) were ‘modified’ in England in the late 1930’s. By the early 1940’s basenji litters were being born in the United States.
Basenjis can be reserved to strangers but are able to form friendships. Owners should give their Basenji ‘chewy toys’ as this dog loves to chew on things. In addition, this dog is very energetic needing daily activity.
Basenjis must be properly socialized in order to get along with other animals or pets. As a general rule, they will have no problems with other basenjis.
The Basenji is 17 inches tall and weighs 25 lbs.
The Basset hound dog is large headed, short, weighty, devoted, and loyal. This dog is not intimidating to passersby. It’s a large dog (long and big) with ‘pygmy legs’. The Basset hound has a laid back, sad expression on its face.
Basset hounds have an incredible olfactory sense. They were bred to hunt by scent.
Basset hounds are quite vocal, must be on a leash when walked outdoors (they may pick up a scent and work on it), are good with children and are good with their family. Owners should keep treats on hand when training Basset hounds; sometimes they’re forgetful when no treat is received. Weight gain places much stress on their short legs. This dog should be taken on daily walks and not fed large meals as bloating may become a problem. Swimming is quite difficult for Basset hounds.
The Basset hound is 12 to 15 inches tall and weighs 50 to 65 lbs.
The Beagle hound dog (looks like a small foxhound) is small, compact, short-legged, short eared, droopy eared, courageous, loving, easy-going, and friendly. Because of their friendly temperament, easy handling, and trusting nature (towards humans) this is the most often used dog breed in dog vivisection.
Beagles that are properly socialized will ‘smile’ and wag their tale at those they know and even strangers.

Beagles are good with children and should be properly socialized with smaller animals while in the puppy stage; as they were bred for the hunt. As such, they are known for their baying.
If properly trained beagles can live in apartments, but should receive adequate exercise. Remember, they like to pick up scents so owners should keep them on leash when outdoors. Beagles were first used in England in the 16th century as hunters of big game (larger beagles) or hunters of small animals (smaller beagles) like rabbits.
There are two height classes for beagles; under 13 inches and 13 to 15 inches. They weigh between 20 to 25 lbs. The Bearded collie (herder of sheep) is highly energetic, strong, medium-sized, loving, tail-wagging, trainable, and affectionate. They are good with ‘their family’.
Bearded Collies must be walked daily or have some kind of venue for exercise. Otherwise, they’ll become quite restless. They are loud barkers.
The Bearded Collie traces its origin back to the early 16th century when a Polish sea captain (Kazimierz Grabski
) traded several of his dogs for two animals from a resident Scottish shepherd.
The ‘Polish dogs’ were so impressive the Scottish shepherd decided to breed them with other herding dogs.
The bearded collie’s hair should be brushed daily. They are 20 to 22 inches tall and weigh 40 to 60 lbs.
The Bernese mountain dog (BMD) is a large, powerful, robust, and agile dog. They’re good with children, friendly to strangers, and quite intelligent. Originating in Switzerland and used as farm dogs, draft animals, watch dogs, and companions. BMDs are difficult to keep in apartments. They need to be walked daily because they are susceptible to bloat and weight gain. Regular grooming is necessary.
The BMD is 23 to 28 inches tall weighs between 80 to 120 lbs.
The Bichon Frise (Bichon) is a small, sturdy, lively, energetic, loving, clever, intelligent, fluffy coated, happy dog that feels comfortable around humans, including children. Bichons may stand on two legs or behave like clowns. They’re funny and like to be cuddled.
After the French Revolution (1789-1799) many wealthy, powerful individuals were ‘thrown’ into the streets; many of them owned Bichons.
The most popular colour for Bichons is snow white. The coat should be groomed every 4 or 5 weeks.
The Bichon is loveable with everyone and is happy with other animals. This is an intelligent breed that is lively and is easily trained. However, housebreaking takes some work and as with countless other breeds of dogs a pack hierarchy must be established; every human in the family must always have higher ran than all of the dogs (regardless of breed, type, or gender) at all times, without any exceptions, ever.
The Bichon should be walked daily because it is energetic. The Bichon traces its origins back to the 13th century; a descendant of the Water Spaniel this breed was loved and traded by sailors. During the 16th century this dog was very popular with the French royal courts.
The Bichon breed is generally easily trainable. They’ve worked in circuses, travelling roadside shows, and can perform tricks for owners. Bichons love to be the focus of attention, especially in crowds.
In the mid-1950s Mr. and Mrs. Francois Picault brought over several Bichons to the United States’ eventually leading to the formation of the Bichon Frise Club of America.
The Bichon is 9 to 12 inches tall and is between 7 to 12 lbs.
The Border collie is one of the most intelligent dog breed. Some say, it is the most intelligent. It is medium-sized, vigorous, and is a natural working dog.
Border collies are easily trainable and love to be please their master. They’re very athletic and competitive. Border Collies must be taken on long walks daily or be adequately exercised.
Correctly socialized, the Border collie can be good with children and other animals.
The Border collie originated in the border region of England and Scotland.
Boston Terriers, previously called American bull terriers are compact, short-bodied, well-developed dogs.
Boston Terriers have a kind and friendly temperament, are alert, intelligent, and are good with people including children, the elderly, and strangers.
Boston terriers can be live indoors but must be taken on long walks or properly exercised.
The Boston terriers’ forefathers were larger fighting dogs. They were ‘downsized’ to their present appearance. In addition, positive, friendly traits were bred in. This is a fine example of ‘positive trait breeding’. This dog has ‘bull’ and ‘terrier’ genes, but with a friendly touch.
The Boston terrier is an American dog; an American
creation. The forefather of this breed was a dog named Hooper’s Judge (1865); a cross between an English bulldog and a White terrier. French bulldogs were used for ‘downsizing’ and for the ‘bulging eyes’.

Boston terriers are between 15 to 17 inches tall and weigh 10 to 25 lbs.
The Boxer is compact, athletic, versatile, solid, mediumsized, and strong. It’s jolly, playful, active, intelligent, a quick learner, and good with children.
Boxers may be ‘rowdy’ around people, jumping on them. They can be troublesome if ignored for too long. Properly socialized Boxers can get along with other dogs and cats. Prey animals may be a problem, however.
Boxers trace their origin to 19th century Germany. They’re a product of German mastiffs and bulldogs.
Boxers were initially used for dog fighting, bull baiting, and to hold large game animals. More recently, boxers have been used for military, police, and guard duties. They’re susceptible to overheating.
The Boxer is 22 to 25 inches tall and weighs 60 to 70 lbs. The Brittany (Formerly the Brittany spaniel) is a mediumsized, affectionate, intelligent, long-legged, and easy to
Since the mid-20th century the Brittany’s popularity has increased dramatically. It’s a loving, trainable hunting dog; has features of a pointer or a setter. The Brittany may be related to the Welsh Springer-spaniel. Because of its size and easy going temperament they’re easy to transport.
The Brittany is good with its family including children. This is a high energy dog. Therefore, apartment life may not be suited for it unless the owner/s can take their dog on long daily walks or sufficient exercise.
The Brittany’s traces its origin to the French province of Brittany.
The Brittany is 17 to 21 inches tall and weighs between 35 to 50 lbs.
The British Bull dog (BBD) is a broad, massive, dense dog with short legs and a gargantuan head. The jaws are incredibly massive. Extra skin is located on the face and head giving this dog a broader facial appearance.
The BBD was originally bred for bull baiting; it was incredible at that.
The BBD would begin a ‘low-level’ attack then move up. It was talented in evading the bull’s horns. As soon as the BBD got a hold of the bull it bit with extreme tenacity ‘aiming’ for the mouth or nose to suffocate its opponent.
The fighting BBD was courageous and had incredible tenacity during fights. The modern day BBD is a much more loving, jolly, playful, and easy-going dog. It goes to show you that PROPER BREEDING often works! Aggressive dog breeds can be ‘phased friendly’.

Owners of BBD should be aware that breathing problems and sensitivity occur in hot, humid, and cold climates. Furthermore, many BBD birth must be performed by C-Section. The puppies’ heads are too large!
BBD are good with people including children, and can be trained to be good with other pets. They can live indoors but must not be allowed to become lazy. Otherwise, they’ll gain much weight.
The BBD is 12 to 16 inches tall and weighs 53 to 55 lbs. The Bullmastiff is a large, energetic, brave,
‘substantial’, compact, powerful dog.
The Bullmastiff is good natured, attentive, affectionate, brave, guard dog. This dog was bred to restrain and/or knock down an intruder or criminal then hold him until help arrives. Although this dog is not likely to attack, there’s never a guarantee.
The Bullmastiff, in full or mixed breed form has been used in dog fighting. Bullmastiffs that are used in dog fighting can be quite stoic. It is more commanding than the Mastiff. The Bullmastiff traces its origin to 1860; English estates and game preserves. The Mastiff was crossed with the Bulldog to get the Bullmastiff. This dog drools, slobbers, and snores. Bullmastiffs can live in apartments but must be exercised daily. In addition, due to their size they need adequate ‘elbow space’ and children may be inadvertently knocked down to the ground.
The Bullmastiff is 25-27 inches tall and weighs 110-135 lbs. However, some individuals can exceed the general maximum weight.
The Bull terriers’ ‘forefathers’ were true gladiators. They were incredible fighting machines. Today’s version of this gladiator is jolly, clownish, and playful. They’re courageous, brave, and doughty. They’re affectionate, loving, and like to please their owners. As such, they’re good with people, including children.
Bull terriers can live indoors provided they are taken on long walks or sufficiently exercised.
The Bull terrier traces its origin to the mid-19th century. They were used as fighting dogs, ratters, and as sheep herders. Thanks to James Hinks of Birmingham, England the modern day Bull terrier was formed.
Standard Bull terriers are 20 to 25 inches tall and weigh between 45 to 85 lbs. Miniature bull terriers are between 10 to 15 inches tall and weigh between 20-35 lbs.
The Cairn terrier is highly energetic, small, jolly, playful, loyal, loveable, loves to be around people including children.

Cairn terriers are active indoors so owners should ensure that their dog is properly exercised; daily play and walking will do. Elderly folks who are tired, sickly, and lack energy should seek professional advice before purchasing an ‘energetic dog’.
The Cairn terrier trace it origin to early 16th century Highlands of Scotland. It is one of Scotland’s first working dog breeds. They excelled as ratters. Therefore, owners should be aware that this dog will chase after rodents or other scurrying animals.
Cairn terriers are 10 to 13 inches tall and weigh 14 to 18 lbs.
The Canaan dog is medium-sized and well proportioned. It is a trustworthy, complying, athletic good. It is a good tracker, gentle, loyal, friendly, and good with its family. This dog is a natural defender of territory.
The Canaan dog traces its origins back to Ancient Israel (roughly 2200 BC).
The ancient Israelites used Canaan dogs for herding sheep and guarding humans, property, and animals.
Dr. Rudolphina Menzel trained 400 Canaan dogs to do military work. Their mine detecting abilities were superb. In addition, the Canaan dog has been used in search and rescue and as a guide for the blind.
Canaan dogs are between 19 to 25 inches tall and weigh 35 to 55 lbs.
The Cardigan Welsh Corgi CWC is a low-set, long, big-boned, intelligent, obedient, compliant, reliable, tenacious, loving dog. However, if this dog is not properly socialized it can be guarded or even standoffish to strangers. It’s good with children who respect it.
The CWC traces its origin to Cardiganshire, brought there by the Celts in 1200 BC. This dog was originally used as a farm dog and herder. The CWC nips at the herded animals. The CWC is 10 to 13 inches tall and weighs 25 to 38 lbs. The Carolina dog looks like a smaller-sized version of the Australian dingo. It is strong, well-muscled, agile, energetic, powerful-jawed, and alert. It is very strong for its size. The Carolina dog should not be kept indoors. This breed is not ‘fully domesticated’. It needs to move about. Long daily walks are necessary.
The Carolina dog traces its origin at least 8000 years. This was perhaps the first dog breed to be domesticated in the Americas.
Dr. I Lehr Brisbin, a biologist at the University of Georgia ‘discovered’ the Carolina dog.

The Carolina dog is 17 to 24 inches tall and weighs 30 to 45 lbs.
The Chihuahua is the smallest dog breed. The head is rounded and the ears are prominent and quite large in comparison to the overall body size.
Chihuahuas are companion dogs who love their families. They’re brave, quick, have a strong drive, and can be somewhat jealous if their owner ‘loves’ another person (animal or human). They’re good with families and children but should always be handled gently and carefully.
Chihuahuas may develop ‘small dog syndrome’; they don’t quite understand how tiny they are. They may take on a larger dog or perform a high-level leap or descent. Although they’re agile, this kind of action can result in serious injuries to its tiny joints and bones.
Chihuahuas identify with their own breed but may be
aggressive to other breeds. Because of its small size a fight with another dog breed can result in a major catastrophe for the Chihuahua. They can be kept in apartments.
Chihuahuas are sensitive to cold, rain, and like other small dog breeds hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) is something to be on the lookout for. As such, several small meals a day are required; rather than one or two large meals.
Chihuahuas are prone to a wide variety of problems
including hypoglycaemia, slipped stifle (when the joint in the hind leg above the hock slips), colds, gum problems, rheumatism, stress, eye problems and weight gain.
Chihuahuas are an ancient breed of the Americas that were once used by the natives in the land occupying Mexico and South America. The breed’s name was taken from the Mexican State of Chihuahua.
Chihuahuas are between 6 and 9 inches tall and weigh a maximum of 6 lbs.
The Chinese Shar-Pei traces its origin to Kwantung Province in China around 200 BC. The words ‘Shar-Pei’ mean sandy coat. It has a sand-paper like coat and is very wrinkly skinned especially on the head and face and has a blue-black tongue color and a muzzle shaped like that of a hippo.
The Shar Pei is medium-sized, clean, reserved, and may be cold or unfriendly to strangers, loving and loyal to its family. Upon the establishment of the Communist Regime in China dogs for the most part were obliterated. Luckily, a small number of Shar-Pei was bred in Hong Kong and Taiwan.
In 1973 a small number of Shar-Pei were brought to the United States after pleas from Shar-Pei lovers in Hong Kong.

The Shar-Pei is alert, energetic, intelligent and
protective of its family. Strangers who cross the line with a Shar-Pei may be bitten.
The Shar-Pei is 18 to 20 inches tall and weighs 45 to 65 lbs.
The Chow Chow is a big, strong, heavy-boned, compact dog originally bred for work, but today is primarily a companion dog.
The Chow Chows have a blue-black coloured tongue and this dog breed has a majestic lion look. It is well-mannered, good with families and children, but may be aloof or standoffish with strangers.
Chow Chows are independent and are less inclined to please their owners; a cat trait.
The Chow Chow can live indoors but must be adequately exercised. Chow Chows are better suited for cool or cold weather. Owners who reside in warm climate regions should be aware of this fact.
Chow Chows are an ancient breed dating to 206 BC Ancient China.
The Chow Chow is 18 to 22 inches tall and weighs 55 to 70 lbs.
The Curly Coated Retriever (Curly) is a large, muscular, energetic dog originally bred in England for bird and waterfowl hunting. This dog breed is a good swimmer. Hence, the curly coat is good protection from the cold and does well in water. The curly enjoys pleasing its master, intelligent, and is easy to train.
The Curly is one of the oldest of the retriever breeds. It’s a good family dog, tenacious, and is gentle to those it loves.
The Curly is 25 to 27 inches tall and weighs 60 to 80 lbs. The Dachshund is a very popular breed in North America. Even as children we remember seeing Dachshunds. They’re hard to forget.
Dachshunds are low to the ground (short-legged), longbodied, long-headed, muscular for their size and their skin is stretchy (elastic). Three recognized varieties of Dachshunds include the short-haired, long-haired, and wire-haired. The standard Dachshund is 16 to 32 lbs. and the miniature is 11 lbs. and under at 12 months of age and older.
Dachshunds are inquisitive, intelligent, clever, vivacious, loving, affectionate their family, but may be a bit difficult to train.
Dachshunds tend to be ‘mouthy’, confident, and have a good olfactory sense and hunting drive.

Dachshunds must be trained early about the rules of the home and their position therein. Otherwise, they can become bossy, over-protective, and stand-offish towards visitors and strangers. They can live indoors but must be taken on daily walks or exercised.
The Dachshund trace its ancestry to early 17th century Germany. This dog was originally bred for hunting badgers and other burrowing animals. Its short legs ensured that it could squeeze below ground to fight the ‘target animal’ to the death if need be.
Dachshunds are not built for high leaps or long jumps. Their spines and their short legs are not designed for either activity.
Dalmatians are spotted dogs, large, strong, highly energetic, athletic, muscular, and have incredible endurance. During the 1800’s Dalmatians were employed as carriage dogs that ran beside and guarded horses and carriages, especially when their master was pre-occupied or away. Later, they were used as mascots for fire departments. They’ve also been used as guards and hunters. Be advised that deafness occurs in roughly 1 in 10 Dalmatians.
Dalmatian origin is not as straightforward as in most other breeds. Its ancestors were most likely used by ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks. In 1993, the FCI (Federation Cynologique Internationale) recognized Croatian roots of the modern day Dalmatians.
Dalmatians are not suited for living in small, crowded indoor environments unless they’re able to use up much of their energy reserves during the day. If bred and raised properly they can be good with children and other pets, but may become a bit overactive and overexcited. Dalmatians can become aggressive or combative with other males of their species.
Dalmatians are 19 to 23 inches tall and weigh about 55 lbs. The Dingo is widely known throughout the world. This is a medium-sized dog that howls and has short barks. It is the most famous dog in Australia.
Modern day Dingoes are not domesticated. Hence, they can still be found in the wild, hunting together in packs, and fending for themselves like wild animals.
Dingoes have been raised and owned by humans. If raised from puppyhood (6 weeks of age or younger) they can be socialized to be friendly, caring, and easier to get along with then their wild counterparts. As a safety precaution, be aware that Dingoes are still wild at heart. I don’t recommend them in households with children. Dingoes have an outgoing spirit. Although Dingoes are top predators in Australia individuals many Dingoes as a result of attacks upon livestock and because of the ‘wild nature’ of this dog. Dingoes have short barks. Dingoes were once domesticated but their ancestors later resorted to the ‘wild life’. They arrived on the Australian continent with the aboriginals 4000 years ago. Presently there are no Dingoes in Tasmania.
The Doberman Pinscher is medium-sized, strong, has good stamina, highly alert, energetic, muscular, compact, intelligent, and loyal (when properly trained). Many owners choose to crop their dog’s ears to give it an alert and menacing look. This dog’s alert, serious, and powerful gaze alone will scare off many an intruder.
Dobermans have been used by the military, law enforcement, guard dogs, for herding, and by hospitals to help patients feel better.
Karl Friedrich Louis Doberman is credited as being the person who began the process (1860) leading to the development of the Doberman Pinscher. Doberman was a German tax collector who needed a strong, tenacious, and reliable guard dog for his frequent travels through ‘crime infested areas’.
Dobermans can live indoors if they’re allowed to use up much energy outdoors.
Dobermans are 26 to 28 inches tall and weigh 70 to 100 lbs. The Dogo Argentinos (Dogos) are large, muscular, deepchest, powerful, white dogs that were originally bred for
hunting big game. They’ve been used for military, police, dog fighting, and search and rescue.
Dogos can be overprotective of their family. They can be used as guards. Owners must properly socialize their Dogos if they want them to get along with other dogs. Dogos will not tolerate another dog’s perceived dominance; especially of the same gender.
Dogos trace their origins to 1920s Argentina. Dr. Antonio Nores Martinez and his brother Augustine bred a brave, tenacious, and powerful hunting and guardian dog. The Cordoba fighting dog (extinct) was crossed with the Boxer, Bull terrier, Dogue de Bordeaux, Great Pyrenees, Pointer, Irish wolfhound, Old English bulldog, and Spanish mastiff to ‘form’ the Dogos Argentinos. Dogos are 24 to 27 inches tall and weigh 80 to 105 lbs.
The Dogue de Bordeaux (DDB) also referred to as the French Mastiff or the Bordeaux Bulldog, is a muscular, deep chest powerfully built, large-headed dog. It has a wrinkly face and neck.
The DDB is a brave, loyal, and calm dog. However, it may be confrontational with strangers. These dogs were originally bred for fighting, guarding, and hunting. This is a Mastiff-type dog.

It is widely believed that the DDB predates both Mastiffs and Bulldogs.
The DDB can live indoors but should have some relief of energy output outdoors. DDB are known to drool and slobber. Be prepared to be splattered!
DDBs are 23 to 30 inches tall and weigh 100 to 145 lbs. The English Bulldog (EB) is a smooth-coated, massive, broad, low-set dog with a large head and incredible jaws. The muzzle is short and blunt. The hind quarters are higher than the forequarters. This dog is powerful, determined, even-tempered, loyal, affectionate, can be somewhat stubborn, but good with family members including children, and to other animals. Problems may develop with strange dogs if they don’t behave like pack members. Otherwise, this is a funny and clown-like dog. So much so, it has been pictured and drawn in human clothing and funny outfits perhaps more than any other dog breed.
Depending on whom you ask the EB is an oversized ugly, menacing-looking dog or a very beautiful and jolly-looking dog. I consider this dog type large and cute.
The EB is not overly active and is prone to overheating or overcooling. Your EB should live in a mild or temperate climate zone.
Although the EB is not a prized guard dog if need be it will hold its ground. It’s known to leap onto intruders if it perceives them as a threat knocking ‘the object’ over. The EB is prone to breathing problems because of the shape of its face. In addition, puppies are often delivered by caesarean section due to their oversized heads.
EB can live indoors but should be walked daily. The walk need not be brisk or long. This dog can sprint short distances with lightening-speed. Also, they tend to drool, snore, and are prone to flatulence.
EB trace their ancestry to 12th century British Isles. They were bred as ‘bull’ and ‘bear’ baiters. Hence the word ‘bull’ in its name.
Bull baiting was a bloody and ruthless sport. A bear or a bull was tied to a pole or an inanimate/stationary object inside a pit. Then, a highly trained ‘bulldog’ was sent into the pit to try to kill the targeted animal by biting on its flesh especially the mouth or nose. The bulldogs’ short stature, structure of its mouth and jaw-line and face (allowed it to bite down and breath) and incredible ‘biting tenacity’ (clamping down and simply not letting go), made it a formidable baiter. In 1835 the British Parliament made bear baiting illegal. This caused the ‘Old English Bulldog’ (original bulldog fighter) to lose its popularity. Today’s EB has been bred to be friendly; lucky for us!
The EB is 12 to 16 inches tall and weighs 50 to 55 lbs. English Cocker Spaniels (ECS) are a separate breed than the American Cocker Spaniel (ACS). In 1946 the American Kennel Club and the Canadian Kennel Club officially recognized the ECS as a separate breed from the ACS. Both breeds look somewhat alike. The ECS is an old Spaniel breed. Later, the spaniels were categorized as Clumber, Cocker Spaniel, English Springer, Field, Irish Water, and Welsh Springer.
ECS are medium-sized, compact, intelligent, sturdy,
energetic, enthusiastic sporting dog (originally used for flushing out game even in tough terrain) that can live in most environments. They have cat-like feet and their toes are arched. Field lines are bred for hunting while show lines are bred for dog shows. Because of their drooping ears both lines are prone to ear infections. Owners should check their dogs’ ears on a regular basis and keep them clean.
ECS are loving, playful, and have a generally friendly demeanour, even with strangers. This is an outdoorsy dog so outdoors activity is necessary.
ECS are 15 to 17 inches tall and weigh 28 to 35 lbs. English Coonhounds (EC) or ‘Red-tick Coonhounds’ are more likely to be found in the American south. They have a short, hard coat and are energetic, sociable, fast, can guard (the house or yard) excellent trailer, have a good temperament, highly attuned senses, are proficient hunters, devoted to their family and good with older children.
English Coonhounds are not recommended for housing in small, enclosed areas. They need to jog or somehow use up much energy daily. Otherwise they may become restless and develop behaviour problems. At times, they can become stubborn and may be difficult to train. Owners should be aware that unleashed Coons may leave their owners if they pick up a scent. In addition, they’re good tree dogs. Keep this dog on a leash and don’t let go until you’re in a securely enclosed place. In 1905 the English Coonhound was initially registered as an English fox & Coonhound.
English Coonhounds are 21 to 27 inches tall and weigh 40 to 75 lbs. with some individuals weighing over 90 lbs.
English Foxhounds are scent hounds with good hunting skills with extraordinary endurance and stamina. These are athletic dogs. They were primarily used for fox hunting. Hence they can run for several hours with little or no rest. The coat is short, dense, hard, and glossy. English Foxhounds are shorter,

English Foxhounds are extremely energetic and active. As such, they’re not recommended for indoor living. They need regular exercise like running beside a jogger or a person on a bicycle. These dogs are pack animals; they get along with humans including children. Owners need to be patient when training these dogs.
English Foxhounds trace their ancestry to late 16th century England. Studbooks were maintained as far back as the 1800s. English Foxhounds are 21 to 25 inches tall and weigh 65 to 75 lbs.
The English Pointer is a powerful, athletic, graceful, medium-sized, very energetic, tenacious hunter (pointer, gun dog). This dog has pointy-dangling ears.
English Pointers are devoted, loving, and have a friendly demeanour. They love their family including children. This is a very energetic dog that needs daily jobs or walks. Without proper exercise they’ll become very restless living indoors. English Pointers ‘officially’ trace their roots back to mid-17th century England. The English Pointer was a result of crossing Bloodhounds, Bull Terriers, Italian Pointers, Foxhound, and Setter.
English Pointers are 24 to 28 inches tall and weigh 55 to 75 lbs.
The English setter is a beautiful, vivacious, friendly, athletic, lean, long, athletic dog.
The English setter is fast, quick, elegant, and a
relatively quiet worker, originally bred as a gundog. It has a very good sense of smell and can use it to benefit its master on a hunt. This dog is friendly in nature, especially to its family and also to children. Owners can use their setter as a watchdog. English setters like to move about, dig and should be kept on leash because birds are everywhere when you’re outdoors and compounded with the fact that the setter is very energetic. As such, indoor living is not recommended for this dog breed. English setters trace their origin to 16th century England. The dog was originally called a ‘Setting Spaniel’ because it would sit or crouch down when it spotted a bird. This enabled the hunter to toss a net on the bird in order to immobilize it. When firearms began to be used by hunters the crouching or sitting was no longer needed. The hunter could blast the bird out of the sky.
English setters are 24 to 27 inches tall and weigh 55 to 80 lbs.
English Shepherds are courageous, hard-working, dedicated, devoted, and amenable. They are low heelers, and can be used as herding, working, watching or guarding, sports, treeing, tracking, therapy, and search and rescue. The English Shepherd
is a good multi-purpose dog that belongs to the Collie lineage. While herding they don’t need much direction from their owner. They’re descendants of the Shepherd dogs of England and southern Scotland.
English Shepherds are 18 to 24 inches tall and weigh 40 to 65 lbs.
The English Springer Spaniel (ESS) is a medium-sized compact sporting dog. It has a friendly temperament, alert, good-natured, loyal, very energetic, and must be mentally and physically stimulated to be at its best. This dog is good with children and other pets, except for birds.
ESS may be field lines and show lines (bench). The former are generally bred for hunting and field trial work. The latter are bred for conformation shows. They must be able to exercise outdoors to be able to live in an indoor environment. The ESS is believed to be the origin of the other English hunting spaniels. The Kennel Club of England identified the ESS as a separate breed from the English Cocker.
The ESS is 18 to 21 inches tall and weighs between 40 to 55 lbs.
Field Spaniels are medium size dogs, are active, energetic, loving and affectionate, have a good temperament, docile, independent, active, and are playful. If left unleashed or unattended it may follow ‘a scent’.
Field Spaniels are good with people including children, like to move about. The play must not be rough and tumble. Indoor living isn’t recommended as this breed is active and likes to move about. Nice, long daily walks are necessary. The modern Field Spaniel traces its origin back to mid-19th century England where it was used to locate, flush out and bring back fur, and feathered animals from land or water.
Field Spaniels are 17 to 18 inches tall and weigh 35 to 55 lbs. This dog fairs better in cooler regions. DO NOT place a Field Spaniel in a kennel; if so it may develop mental problems. The Finnish Spitz is a northern breed hunting dog; hence preferring cooler climates. Individuals look fox-like. This dog is medium-sized, muscular, and compact. It is energetic, athletic, quick, brave and playful, loves its family including children, and has a calm and gentle temperament.
The Finnish Spitz is also known as the ‘barking dog’ in Finland. These dogs are entered into barking contests. If you plan on purchasing one ensure that it’s trained not to keep barking and barking, as this will no doubt disturb the neighbours.
The Finnish Spitz is a good watch dog, but not necessarily a good guard dog. Individuals can live in an indoor environment allowed plenty exercise on a daily basis.

The Finnish Spitz is the national dog of Finland.
The Finnish Spitz is 15 to 20 inches tall and weighs 30 to 35 lbs.
Flat Coated Retrievers (FCR) are hard working, energetic, cheerful and friendly, almond shaped eyed, intelligent tail wagging dogs. They have an incredible olfactory sense and are excellent swimmers, capable of performing good work in marshy areas. Initially they were used to ‘flush out’ and ‘retrieve’ upland game and waterfowl. These dogs have a good temperament and are good with adults and children alike; hence they’re lovey-dovey with people.
FCRs need to be exercised on a daily basis. In addition, like other dogs with floppy ears, the ears must be examined and cleaned on a regular basis.
FCRs may not be suited for indoor living. These dogs were once viewed as Generic ‘Labrador’ type dogs; invaluable to fishermen and hunters.
Flat Coated Retrievers are 22 to 34 inches tall and weigh 60 to 70 lbs.
Galgo Espagnols (Spanish Greyhound or Spanish Galgo) are close relatives to the Greyhound. They’re easy-going, amiable and good with humans, dog friendly, and kind. They’re ‘at home’ sleeping on a bed or a sofa for much of the day. Most are cat and dog friendly.
Galgos were named after the Gauls of the Iberian Peninsula dating back to 600 BC. The breed is a cross of sight hounds; hence it is not a greyhound in the technical sense.
Galgos aren’t as fast as greyhounds, but because they’re used in Spanish racetracks and for hunting rabbits and hares they’re sometimes bred with Greyhounds in to give rise to a faster dog.
Unfortunately many of these same dogs are brutally killed by their masters at the end of the hunting season. A Galgos may be beaten to death, hanged, or shot. As per the hanging, efficient hunting galgos will be hanged to death relatively quickly. However, a galgos who had a bad season can expect to die a slow, agonizing death.
More activism is needed to bring to light the horrible fates of countless hunting galgos. Pictures of hanged individuals are quite disturbing and are worth ‘a million words’.
Galgos are smaller than Greyhounds but retain the ‘chasing instinct’. They’re 23 to 28 inches tall and weigh 45 to 65 lbs. The German Pinscher or Standard Pinscher is an intelligent, independent, energetic, medium-sized, robust dog with a powerful prey drive. This is a rare breed, known for its incredible stamina; but is easily handled and can be quite vocal. This dog
can perform ‘guard duties’, can be used for multi-purposes, and is protective and faithful. But because of its inherent independent nature obedience training may be a must for some individuals. This dog breed is beautiful, has a look of alertness (especially those with cropped ears), and looks intimidating to potential burglars or trespassers.
Be aware that ear cropping of dogs is illegal in numerous European countries; that’s great news! I’m shocked that anyone could have this painful surgery performed on his/her dog/s for other than medical or functional purposes. Otherwise, the procedure is purely for the owner. The dog will get nothing out of it!
For this, I make a ‘humanitarian & animal welfare request; DO NOT HAVE THIS PROCEDURE DONE TO YOUR DOG UNLESS IT IS ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY! COSMETIC OR SHOW PURPOSES DON’T COUNT! Furthermore, the same rule applies to tail docking. Let’s be a bit more humane and understanding.
I cringe whenever I see a docked tailed or ear cropped dog. It’s a sad story to see. All surgeries aren’t perfectly successful. In addition, there are also possible post-op complications. And don’t forget; the vet and his ‘crew’ will make money from any surgical procedure. Ask ‘a trustworthy’ and reliable veterinarian about these two procedures. Get the facts! It’s your dog and it’s your duty to take care of him/her. German Pinschers originated in ... of course, Germany. And they’re included in the origins of the Doberman Pinscher, miniature Pinscher, Giant Schnauzer, Miniature Schnauzer, Standard Schnauzer, and Affenpinscher.
From the late 1940s through the late 1950s German Pinscher numbers underwent a severe decline. Thanks to the hard work of Werner Jung the breed was safeguarded.
German Pinschers are 16 to 20 inches tall and may weigh n 25 to 35 lbs.
German shepherd dogs (GSD) are well-respected, popular, and loved by millions of people around the world for their strength, protectiveness, beauty, resolve, courage, honour, athleticism, capability, beauty, faithfulness, tenacity, willingness to please and hold their ground both for their own selves and for their family.
GSDs need much training, proper socialization (with other dogs and people), mental stimulation and exercise. They’re a versatile, all-purpose breed, able to do more of many activities than almost any other dog breed.
The GSD is fearless, somewhat aloof (to strangers and to individuals who are not well-known. However, when a GSD takes a person as a friend, the bond will be firm and long-lasting. In addition, the GSD is good with children after a ‘friendship’ has
been established. A well-trained GSD will protect a child or adult family member or close friend with its life, if necessary. The standard GSD is strong, athletic, intent, and
confident. GSDs have 3 main coat types: double coated, longhaired, or plush.
Today’s GSDs are descended from ‘Grade A’ German herding and farm dogs. Their ancestors were ‘assigned’ to herd, guard, and if necessary physically fight off animal and human intruders.
The fencing of private lands and faster travel removed the shepherding duties of German shepherds.
In 1889 German Military Captain Max von Stephanitz took notice of a dog that was to later become the ‘epitome’ of modern day GSDs.
Von Stephanitz named this dog Horand von Grafrath.
Von Stephanitz was the founder and first president of the German Shepherd Dog Club. Shortly afterwards von Stephanitz began the standardization process for the breed.
Von Stephanitz used both Horand and his brother Luchs as ‘genetic fathers’ of the descendant German shepherd dogs. Von Stephanitz worked with law enforcement and dog clubs to help ensure the survival of the ‘German shepherd’ to the point of allowing much inbreeding to maintain the optimal ‘German shepherd dog’.
In the ‘olden days’ the practice of inbreeding was often performed in an ‘archaic manner’. A bitch in heat was placed near a relative, perhaps her father, brother, son, or nephew. If ‘the male’ didn’t become aroused, he was given a ‘special massage’ by the breeder or an assistant. This special message helped to ‘excite’ the male dog. Remember, at a time when there was no artificial insemination, options were somewhat limited. The right GSD can bring wonders to its owner.
In 1907, the first GSD was exhibited in the United States. The GSD underwent a temporary name change in England during the First World War. GSD were then referred to as German wolf dogs. The ‘required’ name change was a result of extreme anti-German sentiment during the war years.
Seventy years later (1977) the British Kennel Club
authorized a reversion to the original name of German shepherd dog.
During the First World War the German Military used
thousands of GSD. During the Second World War the German Military used an astounding 200,000 war dogs; a sizeable portion were GSD. The GSD was the epitome of Military Working Dogs (MWD). Labradors are a ‘good second choice’.

The U.S. Military began using war dogs in earnest during the First World War. ‘Enlistment’ was done through the Quartermaster Corps (est. 1775).
Roughly 5,000 war dogs were used during the Vietnam War. Just over 200 war dogs returned ‘home’ from the total. Others died during the war, were euthanized, or were handed over to the South Vietnamese Military. It is unknown how many of these dogs were ‘dumped’; depending on the source of your information at least many of them were. Unfortunately, it takes time, money, and effort to return, home, and perhaps retrain thousands of military dogs. Not to mention, treat countless individuals for wounds, naturally occurring illnesses, and mental trauma. Military dogs must go through much training and discipline. In addition, each dog must be courageous and willing to please its master/s.
U.S. war dogs in Vietnam helped to protect many GIs. War dogs were used as scouts, combat tracker teams (tracked and retrieved both friend and foe), sentries, mine and traps detectors, and tunnel locators.
Today equines are rarely used in modern militaries. Dogs, however, will most likely be used for eons to come. Trained war dogs are precious, loveable, and are of the most intelligent animals. Equines cannot crouch down and be close to a wounded soldier. Neither can they squiggle through enemy lines as easily as dogs can. Furthermore, trained military dogs use their fighting, guarding, olfactory abilities, and other senses to good use; they can also convey their love to soldiers. Horses are large, require specialized food, and are more difficult to maintain. Besides, mechanized vehicles and technology as a whole have diminished the usefulness of the horse. Not totally, however, but considerably so.
Well-trained military dogs are basically non-human
soldiers. They can become ‘auxiliary’ or ‘paramilitary’ individuals in units.
During combat missions dogs’ duties are very dangerous and rough. They complain less than their human counterparts, and are often more willing to please their superiors. Military dogs’ presence in direct combat has diminished considerably from years of old.
Military dogs can be moulded to suit their purpose.
Military dogs who make the grade are super athletes. Their strength, agility, and bravery are difficult to match. Dogs are also used to viciously attack the enemy. In the distant past dogs were ‘adorned’ with metal spiked collars or full spiked uniforms to protect their bodies, to further harm the enemy, and to give them a more vicious appearance.
During the Second World War the Russian Military used ‘bomber dogs’ to seek and destroy German tanks.
These bomber dogs were well-trained, starving, and eager to find ‘their foodstuffs’ underneath ‘the target’ (tank). Bombs could easily be strapped unto bomber dogs;
considering they didn’t know what they were getting into. GSDs are muscular, have a somewhat elongated body, have a sloping back, and are well-proportioned.
GSDs are 22 to 26 inches tall and weigh 60 to 100 lbs; exceptionally large GSDs may weigh in excess of 115 lbs. This dog breed can live indoors if properly exercised.
The German Spitz type dogs are of German origin. They come in types including the Pomeranian (considered a separate breed in numerous countries), Small Spitz, Standard Spitz (Medium), Giant Spitz, and Keeshond (considered a separate breed in numerous countries)
German Spitz type dogs are similar in appearance but diverge in colour. All types have a ‘fox-looking’ head. Toys are generally happy, friendly, alert, and active. Toys can stand on their hind legs, and are good jumpers. Be advised as with other small dogs high jumps may break bones. Toys love human attention and affection. Hence, they like to please.
Toys are good with children if taught well. They can live indoors but must be walked or exercised regularly. They’re very energetic and jolly.
The German Spitz dogs trace their ancestry to the Stone Age, and are considered the oldest dog breed in Central Europe. However, modern day toys trace their ancestry to the mid 15th century coated Nordic herding dogs.
Small German Spitz dogs are 9 to 11 inches tall and weigh 18 to 22 lbs. The Medium or Standard German Spitz is 11 to 14 inches tall and weighs 22 to 42 lbs. Giant German Spitz dogs are 16 to 17 inches tall and weighs 38.5 to 40 lbs.
The Golden Retriever is a large, sturdy dog originally bred to retrieve wild fowl. This is a very popular dog in North America. It is loveable, laid back, energetic, easy to handle and train, intelligent and good with children, and usually doesn’t need much maintenance. Owners should not leave this dog alone for extended periods.
Golden Retrievers enjoy pleasing their master; they’re athletic (good on land and in water) and excel in field sports. This is a multi-purpose dog used for hunting, as a watch dog (generally not good as guard dogs because of their friendly temperament), guide dog for the blind (well-behaved and calm), a ‘friend’ for sick patients, search and rescue, military use, law enforcement, customs.

Golden Retrievers require regular exercise to live indoors. Owners must be aware that this breed is prone to obesity. The Golden Retriever traces its origin to late 19th century Scottish Highlands. We can thank Lord Tweedmouth for developing the Golden Retriever.
GRs are 21 to 24 inches tall and weigh 55 to 80 lbs. Note that there are slight variations in proportions between ‘American Types’ and ‘British Types’ for this particular breed. The Gordon setter is slender but large in structure; muscular, it’s the largest of the three setter breeds. This dog is known for its strength and stamina rather than speed. It’s a good one-hunter dog, with a remarkable olfactory sense. It’s loyal, obedient, faithful, good-natured, intelligent, good with children, and is brave.
The Gordon setter is very energetic. Owners should take their dog on long walks (always leashed) or allow them to play in an enclosed area. Without proper exercise it will become extremely restless.
The modern day Gordon setter traces its ancestry to early 17th century Scotland; where they were primarily used as bird dogs. They were popular amongst Scottish hunters. Their popularity rose through the work of Duke Alexander the 4th of Gordon; hence its name.
The Gordon setter is 23 to 27 inches tall and weighs 45 to 80 lbs.
The Great Dane is a gargantuan, muscular (smooth muscled), powerful, energetic, cheerful, majestic-looking dog. It is often referred to as the ‘king of dogs’ or a ‘gentle giant’. This dog has size, grace, beauty, and an aura of confidence. Even its posture is elegant.
The Great Dane is playful, good with children, not timid or aggressive, and although I’ve read that this breed isn’t known to be much of a barker, I’ve known an individual or two amongst ‘them’ who was a ‘constant barker’. As with all rules, there will be exceptions. Although this is an athletic breed, it may appear clumsy when moving about, especially in enclosed areas. This is because of its incredible size.
The Great Dane is so old a breed it’s known as the ‘Apollo of dogs’. Its origins can be traced 5000 years to ancient Egypt. In addition a written text describing a Great Dane-type dog can be found in ancient (1120 BC) Chinese literature.
The Great Dane is 28 to 34 inches tall and weighs 100 to 200 lbs; sometimes even more!
The Great Pyrenees (Pyrenees) or Pyrenean Mountain Dog is a large white, majestic looking, beautiful, calm, obedient, brave, hard-working, devoted, guardian of livestock. It will guard its family and livestock to the point of sacrifice. As such, this
dog should be trained not to be overly territorial otherwise the owner will have a problem.
The Pyrenees can work in very cold climates; may not be suitable for warmer climates. Shaving the hair in warmer climates may result in serious sun burn.
The Pyrenees may have arrived with their shepherds and sheep in the Pyrenees Mountains between 2500-3000 BC. They’ve been extensively used in the mountain range of South-western Europe to guard flocks. This dog has been bred to have a special working/loving bond with its shepherd and the flock. The Pyrenees is related to the St. Bernard. By the late 17th century this dog became popular with the French nobility. It was once ‘armed’ and ‘defended’ with a spiky collar. The long coat made it appear even larger and more massive than it really was. The GP is 27 to 23 inches tall and weighs 85 to 100 lbs. The Greater Swiss Mountain Dog ‘Swissy’ is a large, brave, easy-going, sturdy, heavy-boned, confident, agile dog with awesome strength. This dog is good with children and other pets if taught at an early age not to chase after them.
The Swissy will welcome visitors to the home relatively fast. Although this dog can guard, it’s an ‘inhibited biter’; only doing so when necessary.
The Swissy was originally ‘formed’ in the Swiss Alps as a draft dog pulling enormously heavy carts, sometimes in excess of a ton and a half; also used for herding and guarding livestock and as a watchdog. By the late 19th century the Swissy had come close to extinction; modern technology was the main culprit. Thankfully, Dr. Albert Heim helped to ‘propagate’ the return of the Swissy. By the late 1960’s the Swissy was being imported into the United States.
The Swissy should be moderately exercised on a daily basis. This dog breed is slower than average when it comes to house breaking. In addition, the Swissy is better suited for cold climates.
The Swissy is 23.5 to 28.5 inches tall and weighs 80 to 130 lbs., but sometimes even more.
Greyhounds are slim, streamlined with long powerful legs, deep chest, and their skeletal system is specially designed for deep chest, and their skeletal system is specially designed for 45 mph) in as little time as possible. Despite their incredible running speed Greyhounds were not bred for endurance, but do have incredible stamina and an ability to criss-cross to match their prey’s movements.
The Greyhound is brave, loving, and mild mannered you could say an ‘athletic couch potato’ indoors; calm and laid back. The precondition being that the dog is allowed to take long daily walks or run (in an enclosed area). This dog doesn’t bark much
and is generally not aggressive; should not to be used as a guard dog.
The untrained Greyhound has a strong hunting drive; it’s a sight-hound, able to zoom in on tiny animals that are scurrying about.
A trained Greyhound that’s indoors is good with cats, children, and adults. When outdoors it must be placed in an enclosed area or secured on a leash. Otherwise, if it spots a ‘target animal’ it’ll run away and most likely not return. No human can keep up with this dog; it was bred for hunting, coursing, and racing.
The Greyhound is easily pained by its master’s shouting or rough tone of voice.
rough tone of voice.
3000 BC). Spanish explorers brought this dog to the New World beginning in the 16th century.
Sadly, since the early 20th century hundreds of thousands of Greyhounds have been killed, ‘discarded’, or sent to shelters by the Greyhound racing industry. ‘Rejects’ and dogs that can no longer run are ejected from the business. They may be shot, beaten to death, electrocuted, or sold for medical
The Greyhound racing industry is brutal. There’s too much gambling involved (state sanctioned and illegal), abuse and neglect of animals, housing often means the dogs are crated for up to 20 hours a day, chained to a tree, and not given adequate food, water, and veterinary medical care; all of which cost money. And in this business, the all mighty dollar rules! Greyhound racing dogs may be forced to ‘run to injury’, and are then discarded. Thankfully, there has been a noticeable upsurge in Greyhound Rescue organizations throughout North America. A person may adopt a Greyhound or send a charitable contribution to a particular organization. Always do research before giving any organization your donation.
Regulation of state laws is quite difficult. Kennels may be often located in remote areas and states that allow Greyhound racing have bigger problems to deal with; HOW MUCH MONEY THEY CAN AND SHOULD MAKE OFF ‘THE INDUSTRY’.
The Greyhound is 28 to 30 inches tall and weighs 60 to 70 lbs.
The Harrier is similar to but smaller and more playful than the Foxhound. But, it isn’t as playful as the Beagle. This dog has a good temperament, sweet-tempered, large-boned, cheerful, and is good with children. The Harrier has a ‘pack mentality’ therefore it is imperative that it isn’t left alone for extended periods of time. It’s a people minded dog.

If a Harrier is raised with non-canine animals it can get along just fine with them. Otherwise, supervision is essential. The Harrier is active, outgoing, likes to sniff around (has an incredible olfactory sense) trails, and is tolerant. If outdoors the Harrier should be in an enclosed area or on a secure leash, as it may pick up a trail and leave its master behind.
The Harriers grew in popularity as a hunting dog because of its ‘human walking pace’; its name comes from its incredible ability to hunt hare. In effect, hunters could easily keep up with their Harriers’ pace. This dog was likely ‘downsized’ from the Foxhound.
The Harrier has incredible endurance. Target animals have actually collapsed from exhaustion while being ‘hounded’ by a Harrier.
Harriers are 18 to 22 inches tall and weigh 40 to 60 lbs. The Havenese which is a member of the Bichon family of dogs was formed from the Bichon Tenerife. It is the national dog of Cuba, gives off an impression of being a rugged and charming toy dog.
Havanese are a natural companion dog; playful,
affectionate, easy to train, responsive, very good with children, and very sociable. Owners should be aware that this dog is sensitive to its master’s tone of voice. Therefore, gentleness with firmness is called for. Otherwise, the Havanese will not listen.
The Havenese has been used in circuses because of their trainability, innate friendliness, and willingness to please. Most individuals are healthy and energetic. Owners should take their Havanese for daily walks. This is a good dog for indoor living. It is people oriented and is very sensitive to being left alone for extended periods of time. A kennel will not be a good place to for a Havanese.
The Havenese comes in three coat types, the curly, smooth, and the wavy. Regardless of type, the coat is made for warm climates, not cold.
Unfortunately, many Havanese were culled without mercy because of their ownership by members of the aristocracy. Wealthy Cubans who were able to flee the country to the United States did so, but without their beloved Havanese companions. In 1970s America there was only 11 Havanese dogs. Americans began to acquire a keen interest in this dog breed. As a result of hard work and ‘committed breeding’ the Havanese has become one of the top dogs registered in the American Kennel Club listing (AKC); with a remarkable 42% increase in 2004.
The Havanese is 8.5 to 11.5 inches tall and weighs 8 to 15 lbs.

The Hungarian Puli is one of the most unusual looking dog breed. The coat usually comes in black, needs much grooming and appears corded/mop-like to the eye. The coat covers the entire body, even hiding the eyes. The coat enables the dog to live in warm or cold climates. However, it needs much maintenance as the cords tangle and dirt is another problem. The cording of the coat begins between 5-7 months of age; it is waterproof. The Hungarian Puli is medium-sized, energetic, intelligent, cheerful, loyal, and easy to train. Although this dog isn’t known to be a biter it will make a raucous if it perceives its owner is in danger.
The Hungarian Puli can live indoors if taken on daily walks. They like to play, but owners should teach their children not to play rough with this dog breed.
The Hungarian Puli is an ancient sheep dog from Hungary. Its ancestors were transported to Hungary by the Magyars. It has been a flock herder and livestock guard in Hungary for over 1000 years.
The Hungarian Puli is 14.5 to 17.5 inches tall and weighs 20 to 35 lbs.
The Ibizan Hound (Ibizan) also referred to as Prodenco Ibicenco was named for the Island of Ibiza off the coast of Spain. This is a fine, slender, athletic dog known for its deerlike
The Ibizan is protective, even-tempered, quiet, clean, loyal, versatile, gentle, sensitive, and good with children. This sight-hound was bred to hunt rabbits in the rocky terrain of the Balearic Islands. It’s a pack hunter; although sight is its major arsenal, its auditory and olfactory senses are also used, be it to a lesser degree.
The Ibizan is a very fast runner, but is known for its incredible agility, able to jump six feet into the air from a standing position. This is a good family dog. Smaller animals like cats are welcome into the pack so long as it has been socialized around them.
Some Ibizans have allergic reactions to insecticides and flea powders. Check with your veterinarian before use. The Ibizan is similar in appearance to the Pharaoh Hound but is larger and has a different coat colour. Dogs similar to the Ibizan were used by Ancient Egyptians in 3500 BC. Later, they were brought to the ‘Spanish Isles’ by the Phoenicians. Ibizans are 23 to 29 inches tall and weigh 45 to 65 lbs. The Icelandic Sheepdog is of the Nordic Spitz breed derived from the dogs transported to Iceland by the Vikings. These dogs are tough, loyal, energetic, brave, cheerful, friendly, agile, alert, and excel in herding or driving livestock or finding lost individuals. It can do so on pastures or in mountainous terrain.
The Icelandic Sheepdogs will give visitors a hardy and enthusiastic welcome without being aggressive or intimidating. This is a barking dog; good with children and other animals in the family. This dog loves to be part of the family therefore, kennelling may not be suitable.
Dogs resembling Icelandic Sheepdogs were discovered in graves in Denmark and Sweden dating as far back as 8000 BC. This dog endured a horrible phase of plague and distemper at the end of the 19th century, resulting in a drastically reduced breed population. At the turn of the 20th century the importation of Icelandic Sheepdogs to Iceland was forbidden.
Although later in the century the Icelandic Sheepdog almost became extinct, the Icelandic Dog Breeders Association worked hard to help bring this dog back to a ‘secure level’. The Icelandic Sheepdog is 16 is 18 inches tall and weighs 20 to 30 lbs.
The Irish setter is an energetic, independent, often impulsive, intelligent, loving, affectionate and aristocratic looking dog. This dog should not be used for guarding; it gets along with other family pets and is good with adults and children alike.
The Irish Setter should be fed two or three times a day, as it tends to bloat; as such, large meals are not recommended. However, this dog breed is very active needing daily exercise consisting of a brisk walk or more.
The Irish setter is a beautiful, dignified-looking bird dog. Some say it is the most beautiful breed in the world. Daily brushing of the mahogany red coat is required.
The Irish setter is 24 to 28 inches tall and weighs 55 to 75 lbs.
The Irish Red and White Setter (IRWS) are identical in use and temperament to their close relative, the Irish setter. This is a pointer dog that is intelligent, good with children, playful, loving, high-spirited, friendly, loyal, reliable, and very energetic.
The IRWS takes longer to train than other gundogs. However, once it is trained an owner will be assured of its reliability. The IRWS is sensitive to its master’s voice therefore, it is imperative that a firm but kind voice be used when giving commands. Actually, this is a good standard to abide by for all dog breeds. The IRWS have of field lines and show lines. The IRWS, especially field line dogs, need daily exercise consisting of a jog, bike trailing, or another high energy activity. Owners can exercise their IRWS in an enclosed area or on a firm leash. Daily brushing and combing of the coat is very important.

At one time all setters were primarily red or red and white. At the mid-19th century the red Irish setter increased in popularity, resulting in the near extinction of the IRWS. Thankfully, diligent breeders have helped to keep this beautiful and faithful dog alive.
IRWS are 22 to 26 inches tall and weigh 50 to 75 lbs. The Irish setter is a medium-sized, beautiful red-coated dog breed native to Ireland. It is longer than it is tall, is alert, energetic, has a well-developed olfactory sense, very courageous (known as daredevils), faithful, trim outlined body and has incredibly piercing eyes. This dog breed is good-natured and fun to be with, playful, and good with energetic children. It enjoys mental and physical challenges.
The Irish setter has a powerful protecting instinct and is easy to train. Owners should be aware that this dog may not be suitable for homes with non-canine animals, as it enjoys chasing after ‘running animals’. In addition, owners should know that this dog enjoys digging up yards.
The Irish setter needs regular exercise and should be on a leash or in an enclosed area. Groom the double coat daily. The Irish setter is one of the oldest of the terrier breeds. It was once known as the poor man’s sentinel. The precise origin of this breed is unknown, but is certainly descended from Ireland, and going further back in time the ancient setter of England.
The Irish setter is 17 to 18 inches tall and weighs 25 to 27 lbs.
The Irish Water Spaniel (IWS) is the largest, one of the oldest, and rarest of Spaniel breeds. Known as the clown of the spaniels, this is an intelligent, alert, inquisitive, quick learning, highly energetic, willing to please, devoted family dog that is good with children. They’re primarily bred for hunting or as companions. This dog can be used as a guard; it has an aggressive-sounding bark. In addition, retrieving and swimming are much enjoyed.
The IWS needs much exercise; with incredible stamina, it needs a daily long brisk walk or a run in an enclosed area. Suburban or small town living is recommended.
The modern IWS was developed by Justin McCarthy during the mid 19th century. His dog, Boatswain, is the ‘father’ of the modern day IWS.
The IWS is 20 to 24 inches tall and weighs 45 to 65 lbs. The Irish Wolfhound (IWH) is a humungous dog; one of the tallest breeds in the world, but not the largest; often reaching the size of a small pony. This dog has a commanding appearance, is muscular with a greyhound-like shape, intelligent, fast, good vision (is a sight hound), an incredible athlete and endowed
with awesome endurance. In general, even strangers are greeted as friends.
The IWH is kind, gentle, and if strenuously exercised daily can be laid back while indoors. However, once an IWH is taken outdoors its energy level skyrockets; it is ready to go. This is a social dog that is not recommended for kennelling. The IWH were first used by the Romans for hunting, wars, guarding, and as companion animals. Later, they were used for hunting wolves and giant Irish elk in Ireland; hence their name. They were so effective in hunting wolves, eradication was the final result. Ironically, this almost caused ‘eradication’ of the IWH because they were no longer needed.
The IWH was so highly respected individuals were given as gifts to royalty.
Thanks to Captain George Graham, a British Army Officer and other hard-working breeders, the IWH was bred back to a sustainable level during the early 1880s.
IWHs are 28 to 38 inches tall and weigh 90 to 155 lbs. The Italian Greyhound (IG) is a small breed of gazehound dogs that is slender (similar to the Greyhound but smaller), short bodied (just over a foot long), friendly, playful (into adulthood), kind-hearted, usually submissive, make good companion animals, and are good with children. However, they can be aloof but not aggressive towards other animals. This dog was originally bred for hunting and companionship.
Italian Greyhounds have a deep chest, long slender legs, and appear streamlined. They’re very fast runners, using their sight to spot prey. Therefore, it is imperative that walks be taken on leash or in enclosed areas. If your dog runs after a ‘target’ you won’t be able to keep up with it.
Italian Greyhounds can live indoors but most be exercised daily. They feel right at home in a relaxed atmosphere. Remember, this dog breed’s small frame cannot handle rough and tumble play, especially jumping from high places. Its coat is short, easy to manage, and generally does not give off a strong odour.
Italian Greyhounds trace their ancestry to ancient Egypt back to 4000 BC. Later, their images were depicted in Mediterranean cave paintings 2000 years ago. These dogs were popular with Noblemen during the Renaissance. A similar-looking dog was found in the lava destroyed city of Pompeii. In addition, this dog breed was owned and adored by Catherine the Great, Mary Queen of Scots, Charles I, Queen Victoria, Queen Anne, and Fredrick the Great.
Italian Greyhounds are 12 to 15 inches tall and weigh 7 to 16 lbs.

The Japanese Chin is also referred to as the Japanese Spaniel. However, the former name is more widespread. This is a toy breed sized spaniel that was bred specifically for companionship.
The Japanese Chin is a charming, sensitive, likeable, alert, independent, affectionate, very devoted to its family, cat-like (in behaviour), intelligent, agile, loving, sensitive, and happy dog. It’s very friendly with those it knows, but may be aloof or cautious with strangers.
The Japanese Chin is a relatively quiet breed, appreciates familiar surroundings; may feel uncomfortable in unfamiliar surroundings.
The Japanese Chin is good for indoor living but must be taken on daily walks.
In actuality, the Japanese is Chinese in origin. It was later ‘moulded’ in Japan to produce the modern breed. Originally, this dog was owned by Japanese nobility; hence, ‘individuals’ were given to foreign nobles, ambassadors, and the like.
The Japanese Chin was introduced into Europe in the 17th century. In fact it so beloved by royals Princess Catherine of Braganza received ‘one gift’ from Spanish sailors, while Queen Victoria received two ‘gifts’ in 1853 from Commodore Perry, an English Sailor.
The Japanese Chin has an easy coat to manage.
The Japanese Chin is 8 to 11 inches tall and weighs 4 to 15 lbs.
The Jindo, also called the Korean Jindo is a medium-sized, sturdy, strong, active, brave, beautiful, loyal, intelligent Spitz-type hunting dog originally from Jindo, Korea. This dog is loving and affectionate with family members but is reserved during first-time encounters.
The Jindo is an active dog needing daily exercise. It needs much training and care. Unfortunately, many Jindos are dumped into shelters by inexperienced owners. The Jindo is an escape artist; it can scale fences (like coyotes) and walls if need be. The Jindo can be used as a watchdog. It is good at
distinguishing between friend, foe, and stranger. But be aware that Jindos don’t bark much. They’re also picky eaters. Jindos can live indoors if they’re exercised daily. If left outdoors alone with nothing to do this dog breed can become destructive or may run away.
The Jindo must be walked on a secure leash or in an
enclosed area as this dog has a strong prey drive.
Jindos were initially bred to hunt badgers, rabbits, wild boar, and deer. They have a good fighting spirit if need be.
The Jindo is 17.5 to 21.5 inches tall and weighs 33 to 50 lbs.
The Karelian Bear Dog (KBD) is a Finnish hunting dog that is very tough and able to ‘torment’ and hold large game animals such as bear, wild boar, moose or virtually any game animal. This dog breed will risk its life to please its owner. It has lightening fast reflexes, energetic, very brave, robust, tenacious, loyal, independent, talented, territorial, and is often ‘dog-aggressive’ and weary of strangers.
Although the KBD is not known to bite humans, it will bite other animals. Even bears cringe at the site of this dog. No wonder, the KBD is a national icon in Finland.
A hunter must only use one or two KBDs (that are raised together) at a time. Otherwise, the dogs will abandon the hunter and go off on their own ‘hunting episode’.
The KBD is generally not suitable for indoor living; adequate exercise on a regular basis is necessary. ‘Run around’ areas must be enclosed, as this dog has a very strong inherent hunting drive.
The KBD traces its ancestry to north-western Europe several thousand years ago along with the first Finnish settlers. Life was very tough and hard then; an incredibly tough hunting dog was badly needed. Both Russian and Finnish peasants used the KBD for hunting big game. After World War 2 this dog almost fell into extinction. Thankfully, breeders are ensuring its survival. KBDs are 19 to 24 inches tall and weigh 44 to 50 lbs. The Keeshond once called the German Spitz is a medium-sized dog that is handsome, athletic, compact, richly plumed, active, intelligent, quick, playful, good jumper, and quick learning but stubborn. Its full coat helps protect it from insects and sunburn.
The Keeshond is good with children and makes a good family pet. This dog has a beautiful double-layered coat and a plumed curled tail.
The Keeshond was named after the 18th century Dutch patriot Cornelius (Kees) de Geyselaer, the leader of the Dutch rebellion against the House of Orange. In fact, this dog became the symbol of the Dutch Patriot political Party.
Later, the Keeshond came close to ‘fading away’. Luckily, Baroness van Hardenbroeck and others were instrumental in helping to breed the KSH back to sustainable numbers. The KSH is 17 to 19 inches tall and weighs 35 to 45 lbs. The Kerry Blue Terrier (KBT) is a muscular, medium-sized, companion and working dog originating from Ireland; originally used for hunting, herding livestock, guarding, and dog fighting. Although the KBT can be stubborn, its’ also playful, friendly, determined, athletic (this dog needs variation) and
high-spirited. It can also be funny and loves its families, including children and animals (if properly socialized with them). KBTs do better in family organizations than in single person ownership. This dog loves rough-and-tumble play. However, as with all animals, never go too far! In general this dog is not known for biting and even if guarding will not attack unless provoked.
KBTs are energetic and athletic, hence they need to be exercised or taken on long walks daily. Coat management and grooming need extra care and work.
The KBT originated in the mountainous regions of Kerry, Ireland in the 18th century. Its name is derived from its place of origin and coat colour (blue). In Ireland it is known as the Irish Blue Terrier.
The KBT is 18.5 to 20 inches tall and weighs 33 to 40 lbs. The Komondor is a large, muscular breed of dog with origins in Hungary. This dog is a guardian of flock, not a herder. Although the Komondor has very corded fur (resembling a mop, dreadlocks) it has massive bone structure hidden underneath. The fur on this dog breed is the heaviest in the canine world. As expected, the length of the coat increases as time passes, therefore, owners should be advised that it takes considerable and knowledgeable work to properly care for this dog. The massive corded coat helps protect this dog from attacks and from the elements. The coat needs regular bathing and is slow to dry.
Komondors are independent, very protective, may be
aggressive towards strangers but loving with their family if properly socialized. They are also dignified, strong, and courageous.
Komondors are so tough they can put to flight larger predators in a short time. This dog will hold its ground; it will not back down. In addition, it won’t wander off in pursuit of a would-be predator; as a general rule it will stay with its flock without supervision.
Komondors are an ancient breed of dog descended from Asia and were transported to Hungary in the 13th century by Cuman; a Turkish-speaking people who formerly lived near the Yellow River (Huang He or Huang Ho), now the second largest river in China. It is preferable to keep the Komondor out in the country or in open areas. If living indoors, this dog must be allowed to exercise on a daily basis.
The Komondor is 25.5 to 27.5 inches tall and weighs 80 to 125 lbs.
The Kuvasz (KVZ) is a white, wavy-furred, medium-boned, bold, fearless flock guardian. This dog is fiercely loyal to its family therefore it must be properly socialized, as this dog is
very territorial and is inherently a guardian of flock. Its guarding instincts are very powerful, indeed. These dogs may be aloof with strangers. They are also intelligent.
Extra diligence and knowledge of canine behaviour in particular the Kuvasz is needed when training for family living. It is preferable to raise a pup around children otherwise, continued monitoring may be needed. This dog should be allowed to exercise on a daily basis and is preferable if left in an open yard. Chaining this dog or any dog for long periods of time is quite extreme. ‘Behavioural consequences’ such as extreme viciousness or violence or perhaps in some cases cowering are anticipated consequences of long-term chaining.
The Kuvasz trace their origin back to ancient Mesopotamia and the steppes of the Ural Mountains in western Asia. The modern day Kuvasz is from Hungary.
After World War 2 the Kuvasz was falling into extinction. Thankfully, hard-working breeders have helped this dog breed’s population to bounce back in Hungary.
KVZ are 26 to 30 inches tall and weighs between 70 to 115 lbs.
Labrador Retrievers come in two types; the English Labrador and the American Labrador. The former are bulkier and blocklike. The latter are taller and thinner.
Labrador Retrievers are powerfully built, relatively large, athletic, well-balanced, patient, willing to please, shortcoupled,
friendly, playful (especially in water or when
retrieving objects), good swimmers.
Labrador Retrievers enjoy world-wide popularity including being America’s most popular dog breed. This dog enjoys being around its family. Training should begin early because this dog will grow up to be very strong.
Labrador Retrievers can hunt, track, retrieve, work as guide dogs for the blind, service the disabled, do police work, sniff out narcotics, search and rescue, military duties, carting, sledding.
Beware, Labrador Retrievers have a large appetite; begging for scraps or other kinds of food-directed behaviours should be trained out. Otherwise, the owner may end up with an obese dog. The Labrador retriever originated on the island of
Newfoundland in Canada. It was once called the St. John’s Dog and considered the Fisherman’s Dog. This dog worked in icy waters retrieving loose nets.
Labrador Retrievers can live indoors if exercised on a daily basis.
The Labrador Retriever is 21.5 to 24.5 inches tall and weighs 55 to 80 lbs.

The Lakeland terrier is similar to the Welsh terrier but is smaller. This dog is small, intelligent, compact, alert, energetic, loving, friendly, cheerful, bold, independent-minded (when pursuing a target), confident, and adorable. It generally doesn’t bark much unless it’s necessary. The Lakeland terrier generally gets along with other dogs.
The Lakeland terrier needs to be exercised daily; if done it can be a good dog indoors. Extra work must be done to pluck out hairs especially in the ear passages. Excessive hair between the pads must also be trimmed.
The Lakeland terrier was developed in England’s beautiful and treacherous Lake District near the Scottish border. This dog was bred to chase down and kill a large fox (Westmoreland fox) who preyed on sheep during lambing season. The Lakeland terrier was able to chase the Westmoreland fox through dangerous and rugged terrain, climbing dangerous cliffs and squeezing through narrow openings in order to get the job done. Many of these dogs fell to their deaths. This is a very ‘driven dog’ that’ll endure whatever is necessary to catch its target. It was also used for badger hunting, ratting, and rabbit hunting.
The Lakeland terrier is 13 to 14.5 inches tall and weighs n 15 to 17 lbs.
The Lhasa Apso is a small, hardy breed of dog originating from the Himalayan Mountains of Tibet. This is a friendly, devoted, and high-spirited dog with an acute sense of hearing. Because they were bred as indoor watchdogs in Buddhist monasteries strangers should approach this dog cautiously; as such proper socialization of this dog at a young age is essential. The name Lhasa Apso means ‘long-haired Tibetan dog’. Their bark is deep and loud, ‘exaggerating’ their size. The Lhasa Apso is a healthy breed and is long-lived, sometimes up to twenty years of age.
The Lhasa Apso originated in Tibet perhaps dating back to 800 BC. This dog was considered sacred and materialistically valuable by Tibetan monks, so much so they believed that when a master died his soul would enter the Lakeland terrier. In addition, they’re also believed to be reincarnated lions. The first Lhasa Apso was ‘transported’ to England and Ireland in 1901 by Mrs. A. McLaren Morrison.
The first pair of Lhasa Apsos were transported to America in the early 1930s; a gift from Thubten Gyatso, the 13th Dalai Lama to C. Sudyam Cutting.
Lhasa Apsos are 10 to 11 inches tall and weigh 12 to 18 lbs.
The Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog (LCLD) is a mediumlarge, versatile, independent, protective, athletic, territorial dog. This dog loves its family but may be reserved with
strangers. In addition, it is prized and cherished as a good tree climber.
The LCLD can live indoors but must be exercised (physically and mentally) daily. This is a very energetic and active dog bred for the outdoors for hunting, herding, rounding up (especially feral pigs and cattle), tracking, and guarding. This is an assertive, but not necessarily offensive or provocative dog unless it is attacked or cornered.
The LCLD’s origin isn’t straightforward. However, it is believed that it has Mastiff, Greyhound (left behind in the 16th century by Hernando De Soto and his forces) and also Native American dog blood in its ancestry. The word Catahoula denotes a parish in North-Eastern Louisiana. In 1979 the Governor of Louisiana designated the LCLD as the state dog.
The LCLD is 20 to 26 inches tall and weighs 55 to 90 lbs. The Maltese is a small, sturdy, white silky haired dog belonging to the toy group and poodle.
Maltese are energetic, playful, loving, trusting, and are known to have sudden outbursts of activity running around with incredible agility. They’re quick learners and enjoy a game of catch. The Maltese was bred to be a companion but may be troublesome to housebreak; some individuals bark so incessantly they’re literally dumped in a shelter.
Be aware, some Maltese get sudden shivers; they’re not suited for damp, hot, or cold areas. Owners must watch out for sunburn and be extra diligent regarding tooth care as this breed is prone to tooth decay and loss.
Although Maltese-like dogs were in existence during the period of Ancient Greece and Rome it was formed into a breed in Malta. This is where the name ‘Maltese’ came from. The Maltese was an aristocrat of the dog world. It has been called by different names, including Canis Malitaeus, Ye Ancient Dogge of Malta, Ancient Dog of Malta, the Roman Ladies’ Dog, the Comforter Dog and Maltese Lion Dog. Wealthy women carried these dogs around and even slept next to them in their fine beds. The Maltese is 8 to 10 inches tall and weighs 5 to 12 lbs. The Manchester terrier is a smooth-haired terrier type dog coming in two types; Toy and Standard. This is a very smooth, short-coated (mostly black and some mahogany), elegant-looking, muscular dog. This is one of the most beautiful dog breeds; with or without cropped ears.
The Maltese is agile, stream-lined, very determined (when in pursuit), and brave. It can run fast for extended periods. This is one of the oldest of terrier breeds. Its original function was that of a ‘ratter’ or vermin hunter in England and on ships; these dogs were ‘prolific’ at their job! In the 19th century John Hulme, a Manchester breeder, crossed the rough
Black and Tan Terrier with the Whippet. This ‘crossing’ resulted in the modern day Maltese.
Homes, ships, and business establishments were ‘cleansed’ of rats and mice so long as they employed Maltese.
It was only a matter of time before Maltese were used for evil. Maltese were placed inside pits with rats to kill. Rat killing involved much betting and rabble-type behaviour. A Maltese named Billy successfully killed 100 rats in just over three minutes. Another Maltese named Tiny apparently killed 300 rats in less than 55 minutes. ‘A few’ humans were also ‘hired’ to kill rats. The ‘human’ would snatch the rat, correctly place it between his jaws, clamp down really hard and then pull the two ends of the rat apart. The rat killing human would ask for money or booze (usually a beer) as payment for successful kills.
Toy Maltese are less than 12 inches tall and weigh less than 8 lbs. Standard Maltese are less than 16 inches tall and weigh less than 22 lbs.
The Maremma Sheepdog is a large, muscular dog, with a thick white coat and a bear-like head. These dogs are ‘sworn enemies’ of wolves. If you ever need a dog breed to specifically fend off wolves, this is your choice. In addition, they’ve been bred to protect livestock (in particular sheep), and have a good temperament with humans, especially children.
Maremmas can be a bit reserved towards strangers. They can also be used as guard dogs. This dog can be brave, tough, and extremely fierce, if need be.
Maremmas require wide open space for much walking and some running. Short walks won’t do it. Apartment dwellers should beware; energetic dogs in apartments must find an ‘energy outlet’ elsewhere. In addition, commands must be firm. This dog was bred to be independent.
Maremmas are not well-suited for hot environments. They should be kept in the shade during warmer days, fresh water within easy reach, and ensure general safety precautions against heat exhaustion.
Maremmas trace their ancestry to Ancient Room 2000 years ago, and were used as a ‘guardian’ of flock.
Maremmas are 23 to 29 inches tall and weigh 65 to 105 lbs. The Mastiff is a massive, powerfully-built, symmetrical, very muscular dog with a compact frame. This inherently good guard dog is courageous, dignified, full of grandeur, but calm. Generally a good-natured, calm and affectionate dog; but will guard its master or any family member if it ‘interprets’ danger. This dog will stand between its master and a newcomer it doesn’t know until the master signifies it is okay to relent.
Although the MSTF is good with children owners should never forget that this is a very massive, powerfully built dog. Proper training preferably at an early age is highly recommended. Mastiff-type dogs were depicted in Ancient Egypt as far back as 3000 BC. According to Marco Polo Kubla (sometimes spelled as Kublai) Khan kept 5000 Mastiffs for hunting and war. Hannibal, the great warrior also used Mastiffs for war. Later, Caesar used Mastiffs in Rome as ‘display animals’, and in the arenas as fighters; fighting other dogs, large predators, and even humans.
A Mastiff may have been transported on the Mayflower; depending on the source ... it’s a toss-up.
Mastiffs were used during both world wars; their incredible strength was utilized to pull munitions carts in combat zones. Mastiffs are 27 inches or taller and weigh from 150 lbs. to upwards of 200 lbs.
The Mexican ‘Almost’ Hairless Dog (Xolo) comes in three sizes; Toy, Miniature, and Standard. The ‘almost hairless’ type of Xolo is considerably more popular; given its attractiveness this is not surprising. Owners should beware that some individuals can be sensitive to the touch.
The Xolo is a rare breed with considerable variation in size. All types are sturdy, athletic, loyal, loving, and alert. All family members must be involved in the Xolo’s rearing and feeding or else it may only bond with the person doing so. This dog likes to stay nearby its owner. It is however, a primitive breed with incredible survival skills. As such it will not tolerate any abuse whatsoever.
Actually, no owner should ever abuse his/her companion animal. If the owner can’t stop the abuse, then the animal/s should be given away or sent to a safe home; better yet persons with animal abusive-type personalities should not own any animal.
The Xolo traces its ancestry to Mesoamerican society. So important was it regarded by the Aztecs it was considered it the earthly representative of the God Xolotl; hence the name used by owners of the Mexican hairless. The official name of Xoloitzcuintle is too long and difficult to pronounce. The Xolo is portrayed in Mesoamerican art as being a man with a dog’s head. Today the Xolo is the national dog of Mexico. Toy breed Xolos are 9 to 14 inches tall and weigh less than 15 lbs.
Miniature Xolos are 15 to 20 inches tall and weigh 15 to 30 lbs.
Standard Xolos are 20 to 30 inches tall and can weigh in excess of 40 lbs.

The Miniature Fox Terrier (MFT) is a small, fine, cutefaced, light dog bred to be a tenacious hunter and ‘vermin
exterminator’ as its larger terrier brethren. This dog is referred to as the ‘Mini-Foxie’ in its native Australia. The MFT is smooth-muscled, erect eared, loyal, very
tenacious and ruthless (when on a chase), and are adapted to urban environments. This dog may with children who are old enough to respect its rights and know the difference between a live animal and a toy. Furthermore, the MFT may suddenly turn into a tenacious hunter/guard; it has incredible speed and agility.
MFTs have been bred in Australia since the 19th century. They’re a mix of Fox Terrier types, Toy Manchester Terriers, and Whippets.
The MFTs have been an invaluable gift to Australian farmers in their never ending fight against vermin including rabbits, rats, snacks, etc. The Tenterfield Terrier is a close relative of the MFT but has been bred separately for at least 20 years. MFTs are 9 to 12 inches tall and weight is measured
relative to height.
The Miniature Pinscher also called Min Pin is a small, compact, sturdy, well-balanced, smooth-coated dog that was developed in Germany.
Miniature Pinschers are proud, courageous, fearless, very energetic, quick learner, alert, active, can be quite stubborn, intelligent dogs that are often very attached to one or two persons; inherently not a calm lap dog. They can live indoors if taken on daily walks and allowed some miscellaneous activity. This is a good watchdog, as it will sound an alarm when unfamiliar person/s or animals appear near the home. Although the Miniature Pinscher may resemble a Doberman pinscher, this dog is not a miniature version of another breed. Most likely, the Doberman pinscher and Miniature Pinscher were descended from the Standard German Pinscher.
The Miniature pinscher is in old paintings and sculptures dating back more than 2 hundred years. This dog was presumably derived from the German Smooth-Haired Pinscher, Manchester terrier, and Italian Greyhound. The Miniature pinscher was initially used as a ratter.
Miniature pinschers are 10 to 12.5 inches tall and weigh 9 to 12 lbs.
Miniature Schnauzers are small, compact, muscular,
long-bearded, dogs. They’re friendly, intelligent,
loving, quick to learn, devoted, fearless but not aggressive. Makes a good watchdog (its bark is somewhat low-pitched), but owners should be aware that this dog cannot be trusted around pets (especially if smaller and weaker) because its drive is to
chase and kill them. It’s best to raise your Miniature Schnauzer with the pet of choice.
The modern day Miniature Schnauzer was developed in the late 19th century for the purpose of ‘down-sizing’ the standard Schnauzer. Initially used for guarding herds, farms, and homes, and to catch and kill rats. The shrinking of the Schnauzer enabled the miniature version to squeeze through tinier openings to catch and kill the targeted animal.
The Miniature Schnauzer is a German dog crossed with the Affenpinscher and the Miniature Pinscher to help develop its present appearance.
The Miniature Schnauzer is 12 to 14 inches tall and weighs 10 to 15 lbs.
The Standard Schnauzer is 17 to 20 inches tall and weighs 30 to 50 lbs.
The Giant Schnauzer is 23 to 28 inches tall and weighs 55 to 80 lbs.
The Neapolitan Mastiff is massive, heavy-boned, somewhat rectangular shaped dog with visible loose skin throughout its body, dangling wrinkles and folds on the head and a visibly large dewlap.
The immense awe-inspiring and massive build of the
Neapolitan Mastiff is both awe inspiring and intimidating. This dog is usually calm, mild-mannered loving, and peaceful to its family. However, it is protective of its owners and property. Is generally good with children but is reserved with strangers. Owners should socialize this dog with other persons and animals. Note you can’t take ‘the guard’ out of the Neapolitan Mastiff. This dog is a heavy barker; but only barking when necessary. Neapolitan Mastiffs drool excessively especially after drinking water or in warm weather. They aren’t very suited for warm weather, so it would be appropriate to keep water and shade within easy access of your dog if left outdoors in warm weather. The Neapolitan Mastiff traces its origin to the Molossus. The Molossus was a giant, powerful war dog used by the Roman Military, and also in their arenas as fighting dogs pitted against large predators and gladiators.
Later, the Neapolitan Mastiff was used as to guard large estates. The modern version of this dog is more likely to keep an ‘intruder/s’ cornered rather than go on an attack. Ancestors of this dog were trained to kill both humans and animals. Moving further back in time, the ancestors of the
Neapolitan Mastiff were used in battle in Ancient Egypt, Neapolitan Mastiff were used in battle in Ancient Egypt, 323 BC) ‘merged’ his giant war dogs with the short-haired Indian war dogs to produce the Molossus; a giant, powerful dog which is the nearest forefather of the modern day Neapolitan Mastiff.
Neapolitan Mastiffs are 24 to 30 inches tall and weigh between 110 to 150 lbs. Some individuals can exceed 200 lbs. The Newfoundland (Newfies or News), originally bred as a working dog, is massive, powerful, loyal, large-boned, with a temperament (if unprovoked) of a ‘gentle giant’.
Newfs are dogs with ‘honey-like’ temperament, loving, intelligent (learns quickly), courageous, enjoys pleasing their master, laid back, but also protective of their family. Newfs will hold their ground with full earnest if need be. Newf puppies are calmer than those of other breeds adults tend to get along with other dog breeds, and will actually grieve if they are separated from their family. This dog is friendly with new guests.
Owners should beware that this dog breed is large.
Experienced dog owners will fare better than non-experienced ones.
Newfs prefer colder climates. If your Newf is kept in a warm climate zone ensure easy access to cool water and shade at all times. It is the ‘owner’s responsibility’ to take good care of his/her dog, or any other companion animal brought into the family.
Although there are varying theories pertaining to Newf history, I prefer the Viking Theory. This theory states that Newfs’ ancestors known as Big Black Bear Dogs were initially transported to the area we call today Newfoundland, Canada by Vikings around 1000 C.E. (Common Era). The Newfs are also descended from the St. John’s Water Dog (now extinct). Two dogs, the Lesser Newfoundland (forefather of the Labrador retriever) and the Greater Newfoundland (forefather of the Newfoundland, larger than the Lesser Newfoundland) were used by settlers.
Newfs were extensively used by fishermen hauling nets, pulling boat lines, retrieving articles and persons who went overboard, carrying loads, hauling foods, used in World War 2. Newfs are good swimmers and love to be in water.
Newfs are 25 to 29 inches tall and weigh 100 to 150 lbs. The Northern Inuit Dog is medium built, friendly, fun to be with, calm, faithful, comical, intelligent (quick learner) and athletic. The Northern Inuit Dog usually backs down from a confrontation. This dog has a primitive nature.
The Northern Inuit Dog is friendly; it needs to be around other dogs or people. Not to be left alone for extended periods of time. This can result in uncharacteristic behaviour. Under normal circumstances, the Northern Inuit dog loves the rough and tumble play. If you have other pets around make sure that they do too.

The Northern Inuit dog needs much exercise and would do better in a yard. The ancestors of this dog were first bred by the Inuit peoples several thousand years ago. The Inuit peoples wanted a friendly, hard-working, obedient dog that could survive and work hard in severe weather.
In the late 1980s, Eddie Harrison the founder of the Northern Inuit dog crossed dogs with unknown breed lines with the Alaskan malamute, German Shepherd Dog, and the Siberian husky.
Northern Inuit dogs are 23 to 25 inches tall. Weight and appearance should be proportional to height and breed standard. The Norfolk terrier is the smallest type of the working terriers. It is compact, self-confident (in walk and posture), has good bone structure, loveable, hardy, alert, affectionate, and fearless; though it generally isn’t quarrelsome. The Norfolk terrier is friendly with family members
including children and strangers. This dog has a strong ratting instinct; may chase small animals but is good with other companion animals such as cats and dogs. They can live indoors if taken on a daily walk.
The Norfolk terrier was developed in the 1880s in East Anglia, England by British Sportsmen. Both East Anglia Terriers (Norfolk terrier and Norwich terrier) were bred to have differing ear types; the Norfolk terrier wore dropped ears while the Norfolk terrier wore tiny perked ears.
The Norfolk terrier is 10 to 12 inches tall and weighs 10 to 12 lbs.
The Norwegian elkhound is a gray coloured, sturdy, mediumsized, square-shaped body, Spitz-type breed of dog bred for hunting. It is the national dog breed of Norway. Like other Spitz-type dogs it has ah wedge-shaped head.
The Norwegian elkhound is loyal to its ‘pack’ or ‘family’. However, this is a very intelligent dog that is ‘independent’; therefore obedience training may take extra effort. It is usually friendly, good with children, energetic, usually docile (but can be protective of children or other pack members), and relatively clean. Most individuals lack a doggy odour. The Norwegian elkhound is a good watchdog or guard dog; its bark is sharp and high pitched. Its hunting drive is strong. Like the Mastiff breeds, this dog was bred to hold big game at bay or keep it cornered.
The Norwegian elkhound is a Nordic dog that prefers the cold over warm. It can live indoors but must be ‘adequately exercised’ to burn off excess energy.
The Norwegian elkhound is an ancient breed dating at least as far back as 5000 BC, originating from Scandinavia and used
extensively by the Vikings. This dog has been used as a hunter, guard, watchdogs, and tracker of big game.
Keen interest in the modern day Norwegian elkhound began in 1877 when the Norwegian Hunters Association held its first dog show. Thereafter, interest spread to other countries. Norwegian elkhounds are 18 to 21 inches tall and weigh 45 to 60 lbs.
The Norwich Terrier is small, described as a teddy bearlike dog, bold, alert, sociable, brave, active free of acute tension and quarrelsomeness.
Norwich terriers are good with their family and children, but were bred to be ratters so tossed or rolled items, including tiny running creatures will most likely be chased down. This dog breed is sociable; like its Norfolk terrier relative it prefers to be around humans rather than dogs. That’s not to say that they can’t get along with other dogs because they generally do. Kennelling of either the Norfolk terrier or the Norwich Terrier is not a good idea. These dogs can’t handle it. The Norwich terrier can live indoors provided it is taken on daily walks and if possible allowed to run in an enclosed area.
The Norwich terrier was bred in East Anglia, England. The Norfolk terrier and the Norwich terrier were considered one breed but were later split into two breeds. The first official recognition of this split occurred in England in 1964. The Norwich terrier is 10 inches tall and weighs 10 to 12 lbs.
The Otter-hound is strong, has incredible endurance
(especially in water), and courageous.
It is a large breed of scent hound with a ‘partially’ rectangular shaped body. This is a friendly dog that is devoted to its family. It is a happy dog that can get along with cats and other companion animals in ‘their pack’.
The Otter-hound is boisterous with a bass-like voice, and likes to excavate and likes to bay. This dog is ‘nosy’ because it was bred to hunt otter, and was proficient at it. It may chase ‘scurrying creatures’. Also, it loves to swim even in cold waters. This dog is intelligent and has a mind of its own; therefore extra effort is needed when training this dog to obey commands.
It may be difficult to keep an Otter-hound indoors. This is an energetic dog breed that needs to be exercised daily. The distant forefathers of the Otter-hound date back at least as far as the 12th century. Otter-like dogs were used in England at the time. However, the modern version of this dog came into being in the late 18th century.

Otter-hounds were used in packs to hunt river otter. Healthy individuals can pick up an otter scent in water ‘marked’ a day earlier. It’s believed that King John (Magna Carta) and Queen Elizabeth had otter-like dogs. The former actually used them to hunt river otter.
The Otter-hound population is estimated at only 1000. Canada and the United States have roughly 350 to 400 otters. In England the Otter-hound is considered a ‘critically endangered’ dog breed, with perhaps just over 50 individuals left. The Otter-hound is 24 to 28 inches tall and weighs 65 to 120 lbs.
The Gull Dong is a Pakistani Bulldog. It is taller than most Pakistani dogs, powerfully built, muscular, deep-chest, and has an incredibly bulky skull.
Although the Gull Dong can be a loving and loyal companion to its master and family, it has been bred to be highly aggressive and dominant. Therefore, experienced owners or acquisition of an individual should be during puppyhood. Without proper training the Gull Dong is hard to control, dog aggressive, and because it is weary of strangers is potentially dangerous to them. This dog was bred to work as a guard, watchdog, protector (family, property), and bear baiting. The Gull Dong will hold its ground against a small or medium sized bear. Some individuals will not back down from a full-grown bear. This dog is intelligent, energetic, alert, and athletic, requiring steady work and open space. It may not be suitable for indoor or urban living.
The modern day Gull Dong is a combination of the Bully Kutta (Indian Mastiff) and Gull Terr (Pakistani Bull Terrier). As such the Gull Dong has the best of both worlds; hence it is a very good fighter.
The Gull Dong is 30 to 42 inches tall and weighs 90 to 140 lbs.
The Papillon is a small, elegant, fine-boned, friendly (enjoy being cuddled), energetic, amusing, athletic dog that is tough for its size. The word ‘Papillon’ means butterfly in French.
The ears look like ‘butterfly ears’. The Phalene is the dropped-eared version of the Papillon; the AKC considers both ear-typed dogs of the same breed. However, the FCI (Federation Cynologique Internationale) considers them two separate breeds. Note: The FCI is the World Canine Organization consisting of 84 members and contract partners.
The Papillon needs a daily walk and some play time. This dog may bark at any passersby/s to their home, not
distinguishing between good or bad. Therefore, potential owners
should beware that excessive barking may become a problem. Proper raising/training is essential.
The Papillon is an old breed of dog tracing its ancestry to the 13th century in Italy, France, and Spain. These little dogs were painted on the laps of European noblewomen, and were admired and owned by European aristocrats and French royals. The Papillon is 8 to 11 inches tall and weighs 7 to 10 lbs. As of April 1, 2003 the name of the ‘Jack Russell Terrier’ was changed to ‘Parson Russell Terrier by request of the Jack Russell Terrier Association of America.
The Parson Russell Terrier is cheerful, playful,
independent, clever, friendly, obedient, athletic and energetic; during a hunt he has incredible tenacity, courage, alertness, confidence, and concentration. This dog can hunt, track animals and perform tricks, agility, and conformation.
Parson Russell Terriers are good with family members including children. They should not be left alone with small animals, as it is a descendant of early predominately whitebodied
fox terriers. They sometimes dig into the ground.
Parson Russell Terriers can live indoors if exercised daily. Play will not be enough. A daily walk in addition to some play is recommended. This simple rule applies to many dog breeds.
The Parson Russell Terrier formerly known as the Jack Russell Terrier was named after Reverend John Russell, a hardcore hunter. During the mid-19th century, his terriers were assigned the job of hunting red fox, digging into dens when necessary.
The Parson Russell Terrier is 13 to 14 inches tall and weighs 13 to 17 lbs.
The Pekingese is a small, compact, muscular and stocky, well-balanced dog of Chinese origin. Its body is a bit longer than tall. Pekingese have disproportionately large heads and although they look small when lifted off the ground they feel heavier than expected.
The Pekingese is dignified, brave, individualistic,
affectionate, opinionated, elegant, and direct. Its forequarter is noticeably heavier than its hindquarter. This dog’s long coat and face give it a mini-lion-like look. Pekingese can live indoors provided they are walked daily.
The PK traces its origin to China, more specifically Peking (now Beijing). The PK was considered a royal, dignified, sacred dog, owned solely by royalty. Regarded as semi-divine, stealing even one Pekingese was punishable by death.
Whenever an emperor passed away his Pekingese was killed afterwards. It was believed that the dog would follow him into the afterlife and be his protector.

Tragedy struck when the British occupied the Chinese Royal Palace. The Imperial Guards were commanded to kill all Pekingese to prevent them from being ‘snatched’ by the foreign occupiers. The ‘British occupiers’ were able to snatch five
individuals. All of the snatched dogs were sent back to Queen Victoria. All contemporary Pekingese are descended from these five snatched dogs.
The Pekingese is 6 to 9 inches tall and weighs 6 to 14 lbs. Individuals under 6 lbs. are called ‘sleeve Pekingese’. The Pembroke Welsh Corgi (PWC) is a low-set (short-legged), long and sturdy dog with a fox-like head. The PWC is more lively and enthusiastic than the Cardigan Welsh Corgi. Furthermore, the PWC carries a bobtail or has its tail docked. Note that tail docking is illegal in much of Europe.
The PWC is intelligent, faithful, and enjoy pleasing their master. The downside to ‘over-pleasing’ is the frequent need for praise.
Owners of PWCs should teach their dog how to properly climb and descend stairs (if applicable) and not to ‘over-jump’; short legs are more susceptible to injury than longer legs when jumping. This is an athletic dog with good agility. Because the PWC has strong herding instincts it may snip at its heels; this is how it herds cattle and other livestock.
PWCs can live indoors provided they are taken for a long walk or otherwise sufficiently exercised. This dog is good with its family and children as long as it knows its place; below all human family members.
The PWC was bred from the Cardigan Welsh Corgi. It was first developed in Wales. The Pembroke and Cardigan were once classified as one breed. However, in 1934 a show judge believed the two to be separate breeds because of their obvious differences. The American Kennel Club approved its registry the same year.
The PWC is 10 to 12 inches tall and weighs 25 to 30 lbs. The Pharaoh hound which is the national dog of Malta (1974) is also called the ‘Kelb tal-Fenek’ in its home. This dog is tall, graceful, slender, elegant-looking, medium-sized, wellbehaved,
powerful and strong legged (without bulkiness), very fast and athletic dog. It’s a bit longer than it is tall. This dog is friendly, active, playful, independent-minded, loyal, pleasant, and loving; it is a good companion dog. In addition, it is easy to train.
The PH is good with family members, including children, but is known to be reserved (but not aggressive) towards strangers, but can be ‘employed’ as a guard dog.
The Pharaoh hound is primarily a sight-hound but also uses its olfactory sense extensively. As such, small running animals

will be chased and if outdoors your dog may keep running and running. Note: The Pharaoh hound can jump over fences; hence, a barrier fence should be high enough to prevent this action. The Pharaoh hound is a beautiful dog, can live indoors (prefers bedding) but must be exercised sufficiently. Also, it is built for warm weather. This dog isn’t commonly owned. The Pharaoh hound is an ancient domesticated breed of dog, most likely emanating from Ancient Egypt some 6000 or more years ago. It was bred and used for speed, chasing and hunting animals. Later, the Phoenicians transported this dog to Malta and its sister island of Gozo.
The Pharaoh hound was introduced into Great Britain during the 1960s by Mrs. Block, the wife of a British Military General stationed in Malta.
The Pharaoh hound is 21 to 25 inches tall and weighs 45 to 70 lbs.
The Pomeranian is a small, toy sized Spitz dog. It got its name from the Pomerania region located in Poland and Eastern Germany.
The Pomeranian is active, lively, funny, eager to please, intelligent, brave, loyal to its family, independent, loveable, and is a good watchdog; has a sharp bite. Owners should train their Pomeranian to bark only when necessary and only a certain number of times. Otherwise, your dog may keep barking and barking. On a positive note, the Pomeranian loves to play, is known to stand on its hind legs and bark for more.
Owners beware; the Pomeranian is small and fragile. It may not endure the rough and tumble play of children. Otherwise, this dog doesn’t cling onto its master.
Pomeranian can live indoors but should be taken on daily walks. They are, however, sensitive to hot weather.
The Pomeranians trace their ancestry to Iceland where they were employed as sled dogs. They were much larger, weighing up to 30 lbs.
Beginning in the late 19th century Queen Victoria began to ‘downsize’ the Pomeranian, thereby helping to increase their popularity in England.
The Pomeranian is 7 to 12 inches tall and weighs 3 to 7 lbs.
The Poodle is one of the most elegant of dog breeds. It comes in three sizes; Standard, Miniature, and Toy. The Poodle was initially bred in Germany and used as a hunting and water dog, retrieving birds that were shot or trapped by the hunter. In fact, the German word ‘Pudel’ means to splash about. The Poodle is one of the most intelligent dog breed yet. It is people-oriented, loves to please and to be the center of attention, and enjoys performing complex and important tasks. If

owners don’t allow their Poodle to perform ‘lively tasks’ it will quickly fall into a state of boredom causing it to perform its own tasks.
Surprisingly, the Poodle still retains a powerful hunting drive; the Toy Poodle has a weaker drive than its Standard counterpart. However, the Toy will point at a bird if the circumstances call for it. In addition, this highly intelligent dog can be employed as a watchdog.
Poodles have been used in circuses. They can also put on a good show (entertainment) for their family, standing on their hind legs and in some cases walking (though briefly). Poodles are athletic; competing in agility, herding, obedience, and tracking.
The Poodle originated in Germany. The famous hair clipping patterns of Poodle began in France. Originally, patches of hair were left to protect vital parts of the water dog’s body. The Standard Poodle is believed to be the oldest of the 3 recognized breed sizes. Note that the FCI also identifies a Miniature Standard, thereby using four size categories for the PDL.
Poodle sizes are based primarily by height and not weight. Standard Poodles are over 15 inches tall.
Miniature Poodles are over 10 inches tall but less than 15 inches.
Toy Poodles are 10 inches tall or less.
The Pug is a small, thick-set, square, toy breed dog with a ‘pressed in’ wrinkly face.
Pugs are lively, friendly, playful, happy, loving,
affectionate, sociable, and love to cuddle up with their owner. Pugs can be bossy or stubborn. Therefore, children should be taught how to properly treat their family pug.
Pug owners should beware that their dog is sensitive to heat and cold. In addition, because of the shape of the face, the breathing and cooling system of Pugs can pose a problem. Allergies, eye irritation and disease, obesity, and skin irritation (if the area between folds on the face is not cleaned regularly) can become problematic. Give only the amount of food needed to a Pug.
Pugs can live indoors if taken on daily walks. They also benefit from play activities.
The Pug traces its ancestry to 700 BC in China. Pugs were royal dogs, spoiled, loved and adored, admired, cherished, pampered, and protected.
European traders smuggled Pugs and then transported them back to their homelands. Their status amongst humans didn’t diminish.

Prince William of Orange owned a Pug named Pompey.
Apparently, Pompey repulsed an assassination attempt by barking and then leaping onto his ‘sleeping master’.
Another story involves Napoleon and his wife Josephine. She demanded that her Pug sleep in their bed; {he sleeps with us in bed or I leave the bed}.
The Pug is 10 to 14 inches tall and weighs 12 to 20 lbs. The Pyrenean Shepherd (Pyre) is a medium small, light, lean, quick and fast, fast, intelligent, energetic and lively dog. This is a light-boned dog that is rectangular shaped. The Pyre was employed as a sheepdog in the Pyrenees
Mountains of France for hundreds of years. This dog is suspicious of strangers (humans and animals) as it was bred around predators and marauding animals. The Pyre was an excellent herder of animals.
Given the Pyre’s past as an excellent herder of sheep and its guarded nature, it may bark at anything that moves by. This dog likes to be part of the daily activities of its owner. Pyres come in 2 coat types; Smooth-Faced and Rough-Faced. This dog tends to become emotionally attached to one person; its owner, usually to the exclusion of others. The Pyre is affected by its owner’s mood.
Aside from serving as herders in the Pyrenees Mountains they were put to work during the First World War, aiding French troops as couriers, in search and rescue, morale boosters, accompanying guards, and as companions.
Pyres are generally not suitable for indoors living. If so, they must be rigorously exercised on a daily basis.
Pyres are 15 to 21 inches tall and weigh between 15 to 30 lbs. Note; the Rough-Faced variety is 15 to 18.5 inches tall while the Smooth-Faced variety is 15.5 to 21 inches tall. The Smooth-Faced variety is usually taller and heavier than its Rough-Faced counterpart. The weight range is between 15 to 30 lbs.
The Redbone Coonhound is a lean, muscular, powerful
coonhound covered in a tight, dark red coat. This is a beautiful dog breed, happy, human-oriented, alert, loyal, easy-going, curious, but has a strong chasing, tracking and treeing drive. As such, the Redbone Coonhound should be on leash or in an enclosed area if outdoors. This dog must be sufficiently exercised daily to be kept indoors.
The modern Redbone Coonhound is an American breed; more specifically a ‘Southern Dog’ used and adored by farmers and hunters. Scottish immigrants transported red foxhounds to America. After the Civil War the Red Foxhounds were bred with Irish Foxhounds, thereby resulting in a leaner and faster hound; the Redbone Coonhound.

The Redbone coonhound is 21 to 27 inches tall and weighs 45 to 70 lbs.
The Rhodesian Ridge-back is a large, handsome, muscular, strong, active, alert, quick to learn, intelligent, gentle (with humans, but incredibly tenacious and assertive upon the hunted animal), friendly with family members but reserved and aloof with strangers. In addition, the Rhodesian Ridge-back can be stubborn.
The Rhodesian Ridge-back is good with children but is also protective making them good watchdogs. These dogs are extremely courageous, as they were bred to track and hold lions and other large super-predators at bay. Of course, the Rhodesian Ridgeback has lightening fast reflexes and can snap away from the biting and clawing of lions or any other hunted animal. Rhodesian Ridge-backs can live indoors but must be
exercised vigorously on a daily basis. This dog has incredible stamina and endurance, able to run miles on end at a good, steady pace.
The word ‘Ridgeback’ comes from its characteristic symbol, the ridge of hair along their backs. This dog was moulded by South African Boer farmers.
During the 16th and 17th centuries European settlers
transported their dogs to South Africa and ‘merged’ their dog breeds with native South African dogs. The end result was an astounding hunting, treeing, and tracking dog; the Rhodesian Ridge-back.
The Rhodesian Ridge-back is 24 to 27 inches tall and weighs 65 to 90 lbs.
The Rottweiler (Rottie) is a medium-large, powerful, massively built, muscular, rugged, straight-backed, and naturally tailed (some owners dock their dog’s tail; tail docking is illegal in many European countries). In North America (where it is permitted) Rotties’ tails are docked for cosmetic reasons. Personally, I’m against this practice unless there’s a medical or functional purpose.
The Rottie is a tough, commanding, brave, devoted, likes to please its owner, highly protective; while fighting to defend its family this dog appears oblivious to pain. This is a strongwilled,
inherently dominant dog. Proper socialization and
training is imperative. Owners/trainers should acquaint the Rottie to strangers and unfamiliar on-goings and sounds. It’s imperative that this dog become tolerant of non-threatening strangers (human and animal).
The Rottie is active and like to perform stimulating and fun activities. It can live indoors if given adequate exercise and activities. Owners are responsible for obeying all municipal and state or provincial laws. Furthermore, owners must keep

their Rottie on a leash and under control while outdoors in public.
The Rottie’s ancestors were Mastiff-type working and war dogs of Ancient Rome. Later, they were used for herding management in Germany; the name comes from Rottweil, Germany. Rotties have been used for guarding, watchdog work, droving, fighting (dog fighting), law enforcement, military, carting, search and rescue, guide dogs for the blind, and as companion animals. In effect, this is a multi-purpose dog.
The Rottie is 22 to 27 inches tall and weighs 85 to 130 lbs.
The Saint Bernard is powerful, strong, tall and gargantuan. This dog is friendly, playful, very good with family members especially children, loving and loyal, obedient, moves in a leisure-like manner (when not working), drools, wheezes, snores, but is patient, obedient, and is very sensitive to hot or warm climates, and placement in automobiles. On a positive note, the SB even looks friendly.
The Saint Bernard should be fed 2 or 3 times daily; small meals rather than large ones because this dog tends to bloat. The Saint Bernard is very intelligent and easy to train. Because of its massive size training is recommended at an early age, otherwise, an experienced dog owner or trainer may be needed to do the job.
Saint Bernard can live indoors provided it is adequately exercised. However, because of its sheer size, furniture placement and walkways must be ‘affixed’ to suit it. The Saint Bernard was named after a monk named Saint Bernard de Menthon. Around 100 C.E. (Common Era) Swiss monks operated a very important rescue center in the treacherous between Switzerland and Italy. Put to excellent use, these dogs helped and rescued thousands upon thousands of endangered travellers, many of them trapped in the snow, others simply lost.
The Saint Bernard is 25 to 27.5 inches tall and weighs 110 to 200 lbs. However, some individuals reach weights in excess of 200 lbs.
The Saluki is a slim dog that resembles a Greyhound. It has an elegant frame and is symmetrical; streamlined, sprinter-type body. Its long and narrow chest ensures maximum oxygen capacity during chases. Although the Saluki can reach a maximum speed of 40 mph while sprinting, it can sustain a decent pace for longer distances.
The Saluki is dignified, independent, somewhat easily distracted, fast, active (outdoors), and good with children (no rough play whatsoever), but has a powerful hunting drive. It will suddenly chase after scurrying animals, and even other

dogs. The level of aggression it displays is determined by what kind of animal it chases. This is a sight hound that must be kept on a firm leash outdoors or in an enclosed area. Owners should beware; use a safety leash as this dog will bolt with full speed, force, and intensity in a sudden manner. Salukis are relatively inactive indoors as long as they are strenuously exercised on a daily basis. This dog may appear aloof or attach itself to one member of the family.
Salukis should never be trained or disciplined using harsh or stern methods. This is a sensitive breed of dog.
Salukis are one of the oldest purebred dogs. Mummified Salukis have been found in Pharaohs’ tombs. In addition, ancient Arabs, especially Bedouins used them for hunting big game. In addition, Bedouins have such respect for Salukis they do not refer to them as kelb (dog, singular) or klaab (dog, plural), but as Saluki/s. The name ‘Saluki’ came from the name of an ancient Middle Eastern city, no longer in existence. By Bedouin standards this dog is a ‘royal’.
The Saluki is 23 to 28 inches tall and weighs 29 to 66 lbs. The Samoyed is a firmly built, muscular, named after the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia. This is a gentle, friendly, happy, trusting, playful (through old age), outgoing, tends to bond with its master, easy-going, trusting, very intelligent, likes to pull on things, good with family and children, but cannot be trusted as a guard dog. This dog breed is too friendly and trusting of everyone even strangers. However, their bark may be used as an alarm.
The Samoyed has a herding dog drive and may ‘steer’
children in another direction. This dog can get along with other dogs and cats. However, it may not be trustworthy around other small animals.
Owners shouldn’t leave their Samoyed all alone for too long or for extended periods without having anything to do. This dog likes to perform activities. It can live indoors if adequately exercised; this is an energetic dog. Owners should beware, this dog is build for colder climates activity in warm or hot environments must be monitored. Keep your companion animal happy, safe, and healthy at all times, regardless of breed or species. Otherwise, you have no business owning it.
The Samoyed is an ancient breed of dog. It lived, worked (sled pulling and other activities), and hunted with these people for hundreds of years.
The Samoyed is 19 to 24 inches tall and weighs 40 to 65 lbs.
The Shetland Sheep-dog (Sheltie) has the look of a
miniature copy of a working Collie. This dog is loyal, good with families although it may bond with one person, highly

intelligent, alert, easy to train (sensitive to the trainer’s voice), docile and friendly, however, it is distrustful of strangers including children; it may cower away from a petting. The Sheltie will bark and bark if the stranger persists, however, as with most other dog breeds, a fear bite is always possible.
A Sheltie should never be allowed to roam around unless in an enclosed area. During a walk it must be on a firm leash, otherwise, it may try to chase down a car resulting in serious injury or death.
The Sheltie must be pre-occupied with activities otherwise, it may find its own thing to do. This dog can live indoors if adequately exercised daily. Owners beware this dog breed gains weight easily; it should not be overfed.
Both the Rough Collie and the Sheltie originated in the Shetland Islands; they are derived from the Border collie. The Sheltie was used for cow and sheep herding. By the early 18th century the Sheltie breed standard was complete; it was a hardy worker and not rough with the animals while working. The Sheltie is 13 to 16 inches tall and weighs 12 to 27 lbs.
The Shiba Inu (Sheba) is the smallest native dog breed in Japan. This dog is courageous, playful, delightful, energetic, alert, confident, good-natured, bold, fast, agile, beautiful, dignified, and independent. The Sheba is good with its family including children, other dogs, and also cats. However it may be a bit reserved with strangers.
The Sheba is clean, licking its paws and it tries to avoid dirty areas and puddles. In addition, the Sheba is easy to housebreak.
The hunting drive is strong in the Sheba. As such, they cannot be trusted alone or off leash near small animals. The Sheba can live indoors if adequately exercised, but would prefer a large yard. This dog has incredible endurance. Hence, it can be taken for long, daily walks.
The Sheba is a descendant of the ancient dogs of Japan. This dog was bred to hunt bear, boar, and other wild game. In the Japanese language the word ‘Shiba’ means ‘small brushwood’, and the word Inu means dog.
The Sheba was close to extinction after the Second World War. Thankfully, dedicated breeders helped raise their number to a sustainable level. Today, the Sheba is a very popular dog in Japan.
The Sheba is 14 to 16 inches tall and weighs 17 to 25 lbs. The word ‘Shih-Tzu’ means lion Dog in Mandarin Chinese. This is a small, sturdy, compact dog covered in flowing long hair. The body is longer than it is tall. It walks in an elegant

and dignified manner. In addition, it is lively, energetic, alert, playful and spirited. The Shih-Tzu was purposely bred to be a companion animal. As such, its general nature is to trust all. Owners should beware, as all persons and animals are not worthy of trust. Keep your Shih-Tzu safe.
The Shih-Tzu requires more maintenance than most dog breeds, especially when its hair is kept long. Proper grooming is necessary.
The Shih-Tzu can live indoors provided it is walked daily and allowed to play. As with all dog breeds in general, walking is necessary; although play is important it can never replace a daily walk. This breed is sensitive to heat and should not be overfed.
The Shih-Tzu is an old breed of dog from China bred by crossing Lhasa Apso and Pekingese breeds. This dog breed dates back to at least the 6th century. Chinese Royals cherished this dog, pampering it with incredible possessiveness; not selling, granting, or giving any individuals away for centuries on end. This dog was transported to England in the early 20th century. The Shih-Tzu is 8 to 11 inches tall and weighs 9 to 16 lbs. The Siberian husky (Husky) is a strong, well-balanced, compact, light-framed, social, happy, Northeast Asiatic sled dog with incredible endurance and tenacity (in athleticism-sledding or running).
The Husky has a good temperament, loves to work, and is a friendly dog. This dog should not be used for guarding. Although it doesn’t bark much it will howl, and when bored will whine. Although the Husky has a wolf-like look, this is as far as it goes. This is a cuddly and tame. Because of its high level of intelligence owners should keep their Huskies busy with daily activities and exercise. The Husky may not be suitable to live indoors; either way it must be allowed to burn off much of its pent up athleticism and energy. On a positive note, they are easy to train and they don’t eat much (considering their size and level of activity).
The Husky is a pack animal, therefore, the owner must exert proper leadership otherwise behavioural problems may result. Huskies can and sometimes do scale fences. In addition, they like to dig into the ground so they can lie in the dirt to keep cool or to dig underneath a fence to escape.
Owners of Huskies should be prepared to brush and groom their dog. In addition, Huskies are not designed for warmer or hot climates. In general, you could say ‘the colder the better’. The Husky was used by the Chukchi tribe of Siberia for pulling sleds, herding reindeer, and as watchdogs. These dogs were built for the far north, had a natural pack mentality, and
the strength, stamina, endurance, and resolve for brutal work in frigid temperatures.
The first All-Alaskan Sweepstakes consisting of an
incredibly gruelling 408 mile sled dog race took place in 1908. In 1925 Husky popularity worldwide skyrocketed after Siberian Huskies were used to transport badly needed diphtheria medicine to Nome, Alaska. Huskies were used in the Army’s Arctic Search and Rescue Unit during the Second World War.
The Husky is 20 to 23 inches tall and weighs 35 to 60 lbs. The Silky Terrier is a toy dog that is slightly longer than tall, somewhat low-set, fine-boned dog. It is intelligent, alert, robust (for its size), feisty, quick acting, energetic, curious, sociable, energetic, and cheerful. The Silky Terrier can be socialized with cats, but has a determined hunting drive for other small animals, especially scurrying ones. Owners beware, this dog enjoys digging.
The Silky Terrier is a good watchdog. In addition, they attach well to family members, including children. This dog can be independent, needing its own space at times, but most of the time it needs attention, activity and love.
The Silky Terrier is a native of Australia. The breed standard was developed by mixing Yorkshire Terriers with native Australian Terriers. The object was to enhance the blue and tan coat colour of the native Australian Terriers’ coat. The mission was successfully accomplished in 1936.
The Silky Terrier is 9 to 10 inches tall and weighs 8 to 11 lbs.
The Skye terrier is a long, low-framed dog. Incredibly, it is twice as long as it is tall. This is an elegant, very loyal, energetic, loving, strong (for its size), fearless, protective, playful and jolly dog.
The Sky terrier has a strong hunting and working drive. It likes to chase small animals, especially those who are scurrying. When on a hunt this dog is tenacious, fast, and attuned. It has a good olfactory sense which is often used to smell passersby and potential intruders from a considerable distance.
The Sky terrier can live indoors providing it is walked daily and allowed playtime.
The Sky terrier is a native of the island of Skye in Scotland. It is a combination of Maltese dogs and local terriers. They were employed as vermin exterminators, and locators of fox and badgers who were snatching livestock. Their acute olfactory sense, speed, agility, tenacity, and body proportions were an incredible asset.
The Sky terrier is 9 to 10 inches and weighs 25 to 45 lbs.
The Smooth Fox Terrier (SFT) is a medium-sized dog, wellproportioned,
and covered in a smooth white coat and brown or
black patches.
The SFT is courageous, feisty, loyal, protective,
dependable, faithful, and are well-attached to their families; they love being part of the family. This dog has a strong hunting drive. Therefore, it should be on a firm leash if taken outdoors in open areas. This dog may chase down a scurrying animal and kill it. Its strong affection to its family along with its hunting drive makes it a good watchdog, along with its ‘strong bark’. When not in watchdog mode, it generally gets along with new acquaintances and other canines.
The SFT can live indoors provided it is taken for a long walk or a decent jog.
The SFT is an old English breed of dog originating in the 17th century; employed to flush out foxes from their dens after their hound ‘pack mates’ had chased them inside. This dog is a mixture of Beagle, Dachshund, English Hounds, and the Fox Hound. The SFT is 13 to 16 inches tall and weighs 13 to 20 lbs. The Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier (SCWT) is medium-sized, prized and cherished soft, silky coat. It’s lively, strong, intelligent, alert, jolly, playful, friendly, and is good with its family including children.
The SCWT will bark at ‘incoming guests’ and passersby making it an ideal watchdog. This dog can live indoors provided it is taken on a daily walk.
The SCWT is an old Irish breed used since the 19th century. This dog is related to the Kerry Blue and Irish terrier. At one time the SCWT was the poor man’s dog, guarding the peripheral of small farms and properties, searching foxes and vermin, and herding sheep.
The SCWT’s coat takes some work to properly groom. Also, this dog isn’t well-adapted to hot weather.
The SCWT is 17 to 19 inches tall and weighs 30 to 45 lbs. The Spinone Italiano (Spinone) is a robust, ‘square built’, fine boned, thick skinned, dense-coated, muscular, good-limbed, long headed, rugged Italian dog.
The Spinone is a powerful, versatile hunting dog suited for multi-climate and multi-terrain hunting. This is a ‘hunter’s dream dog’.
This dog loves its family including children. It’s happy, pleasant, people oriented, good-spirited, docile, patient, and accepts lower than human status if trained and raised properly. Although the Spinone is an active dog it tends to move slowly, but with incredible endurance. It’s recommended for small yard living, but can live indoors provided it is taken on long walks or exercised sufficiently.

The Spinone is an all-round, all-purpose hunting dog in Italy. It’s versatile, friendly, and has a very strong hunting drive. It is an old gun-dog breed, perhaps a mix of Spanish Pointer (extinct), White Mastiff, French Griffons, Coarse-haired Italian Setters, and other dogs left by traders.
The Spinone is 22.5 to 27.5 inches tall and weighs 60 to 85 lbs.
The Tamaskan is large, wolf-like (in appearance), athletic, strong, powerful, thick-furred, and moves like a wolf. This dog is friendly, trainable (but often has a mind of its own), affectionate, good with his family including children, very intelligent, and energetic.
The Tamaskan is a pack dog that needs to be around people or other canines. If left alone for extended periods of time without anything to do behavioural problems may occur. This dog is active, energetic and very intelligent; it needs adequate exercise on a daily basis and something to do.
The Tamaskan traces its recent history to Finland during the 1980s. Breeders were attempting to ‘mould’ a wolf-like (in appearance) dog that was hard-working, intelligent, with a good temperament. Dogs used to mould the Tamaskan include Northern Inuit, Siberian Husky, Alaskan Malamute, German Shepherd, and Utonagan (resembles a wolf).
The Tamaskan is 24 to 28 inches tall and weighs 55 to 90 lbs.
The Tosa Inu or Japanese Inu is an incredibly powerful, massive, courageous, fearless, dog that is still being used for dog fighting. The Tosa Inu has a very high threshold for pain. A healthy, properly bred and raised Tosa Inu can be a good family companion. However, because of its massive size and strength first time, ‘docile-type’, or inexperienced owners of dogs are not recommended for this breed. For this dog breed correct leadership skills is a must! On a positive note, a good Tosa Inu is loyal to its master and family; gentle, loving, and docile to its family.
The Tosa Inu is a good guard dog. Its size, brute strength, and menacing appearance are enough to scare off any human or animal intruders.
The Tosa can live indoors provided it is adequately exercised. This dog should not be left alone for extended periods of time with nothing to do. In addition, kennelling is not suitable.
The Tosa Inu is considered a national treasure in Japan. For centuries this dog was bred to fight other dogs. Purebreds are Spitz-type dogs.
In Japan the Tosa Inu was a champion fighting breed. No other breed could equal it in strength, tenacity, ferocity,
heroism, and in its ability to endure pain (very high threshold).
The forefathers of the modern day Tosa Inu were first bred during the mid-19th century. Prior to then the Tosa was considerably smaller in size. However, Mastiff-type dogs were included into the breeding circle. This gave the Tosa a considerable increase in size and mass, brute strength, and a truly menacing appearance.
The Tosa is a quiet fighter. As Japanese dog fighting rules and tradition call for a quiet dog fight. Upon Japan’s entry into the Second World War dog fighting became illegal. Therefore, dog fighting became even more underground. Tosa Inu dogs were smuggled away to safe havens in Japan. Unfortunately, after war’s end dog fighting in Japan was legalized again. The Tosa Inu is considered the ‘Sumo Wrestler’ of the dog fighting world. Fighting dogs in Japan are actually given rank depending on their record. What a terrible shame! Worse yet, there’s hardly anyone in the animal protection network that’s doing anything about it.
The Tosa Inu ranges in weight from 65 to a whopping 200 lbs. Tosa Inu in the USA are more likely to be bred for size. The Tosa is 21.5 to 24 inches tall.
The Vizsla is a medium-sized, muscular, smooth and shiny coated, athletic-looking, robust but light framed, hunting dog originating in Hungary.
The Vizsla has a good olfactory sense, as it is a true hunting dog. It’s energetic, gentle with its family but tenacious during a hunt, loyal, loving, and good with energetic children. This dog’s hunting drive may cause it to chase after small animals. It should be socialized to cats preferably from puppyhood.
Although the Vizsla is a good family dog it is very energetic and has incredible endurance. It must be adequately exercised daily. Indoor living may not be a good option. If so, your dog must come home ‘worked out’ and preferably pooped. In addition, this dog thrives, loves, and needs activities. The Vizsla also known as the Hungarian Pointer originated in Hungary during the 10th century as a hunting dog. The Vizsla was an incredible asset to the Magyars; using this dog superb hunting skills to their advantage.
As with many other breeds the Vizsla came close to
extinction after the Second World War. In 1945 fearing for their dogs, brave Hungarians smuggled Vizslas out of the country right under the noses of the Russian occupiers.
The Vizsla is 21 to 25 inches tall and weighs 48 to 65 lbs. The Weimaraner is a medium-large, sleek, athletic, noblelooking dog bred by German Noblemen to hunt big game animals.

Because of its glossy grey coat colour it is sometimes referred to as the ‘grey ghost’.
The Weimaraner is protective, and can be used as watch dogs or guard dog.
Weimaraners love their family including children. They’re intelligent, sensitive, crave companionship and directions. This dog needs to exercise its intellect. Activities should be challenging both physically and mentally.
Weimaraners are sensitive to their master’s method of discipline. As with other dog breeds, hitting or humiliation should not be done as part of training. This dog breed may cower or shy away from those it fears.
Weimeraners should be fed 2 or 3 small meals per day rather than large meal, as this dog breed has a tendency to bloat. Weimaraners are energetic, athletic dogs who need daily exercise. This dog may not be suitable for indoor living. If left in a yard owners should beware that Weimaraners are good escape artists. Therefore, gates and fences should be escape proof.
The Weimeraner was bred by Noblemen of the Weimer court who were aiming at an all-round perfect hunting dog. Weimaraner numbers were low as they were used by a small elite group. Howard Knight, the founder of the first American Weimaraner breed club purchased and then transported two individuals into the United States.
Weimaraners are 22 to 27 inches tall and weigh 55 to 85 lbs.
The Whippet is a lean, medium-sized, elegant-looking sight hound that looks like a miniature version of its close relative, the Greyhound.
The Whippet is an incredibly fast runner; attaining speeds of up to 40 mph. In addition, its acceleration is unmatched in the canine world. The Whippet is intelligent, friendly to family and strangers, but must be on leash because it has a strong chasing/hunting drive. In essence, it will chase down a small animal and kill it. Meanwhile, the owner will not be able to catch his/her whippet. Once on a chase, it may be a toss-up if the dog will return. However, if the Whippet is raised with a cat it will befriend it quite well.
If adequately exercised, a Whippet can live indoors. They’re well-mannered and like to nap and sleep in comfortable quarters, including the living room sofa or on a bed. Giving your Whippet its own doggy bed is a good option. In addition, this dog likes to cuddle up and be physically close to its family. It is clean and does not have a doggy odour. Also, be aware that this dog is sensitive to the cold. It should be adequately dressed for cold days or nights. Keep your eye on

your dog to see it is feeling well and content with the amount of dress it is wearing. No loving dog owner would want his/her dog to become ill from the cold; or from any other problem for that matter.
A content Whippet is docile, loving, and affectionate. This dog is energetic and athletic. It likes to use its mind and body. So, Whippet owners should oblige their dog.
The Whippet was formed in the latter part of the 19th century. It is a mix of Greyhound, Italian Greyhound, and terriers. Initially used for hunting rabbits, but later used for dog racing by English miners. In effect, the Whippet was known as the ‘the poor man’s racehorse’. Massachusetts was the initial entry point of this dog.
The Whippet is 18 to 22 inches tall and weighs 15 to 45 lbs.
The White German Shepherd Dog (WGSD), a direct descendant of the German shepherd dog looks almost identical except for the white coated colour. The WGSD is a medium-sized, muscular, wellbalanced
dog that is faithful, loving towards its family, and thrives on physical and mental activities.
The WGSD is confident, courageous (willing to die for its master/family), energetic, very athletic, has a very good olfactory sense, alert and ready to act when necessary. This dog is perceptive of strangers, may be aloof but not fearful or uneasy. In addition, this dog is very people oriented. Owners should not leave this dog alone without anything to do for extended periods. Be cautious about kennelling.
The WGSD, like the German shepherd Dog is a multi-purpose dog that has been a blessing and asset to humans. A properly raised and trained WGSD can be a watchdog, guard dog, police or military dog, sniffer dog, therapy dog, guide for the blind, aiding the handicapped, a faithful companion and friend, acting, and agility sports.
The WGSD was one of the original German Shepherd Dog colours. Unfortunately, the ‘white colour’ fell into disfavour during the 1930s by many WGSD breeders and owners. The White German Shepherd Dog Association believes that the ‘white’ and ‘non-white’ shepherd dog types are of the same breed. However, the American Kennel Club will not allow WGSD to be shown in their conformation breed ring, but can be shown in their performance events; agility, herding, obedience, and tracking. Many rare breed shows allow the WGSD to be shown.
The WGSD sheds often. Therefore regular brushing is
The WGSD is 22 to 26 inches tall and weighs 60 to 85 lbs. The Yorkshire terrier (Yorkie) is a toy sized dog with a big personality. Notwithstanding its size, it’s still a terrier.
This is a long-haired dog; blue and tan coloured and needs daily brushing. Hair that becomes too long must be tied in a bow away from the face and eyes or cut. Otherwise, the hair will become intrusive to vision, eating, and drinking.
The Yorkie is brave, appears confident, is people oriented, tenacious, it’s energetic and ‘unaware’ of its size, clever, feisty, and loving towards its family. They are good with older children who understand that this dog is fragile. As with other small breeds, its teeth need to be cleaned regularly and should be kept in optimum health.
The Yorkie is a good family dog and can live indoors provided it is taken on daily walks. This dog likes to play, so play should be an enjoyable activity, but should not be a rare activity.
The Yorkie was bred in England during the 19th century by working class men who needed a good, fast, small, and reliable dog to destroy rats and mice that infested mines and mills. The Yorkshire terrier was bred from a mixture of Scottish Terriers. Although the Yorkie initially was a working man’s dog, it rose in popularity in North America during the 1960’s. The Yorkie is 7 to 9 inches tall and weighs 7 to 9 lbs.
Dogs are primarily descended from wolves; most notably but not exclusively the Grey wolf (Canis Lupus). There is no precise method to guarantee exactly when ‘wolves’ and ‘humans’ began their cautious symbiotic relationship. But, most experts agree that this important process began more than 10,000 years ago; in my opinion much longer, indeed.
The human-wolf symbiotic relationship, from the wolves’ perspective most likely resulted in a need for food. Early humans ate their food and then for obvious reasons disposed of the remains. Everything, even human waste (fecal, urine) was ‘scented’ by wolves. But, no doubt in the very beginning it was food that was the ‘giant magnet’. Wolves were like garbage disposals, eating our toss-away food and thereby inadvertently helping to clean up the area.

Humans hunted, ate, and then discarded the scraps. Wolves approached and ate the scraps. As time passed, some wolves were ‘courageous’ enough to approach the unusual-looking bipedal. The wolves that had courage and gaul were able to approach these strange-looking bipedal got a closer look at them and if ‘lucky’ forged an ambiguous/symbiotic relationship. In effect, they were on the peripheral of much of ancient human groups.
Later, wolves were used as sentinels. Enemies (human or animal) who approached were shooed away by the wolves or the sheer noise and raucous was enough to alert their ‘symbiotic friends’.
Humans, appreciating the ‘assistance’ began to feed the wolves. Some wolf individuals were naturally inclined to approach humans. A major step in our symbiotic relationship occurred when puppies were born in and around human settlements. Especially those who were deep within; they literally ‘scented’ humans and interacted with them. This was an important landmark. Humans could now use wolves, or you could say dog-like wolves to hunt. From this point onwards, humans were more than able to ‘better mould’ the ‘forming dogs’ and use them as hunting companions.
Furthermore, humans and wolves both lived and hunted in groups or packs. Therefore, it was easier to study the behaviour of ‘the other’ group. Both groups were predators; ‘apex-like’ hunters.
Naturally, as time passed humans and these dog-like wolves formed strong bonds based not only on use but also on friendship, care, companionship, and love. A good, loving, wellmannered
dog will do more for its master than any other species of animal. Dogs have been known to fight to the death to defend their master and family. Not to mention their property. No doubt, eons ago, early humans and wolves were rivals that killed each other. An unarmed lone human was no match for any wolf. However, humans with their ‘astronomically advantaged technology’ could kill any wolf with a single spear, arrow or stone. Humans that lived in groups were unchallengeable as they are today.
However, early humans couldn’t compete with the wolves’ acute senses, stamina, or endurance. Puppies raised by humans would’ve had to make the grade. In other words, one way or another they’d have to be useful. On the other hand, dangerous, aggressive, snappish, or un-trainable/untameable dogs would either be tossed out of the human community in puppyhood or a bit later, or were killed outright. There was no use in having a ‘wild and dangerous beast’ nearby, let-alone in the community. The puppies and their ancestors were moulded to suit the human community. Size, function, temperament, and physical
characteristics could be moulded by breeding over and over again. Rejects would be removed while the ‘good canines’ would be kept and bred for more of the same kind.
Dog breeds and dog types are not the same thing. Although they are sometimes ‘incorrectly’ identified as so, it is still wrong to do so.
Purebred dogs are registered with at least one recognized kennel club. A good kennel club should offer the following information: breed standard, description, temperament, measurements and weights (minimum and maximum for males and females; maximum measurements and weights are sometimes left open depending on the kennel club), recommended activity level, indoor or outdoor living, litter size, general life duration, grooming and general care, required colours if applicable (coat, eyes, etc.), eating habits or if more specified nutritional needs, water, history/origin, possible genetic/medical problems specific breed, trainability, Group (sight hound, terrier, blood hound, etc.), official recognition (AKC, UKC, CKC, etc.). A dog type is a wide categorization of dogs determined by purpose and function.
The AKC dog types are the most recognized and respected. They are as follows (in alphabetical order of first word): A. Herding Breed Type
B. Hound Breed Type
C. Miscellaneous Breed Type
D. Non-Sporting Dog Types
E. Sporting Dogs
F. Terrier Breed Type
G. Toy Breed Types
H. Working Dog Breeds
I believe that another type of dog should be added, not necessarily to this list but as a type of dog. Actually, let me expand on this matter; any animal that is owned solely for companionship, friendship, love, emotional and physical comfort, reassurance, and to be part of the family and life is a ‘COMPANION TYPE’ of dog; or in the case of other animal species ‘COMPANION TYPE ANIMAL’.
Many people love their companion animals unconditionally, so much so the ‘animal’ is perceived as part of the family. The death of this animal can cause extreme physical and mental anguish. Sometimes this results in mental and/or physical illness. This is understandable.
However, people who use dogs for a special purpose/s can and do also love them dearly. Many dogs enjoy working for their
human masters. It’s ingrained in their genetic makeup to do the work that they do.
Any farmer or rancher who uses herding dogs will tell you that this dog type is perfectly suited for the job. No mechanized vehicle or any other human gadget can do the job as well and as cheaply as a herding dog, also known as a stock dog. Herding dogs are classified as working dogs. In general, they’re hard-working, energetic, agile, have good stamina and endurance, love to please their owners, fast runners, take orders well, and some breeds used for herding need little to no supervision.
These dog types can herd horses, sheep, cattle, etc. Although the vast majority of herding dog types are now family dogs they still retain the powerful drive to herd. Often, they will herd family members, especially children, or other animals in the household or yard. A few will even snip at humans’ heels, not to harm but out of instinct.
Herding type dogs are either trained or are a member of a dog breed that has been ‘moulded’ into a natural herder. Either way, the individual (dog) must be inherently good at his/her job. These dogs can be commanded by a yell, whistle, or a yell and signals simultaneously.
I’ve included a vast list of website URLs (Addresses) below. I’m certain that this is the best method to convey immense knowledge to the most number of people. Herein, you’ll find more in-depth information pertaining to all dog breeds and types. What I am doing here is writing a short e-book to open up the eyes and ears of people.
Animalogy, in this particular case dog studies or dog science is a field that is vast. Degrees up to the Doctoral level, diplomas, certificates, jobs and careers, a plethora of educational materials, and much activism can come of this. I ask that you spread the word about this very important fact. Animals, including dogs, are an incredible part of our history. We should include them in much of our education; fields such as criminal justice in including but not limited to law and law enforcement, psychology, behavioural science, sociology (animal sociology, animal social studies, animal social science), evolution, biology, zoology, biochemistry, history, anthropology (human culture-animal relationships), political science, social work, veterinary medical science, food science, pharmaceutical science, dietary science (eating of animal byproducts,
feeding animals), therapy, and animal history.
The first herding dogs weren’t as tameable as those used later. They were larger and not as ‘moulded’. It was later, when human breeding became more organized, size and temperament of dogs was altered to suit the needs of farmers and ranchers. In
general, herding guards are bred to gather or herd. But almost always, they are ready to guard a flock with full tenacity. Predators (human and animal) must be dealt with by a trained dog.
Perhaps, the Border collie is unmatched in the area of herding. It is the epitome of persistent and targeted breeding for a specific functional purpose.
The Border collie gathers animals rather than drives them. It knows how to gaze, posture, and run after stray sheep or other livestock. They do all this for no pay; room, board, basic care, and a good word or two and a pat on the head. No other animal would do this for so little. Most wild animals that perform in circuses and roadside shows have been broken in, often using brutal and unnatural methods, deprivation, and fear. No wonder, throughout history dogs and horses have been the most used animal species. I’m not referring to consumed animals. I’m referring to work.
Take the best animal species in the world and you won’t find a more loyal one than a good dog, and they come in all sizes, coat colours, functions, types, and temperaments. A loyal dog will never leave its family, even in gross adversity. Excavations in the ‘Vulcanized City’ (CE 79) of Pompeii showed a dog beside a child. This dog did what countless other loyal dogs would’ve done; stood by its family till death; yes, this is the epitome of the saying ‘TILL DEATH DO WE PART’. Good dogs are sensitive to their master’s scolding or praise; tail wagging, cowering, yelping, or shrivelling. The intensity of sensitivity depends on breed, individual, age, and circumstances.
It is best not to approach a strange dog directly and making eye contact, especially if it’s eating, napping, or sleeping. Direct approach and eye contact may be translated as a challenge or an act of aggression. Furthermore, some dogs will interpret a human’s raised head as alpha behaviour.
Always get permission from the owner before attempting to pet a dog. Even puppies can snap at a human hand; they’ve got razor-sharp teeth.
Furthermore, it’s safer to allow the dog to smell you or your hand first. Remember, if you’re standing your hand is being lowered from a higher level than the dog’s head. It may be perceived as a jackhammer-type strike by a sensitive dog. Let the dog smell your hand when it’s below muzzle level. Sensitive or cowering dogs perceive a seated or lying down human as less of a threat than a standing human. This should help you ‘convince’ the dog that you’re not trying to harm it. By Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 885,000 persons end up in the hospital as a result of bite wounds.

However, this does not take into account the ‘unregistered bites’ which are greater, indeed; many victims choose not to file a complaint with the police or choose not to go to the hospital depending on the severity of the bite. Indeed, estimates as high as 5 million have been given by other organizations. It’s impossible to determine, but we can say that the 885,000 statistic is a minimum.
There’s another category of bite victims; that of dog owners. A childhood friend of mine had a toy dog. His dog ‘snap bit’ my friend’s hand over and over again. Thankfully they were non-skin penetrating bites. If his dog had bitten me I wouldn’t have complained to anyone. Of course, I’m not comparing these bites to more serious ones, however, humans should beware. If Tommy’s dog had been a German Shepherd Dog or another large and powerful dog breed who knows what would’ve happened? A canine behaviourist, dog trainer, or a veterinary canine behaviourist can help with canine behavioural problems or obedience training. Note that like the human community some individuals can’t change.
Children are in high risk bite category. Their snappy and unpredictable behaviour along with their ignoring or not understanding dog behaviour and particular cues are the primary causes. A child may run towards a feeding dog, or wake it up, or perform rough and tumble play, or run around and cause a stimulus overload result for the dog.
In addition, a child may approach a strange dog head-on with direct eye contact, as a predator would. Finally, territorial integrity of dogs (dog guarding a specific space,) or personal space (you must stay within a certain distance from me or else) must be taught to every child.
The cruel practice of ‘dog chaining’ usually to a tree but always to an immobile inanimate object causes these dogs incredible stress. Almost every one of these dogs becomes aggressive, extremely territorial, and mentally unstable. Children should be taught to stay away from all guard dogs and any chained dog. Walking in the dog’s path or territory will result in an almost guaranteed charge and/or attack. I’m not advocating the total letting-loose of any dog. This is dangerous to the dog and to society (humans and animals) at large. A dog can be kept in a fenced in yard or in a nice dog house.
When two dogs are fighting, a human should be very careful about pulling the two combatants apart. Either the other dog or even ‘your own dog’ or both dogs may bite your hand/s or other body part. In addition, with the exception of dog fighting pits, after two dogs fight the owner should ensure that his/her dog calms down; be careful in the meantime.

When I was a child (pre-schooler) we (the children in the neighbourhood) witnessed a dog fight. A Beagle and a Dachshund went at it head-to-head. It was obvious that these two dogs were going to fight some day. They never got along.
Let me leapfrog to the point. Immediately after the fight was over the owner (a little girl) of the Dachshund (the loser) tried to comfort her dog. Guess what? He bit her very hard! Fighting dogs in pits are trained to fight their opponent but not bite or attack the so-called referee. Otherwise, be careful about breaking up a dog fight. You must calculate your actions and know what you’re doing.
Regarding fighting dogs that won’t let go, or if one of the fighters is a sustained biter, a stick may be needed. But please, be careful and know what you’re doing. The stick should be inserted into the dog’s mouth and then carefully pry it open. Please understand and memorize the method perfectly from a certified dog handler or trainer. I’m also worried about the dog’s mouth and safety too.
Since dogs can’t speak (words) our language a human should not ignore their body language.
If a dog bares its teeth, growls, snarls, stays stiff (sometimes this is a precursor to an attack, stares, wrinkles its muzzle, or guttural barks be very careful. Even cowering can lead to a lightning-fast snapping bite. Yes, fear biting does happen. Luckily, a fear bite is usually snappy and if the human calmly backs away the problem will likely end.
In predatory aggression a dog will try to chase down a target. Small scurrying animals and joggers are good examples. Wolf-dog hybrids are unpredictable. Regarding predatory aggression, the hybrid may be a good companion animal for however long a period, but one day it notices ‘your’ preschooler scurrying in the home or in the yard. As has happened before, the ‘predatory drive’ is turned on and it is sudden, quick, and may not be irreversible if there’s no one around to stop it. The hybrid attacks the ‘target’!
Not all wolf-dog hybrids will do this, but it’s better to be safe than sorry, especially if you, someone you love, or a child, or a beloved companion animal is the potential victim. If you or someone you know is bitten by a dog or animal, it’s a good idea to contemplate medical attention as soon as possible because the ‘biting dog’ may be rabid or sick. Even if the biting dog isn’t rabid, a bite from an animal’s tooth is certainly mixed with its saliva, and may also contain traces of food particles and blood. The victim may not see the puncture. In addition, the authorities must be notified. Especially if it was an unprovoked bite, the dog may bite other persons or animals.

Any dog type or breed can bite you. No ‘type’ or ‘breed’ has dibs on this matter. The vast majority of dog-to-human encounters are peaceful ones. This is what most experts say, and of course this is what I’ve experienced. I understand that when a large, powerful dog breed attacks a person horrible damage or even death can ensue. That’s the difference between being attacked by a toy dog and a powerfully built dog. Really, some of the most ferocious dogs are small, toy dog types. Unfortunately, some dogs are raised incorrectly, are abused by their owners, are taught by their owners to be aggressive, or cannot turn off their ‘guard mode’. Regarding the latter matter, some guard dogs aren’t trained, are undertrained to turn off their guarding instinct when walking or when the circumstances call for it. They’re still in guard mode when their master walks them. Thereby, you, the pedestrian are forced to cross the street and walk on the other side because of the dog’s aggressive overtures. This is the owner’s fault. Remember, regardless of the circumstances, the dog owners is SUPPOSED TO BE MORE INTELLIGENT THAN HIS/HER DOG! Children or young kids shouldn’t be allowed to walk a large, powerful dog unsupervised. He/she most likely can’t pull back the dog. Furthermore, the dog understands that the ‘walker’ is young. This may put the dog on ‘excessive protective mode’.
The fighting dog, however, has no friends in the inner circle. This isn’t a hyperbole, or even a miniscule
exaggeration. It’s the honest to GOD truth!
Let me backtrack about the ‘inner circle’. I’m referring to the fighting dog’s owner, trainer, organizer of fights, spectators, or anyone else involved in this particular endeavour. Certainly, fighting dogs do have friends ‘outside of the inner circle’. Activists, law enforcement, and anyone including neighbours and strangers who care are friends of the fighting dog. They want the sport ended permanently! Even so-called ‘winners’ in a dog-fighting event are actually losers too. And, when I use the word ‘loser’ I’m not insulting the dog.
I’m referring to their lives. It’s a no-win situation. Sooner or later even a champion fighting dog will lose. Even wins often result in horrible injuries. But the ones that are mental are just as painful; sometimes even more.
The graphic images pertaining to dog fighting victims is sad, horrifying and maddening! You can get more depth information in the INFORMATION BOOTH SECTION.
Unfortunately, the down side to all this is the easy accessibility and sales of fighting dogs or puppies from ‘fighting bloodlines’ and well-trained dogs.

The criminals in the dog fighting enterprise are just that; criminals in the true sense. Underground gambling, drugs, weapons, unlawful monies, blood, sadism, pus, pain, agony, and gore are ever-present in the dog-fighting world. In addition, sometimes children are amongst the spectators. A child who’s taught that dog fighting is an acceptable form of entertainment is being raised by unfit parent/s. Remember, the child will one day grow up to be an adult.
No dog fight is ever humane. It’s virtually impossible to be. Whether it’s a mismatch or an even match both fighters are well-trained in the art of inflicting and enduring pain. But even pain-resistant dogs or special dog breeds aren’t made of steal. They’re made of flesh like us, they bleed, they tire, and yes they have pain receptors. They’re never paid or asked how they feel ... ‘are you up to it today’.
Dogs in this blood-sport are used as a source of revenue and status. In fact, the owner sinks in status every time he/she uses a dog for a fight. Many owners dock the tails of and slice off the ears of their fighting dogs. These body-parts are easy targets and a hindrance during a fight.
Dog fighting can be a spontaneous street fight, a somewhat organized street fight, or a so-called ‘professional match’. They can occur in urban areas (abandoned or run-down buildings, basements, etc.) but out in the country there’s more open space and less witnesses. Any building or house that has enough space for a fighting pit can be used. Or out in the middle of nowhere, or in someone’s backyard (who lives out in the country). Dog fighting has been in the United States at least as far back as the mid-18th century. But it was after the Civil War that this horrible sport became popular primarily in the Northeastern states. Even officers of the law and firefighters
enjoyed this blood sport. Like Prohibition, even some of those persons who were supposed to be upright citizens, uphold the law, and defend the public and its properties were corrupted. The Bull Terrier breed types were transported from England and Ireland. Because blood sports were illegal in England since 1835 it seemed (to the rabble) a good idea to transport the merchandise to America.
The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) along with its founder Henry Bergh helped to make all forms of animal fighting ‘officially illegal’ in New York. In fact, Humane Law Enforcement Officers had arrest powers. And, that’s the way it should be.
The ‘professional dog fight club’ uses the most number of animals; dozens or more. Naturally, they can use up a dog and then get rid of him by shooting, smashing its head, beating to death, tossing the dog onto the street, selling it to inner city

criminals, or in rare instances burn the dog. It all depends on how pissed off the owner is at his dog. Large losses from wagering naturally call for major retaliation against the dog. Although the American Pit Bull Terrier is still the most popular bloodline for fighting dogs in America, any fighting dog mix can do. Thankfully, many dog breeds and types cannot be trained to fight. Unfortunately, any John, Dick, or Harry can find fighting dog types from quite a few breeds to choose from the internet, books, magazines, or persons who know. Naturally, fighting dogs must go through a horrific
training regimen, but their mental stability and thinking is also altered. After all, without the right mental state no dog whatsoever can ever fight. The body control center is the brain and mind not the body. The body is only the tool that’s used for the action.
Unfortunately, many fighting dogs simply can’t ‘de-fight’ their mental state after being rescued. They must be put to sleep. On the other hand, many others are successfully adopted. I say, be very careful and be cautious.
A fighting dog must be in top physical shape; fights may last up to a few hours. Even so, a vicious fight that last just only 5 or 10 minutes takes uses up a lot of energy.
One friend the friend the fighting dog had in Afghanistan was the Taliban. They banned dog fighting in the country during their brief reign, even imprisoning Mama Kharay a notorious dog fight promoter. But as soon as they were toppled, dog fighting returned to the scene.
Afghanistan-style dog fighting permits less gore and bloodshed than its American counterpart. Dogs are pulled away from each other considerably sooner. However, it’s still a violent blood-sport; dogs are bloodied and injured. Furthermore, money is made from these fights.
Dog fights in Afghanistan occur every Friday morning at 10:00 A.M. What a day to pick; right before the required weekly congregational sermon and prayer.
Almost all rescued dogs have scars, abrasions, bites, and other injuries on their bodies. Veterinary medical care costs money. There’s hardly a dog fight owner who’ll spend the money for his/her dog. The mere act of dog fighting proves an uncaring, apathetic, cruel attitude. Furthermore, taking a fighting dog to the vet will draw suspicion. If I were the vet the first thing I’d do is call the police!
Broken bones, deformities, hyper-aggression, or cowering are a few other problems.
Conditioning and practice are cruel indeed. Fighting dogs are forced onto treadmills and other activities beyond the normal level of stamina and endurance. In addition, practice

fights do not consist of a fighting dog and his sparring partner. No! The targets are puppies, defenceless dogs or cats; many of which were stolen. Others are strays. These sparring partners are often killed by their opponent.
Please, never give away a companion animal for FREE TO A GOOD HOME! These ads attract people who’ll use your dog in inhumane ways like dog fighting, vivisection, etc. If you want to give away your dog for free, give it to a trusted relative, friend, or get a very good recommendation. Otherwise, you’ll probably have to hand it to a shelter.
Historically, there were other types of blood-sports where dogs were involved. Bear baiting, bull baiting, and fighting against lions and other beasts in Roman arenas.
Prior to 1835 when the British Parliament made bear baiting illegal dog on dog or dog on other animal fighting was common. Unbelievably, this was a time where blood sports were considered a past time, an event to watch for pleasure and fun. The rabble of society and the royals were pleased.
We must always be diligent because there are people who’d love to make blood sports perfectly legal.
The original fighting and baiting dogs were longer-legged and slimmer. They had great stamina, agility, and were athletic, not muscle bound and breathless. Drawings of these dogs attest to this fact. However, those dogs that were pitted in ‘baiting’ had to get underneath their opponent. Therefore, they were more likely to be a bit shorter.
In addition, dogs used in Afghanistan aren’t massive, muscle-bound, but medium to large sized, strong, and ferocious. In Pakistani style bear baiting which by the way was a British Import, two specially trained savage dogs are let loose on a ‘poled bear’; he’s roped to a pole or other inanimate object. In addition, the bear’s teeth are usually filed down or yanked out (without anaesthetic) and the same goes for its claws. The bear is basically mauled. However, he can still cause considerable damage or kill his opponents.
Sadly, the bear’s face is usually ripped in several places, not to mention skin and flesh from the rest of its body. Dogs can be squashed. The animals bring in money and new ones always cost money. Therefore, owners, promoters, and trainers understand that it’s better to use and re-use their animals as many times as possible for money’s sake, not love for the animals.
These fights are staged out in the countryside where tribal loyalties and corruption keep this blood sport running. Organizations like the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) and other organizations, and also honest, hard
80 working government workers are doing their best to end this horrible sport.
Bear baiting has been ‘officially’ illegal in Pakistan since the passing of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act of 1890; also illegal under the Pakistan Wildlife Act.
Hog-dog rodeos are bloody, cruel, and horrible sports. The ‘event’ involves one or two extremely vicious, well-trained dogs, often Pit Bull types, who are pitted against a defenceless (tusk-less; tusks are brutally removed) hog in a pit or a pen. These events are primarily in the southern states but can occur in the Midwestern states.
Hog-dog rodeos are a rural activity. Unfortunately for the hogs, flesh from their bodies is literally bitten, pulled, and/or ripped off. No part of the hog’s body is off limits. Even the scrotum, testicles and penis are ‘legitimate targets’. Often the first body part ripped off are the ears; easy targets to bite and easy to rip off.
The hog is slower, less agile, outnumbered, hated and despised by the dogs and the spectators (spectators want to see a blood fest; naturally the bleeder should be the hog). The squeaks and squeals of the poor hog don’t result in sympathy, but a need for more blood and terror.
During the fight spectators (adults and children) applaud, laugh, and have a good time watching the tormented hog. There’s absolutely no mercy or compassion in this sport. It’s barbaric to say the least. Naturally in this kind of event wagering or gambling on the outcome is a normal activity. By outcome, I’m referring to how long a dog/s take to defeat a hog. Sometimes, a hog is forced to endure several fights; one after the other. Even timers or stopwatches are used. As for booze and drugs on the scene, guess for yourself.
Although hog-dog rodeos are ‘officially illegal’ in
Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina and South Carolina, authorities tend to drag their feet regarding enforcement.
Proponents of this sport ‘claim’ these events are ‘field trials’ or ‘training regimens’ for their hunting dogs. They are fooling themselves and trying to fool us. A blood sport is a blood sport by whatever name you or I call it.
Lastly, justice requires education, investigation, arrest and prosecution, and a felony penalty. Small fines won’t do the job. Profits from ‘attendee fees’ and gambling are much ‘grander’ than a 100 dollar fine. Hog dog rodeo activity must be a felony.
Now, let us take a look at dogs in shelters, the
overpopulation problem and shelter killings.

All animal shelter in the U.S. are not required to turn in annual statistics regarding how many animals they took in, adopted, euthanized, reclaimed, or died of natural causes in the shelter.
The best estimate is that between 6 and 8 million animals (mostly dogs and cats) enter shelters every year. Of those, many are euthanized. Some estimates of killings go as high as 7 million. There’s no fool-proof method of getting a precise statistic. But it’s certain that millions of animals are killed every year in shelters.
Most shelters by and large are overcrowded, understaffed, include underpaid workers. In some cases, they’re unqualified and uncaring. It’s a very tough, stressful, and overwhelming job. The animals are like waves, they keep coming and coming! And the stench in the housing area could make a newcomer (human) puke like crazy. As for the dogs, I can’t imagine what they smell.
Animals are dumped by owners who can no longer properly care for their dogs, could never properly care for their dogs, have an overly aggressive or misbehaving dog, or the dog may be a stray, former racing Greyhound, a has-been fighting dog, or a badly injured dog.
Euthanasia can be by lethal injection (the most humane method), gas canister (gas chamber), or in some shelters a lethal injection is jabbed into the heart. The latter is generally used on cats.
Regarding gas chambers animals are stuffed inside a
chamber, sometimes a large canister, squeezed together and are then gassed with carbon monoxide. Vomit, saliva and drool, poop, urine, and blood are smothered against the animals. Other animals awaiting ‘death row’ can hear the yelps and squeals of their brethren.
Puppy mills are a major culprit in the canine
overpopulation problem. Most of the dogs sold in pet stores originated in mills.
Puppy mills are hell-holes for the dogs therein. Sickness, cramped and filthy wire-mesh cages, lack of clean and healthy food and water, flies, maggots, open sores and untreated injuries, apathy, fear, apprehension, confusion, little or no veterinary medical care, visible injuries or signs of illness, exposure to the elements, are some of the major problems therein.
Missouri’s Proposition B (The Puppy Mill Cruelty Act), if passed will greatly improve the animal welfare requirements for puppy mills in Missouri. Furthermore, it will put a sting on violations.

Bitches in puppy mills are really breeding machines. The bitch is bred at the earliest possible age and is bred over and over again. Little or no attention is paid to the consequences. When she can’t breed any more she’s either ‘discarded’ or ‘eliminated’ in the quickest and cheapest manner. Worse yet, puppies are often snatched away from their mother before they’re weaned.
Pet stores throughout North America are notorious for purchasing puppy mill animals. The animals are cheaper than those from a licensed, caring, professional dog breeder. In addition, many puppy mill dogs were stolen or were snatched off the streets. Missouri appears to be the puppy mill capital of America; able to export thousands of puppy mill dogs to other states.
Spay, neuter, never purchase a cat or a dog from a pet store, responsible breeding, phase out puppy mills, potential pet owners should think really hard before purchasing any pet. Prospective owners should understand what it entails to own and properly care for a particular animal. Know something about the species and the breed; veterinary medical care, medication, feeding, watering, hygiene, emotional support, general behavioural profile, bedding and training, other family members, insurance, allergies, and expenses. These are some of the problems that must be understood before purchasing an animal, and must be tackled successfully after owning it. It takes knowledge and work!
Unfortunately, many people purchase their pet on a whim. They see a cute face and that’s it ... they feel like they must have it immediately. ‘Whimsical purchases’ often end up in tossed animals. The holiday season and birthdays are notorious times. Only buy from a licensed breeder with a good reputation. Go to the breeding facility (by surprise) and check out the animals, the breeder’s behaviour, and whatever else you can notice. Study the entire place and the animals therein. What does your ‘logical mind’ tell you? Also, get referrals. You can help by telling family members and friends about the problem of dog and cat overpopulation. Warn them about the mistakes that are causing and aggravating this problem. And DO NOT GIVE FOR FREE TO A NEW HOME! DO NOT PURCHASE ANY ANIMAL FROM THE INTERNET OR ANY ANIMAL THAT IS ENDANGERED, THREATENED, OR OTHERWISE IN A NUMERICALLY TROUBLED PREDICAMENT. PURCHASE YOUR DOG OR CAT FROM YOUR LOCAL ANIMAL SHELTER, IF POSSIBLE. Some of the nations with stray dog overpopulation problems include Turkey, Sri Lanka, Zanzibar, Bali, Costa Rica, Egypt, Greece, Romania, Columbia, Southern Italy, Spain, Caxias do Sul, Brazil (Dogs Have their Own Slum in one town), and Taiwan. This is not

a complete list but you should get an idea of the magnitude of this problem.
There are literally millions of stray dogs around the world. Many of these dogs are very hungry or starving, thirsty barely getting enough ‘dirty water’ to survive. Life on the streets is very tough. Other animals and humans (dog haters, people frustrated by dog overpopulation, etc.) can be horrible enemies. Competition for food and territory or space can sometimes be fierce with no mercy whatsoever. Fights, unhealed wounds, rabies, and other illnesses are prevalent. Furthermore road kill and the elements aggravate the problem.
Countries that do not use humane methods of dog population control (spay, neuter, euthanasia) may use ‘a bullet’, beatings, kicking, or other brutal methods to eliminate the problem. In some cultures, dogs are considered vermin with no rights whatsoever.
Remember cities or towns that have stray dog overpopulation problems also have dogs that must eat! They’ll go through garbage cans and bins, beg for scraps and present themselves in front of restaurants, homes, and apartments. If unchecked, their presence and numbers will become overwhelming, and in this context causing stimulus overload for people living in the area and for tourists. Tourists take notice of stray dogs. If you want to help a stray dog ... DON’T FORGET that ‘the particular dog’ has lived on the tough streets either fighting for its food or aggressively begging for it. It may be sick with rabies or some other malady. It may be mentally unstable. It may be angry, scared, or confused. Furthermore, the dog may have had horrible experiences with other humans. Remember, you are a total stranger.
You should approach the dog cautiously regardless of how friendly it appears. No sudden moves, and if you can squat down to its level but don’t get too close too fast. Don’t raise your arms high up in the air as this action appears aggressive. If everything goes fine, carefully place a leash and collar around the dog’s neck and take it to the nearest shelter or a place where the local authorities have designated for stray dogs. Calling for professional help is better. The dog in question could be rabid or sick. You could be bitten in a flash. Regarding shelters in general; donate money to your local shelter, or to another needy shelter. If you or anyone else can volunteer for a shelter do it. You’ll be helping the shelter animals, the overtaxed shelter workers, your community, and your country.
Dog owners should understand that dog litters are large! DOGS DO NOT GIVE BIRTH LIKE HUMANS DO! In addition, dogs work on instinct and don’t understand the concept of holding back when

it comes to mounting (male-on-female). A bitch in heat that’s loose will attract any fertile dog in the vicinity. In reality, she’s a ‘run-around Sue’.
Many years ago as I was leaving home I saw my neighbour’s dog mounting a bitch in the middle of the street. When I returned home several hours later, guess who I saw and guess what he was doing. I’m sure they weren’t going at it continuously; no doubt they were interrupted by ongoing traffic, but I learned a thing about dogs. In case you’re wondering, this eye opening event occurred in a small town where traffic was never congested.
Dog meat is eaten in China, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, and in the Philippines However, in Korea and China the dog meat trade is more vast and flourishing. In addition, it’s considered a real delicacy by some restaurant goers in China and Korea. The treatment of dogs and cats (2 million in Asia) in Asian fur farms is very cruel and inhumane.
In the Philippines, it’s estimated that 100,000 dogs are brutally housed and slaughtered every year in the dog meat trade.
Dogs kept in Korean dog farms are living in nothing short of a languishing, horrific, hell-hole! Although this e-book is about dogs and other canids, I must mention that cats are also eaten in Asia, in particular China and Korea. They too live in hell from birth (if raised on a dog farm), or from the time they’re snatched and taken to the dog farm, their entire stay, and even in the method used to kill them, which is horrific indeed.
Cats can be smashed and boiled down to a cat’s soup food. Although many people in Korea keep companion dogs in their homes, many are stolen to feed the dog meat trade. Also, some owners may no longer be able to care for their dogs so they’re dumped or sold away. The dog meat trade has turned dogs into ‘fleshy commodities’ for sale and consumption.
You can find a petition at the Korean Animal Protection Society’s website to protest the consumption of dog meat in Korea.
It’s estimated that 2 million dogs are annually slaughtered in Korea to feed the dog meat trade. Depending on what source and whom you ask, dog meat either is or isn’t ingrained into Korean culture.
Dogs for consumption are placed in dog meat markets. These markets can easily be found. Even a blind man can find one. These markets emit a horrible stench! A stench of blow-torched, skinned (often while still alive), sickly, bloodied, terrified, dogs. Not to mention their fecal droppings, urine, and other oozing discharges.

The wire-mesh, or other cheep cages are filthy, and flies permeate the air. To compound this problem, there are thousands of restaurants in Korea that offer dog meat plates.
To better control the dogs many are tied into illogical positions, causing bone, ligament, and tendon damage. Furthermore, to prevent barking or biting, dogs may have their muzzle tied into a hollow can, clamping their mouths shut. In these markets, there’s absolutely no mercy, compassion, or love for any of the dogs. They can be blow-torched, beaten to death, strangled, or must endure whatever form of killing is at hand for the butcher. Some of the butchers ‘smile’ when they see a potential customer/s.
In 1991, the Korean Authorities passed a law classifying dogs as domestic pets. In effect, the dog meat trade is ‘officially illegal’. However, authorities are yet to take a stand and enforce this law justly. Bribery, coercion, intimidation, and lack of empathy are widespread are hampering justice. Furthermore, dog meat trade is also illegal in Taiwan (since 2001) and the Philippines (since 1998).
In addition, there’s an unfounded belief, no doubt
propagated by individuals who are in the dog meat industry and their supporters and sympathizers that dog meat can increase sexual virility in a man; especially if the dog’s adrenaline level is elevated at the time of killing. Many dogs are strangled to death in the hope of attaining this preposterous belief.
Let’s remember, there are many brave, hard-working, loving, and highly tenacious Koreans who are fighting for the rights of dogs abused in this industry. Millions of Koreans do not eat the flesh of dogs. Therefore, it’s imperative that absolutely no racism be ‘thrown’ at the Korean people; south or north. Animal abuse is worldwide. What we consider as food animals often live in hell-holes called factory farms. Slaughter is often cruel and inhumane. Dog abuse takes on different forms depending on the part of the world it’s in, the culture, and the anticipated purpose of the animals; food, traction, guarding, sledding, lawenforcement,
military, search and rescue, etc.
Dogs have been used in wars since time immemorial. The ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Persians used them. Contemporary usage is ever-present.
Dogs have been used to maul and kill the enemy. In
addition, they have been used to terrorize the enemy. Powerful and ferocious dogs like the Molossus were used by the Greeks and Romans. The Roman Cane Corso Dogs were powerful weapons. This dog breed was incredibly ferocious, dangerous, and brave. It was also used in the Roman arena to fight lions, bears, and other large predators. In fact, the Romans put to use
entire companies of fighting dogs. This dog also wore spiked collars and armour.
The middle Ages witnessed the use of fully-spike-armoured dogs sent to battle to wreak havoc on the enemy. Attila the Hun made extensive use of dogs in his military campaigns. The first recorded Canine Corp use by the U.S. Military was during the Seminole War of 1835. Cuban-bred Bloodhounds were used to chase down Indians and runaway slaves in the tough swamps of Florida and Louisiana.
In the U.S. Military, the Military Police Corps is charged with training military dogs. Dogs have served with tenacity and heroism during World War 2, the Korean War, Vietnam, Desert Storm, Afghanistan, Iraq, and in limited military operations. By no means am I supporting or condoning any war/s. I’m referring to the DOGS THAT WERE USED IN THESE WARS. War dogs are trained by humans and only humans. Dogs only understand that the other side is the enemy.
Shortly after the Pearl Harbour Attack (December 7, 1941), the American Kennel Club and the group ‘Dogs for Defence’ organized and convinced American dog owners across the country to give away quality dogs to the Quartermaster Corps. This was their War Dog Program. The training regimen for these dogs was commonly known as the K-9 Corps. Although not an official title or name, it was widespread anyway. The accepted dogs were rigorously trained for up to 12 weeks.
Post basic training specialization included areas such as sentry, scout, patrol dog, messenger, and minefield work. Gangsters and other criminal types sometimes own ferocious fighting dogs to ward off, intimidate, and in some cases attack, maul, or kill their enemies. From this perspective law enforcement (particularly the police) is always the enemy. Likewise, law enforcement employs canines to help enforce the law and protect the public at large. The former is unjustifiable use of dogs while the latter is both righteous and
In addition, military dogs don’t quite understand what they’re up against. They may run through sniff through mine fields if ordered to do so or work under extremely dangerous circumstances. Whereas, at the minimum, a human soldier would be terrified but still perform the act in a state of fear and/or apprehension. In the past, military dogs were more often used in direct combat situations.
During the First World War machine guns were drawn by dogs for the Belgian Military. Belgian refugees of the war often had to rely on dogs to pull their wagons. Dogs were also used as sentries in the trenches and to raise the spirits of the soldiers.

Dogs are used in Law Enforcement Agencies around the world, but not extensively or in as many countries as should be. Dogs have an incredible olfactory sense, strength, speed, tenacity, courage, and devotion.
Furthermore, their presence as sniffer hounds in airports cause many would-be drug smugglers to abstain from their action/s. Not to mention, explosive device detection and other illegal articles. Law enforcement dogs have been an asset to the agencies using them.
But let me say this, Police dogs should be cared for; food, clean water, home, veterinary medical care, love, and proper placement upon retirement.
The International Police K9 Conference programs are
honoured and famed the world over for the expert instruction and in-depth, high-quality programs.
Basic and advanced training techniques to new K9 teams are offered. Highly qualified and experienced instructors are from states and provinces throughout North America. The programs are comprehensive, dealing with everything from tactical deployments, SWAT, narcotics, explosives, muzzling, problem solving, an Administrator’s Program, and everything in between. All programs are on a first come first served basis. Expectedly, space is limited. For conference locations go to POLICE DOG HOME PAGE: Double Click on Courses, this will get you to the Conference Overview. Then, scroll down to the Conference History Shaded Box; GOOD LUCK!
Scent Hounds and other ‘sniffer dog types’ should be used more extensively to hunt down fugitives, in fresh abduction cases, and I would even advocate their use in rape cases; In particular stranger rape. Semen, sweat, general body odour, and other discharges and shedding can be sniffed by the hound. I understand that this method can in no way be used in every single case.
The Criminal Justice System does not have the resources or ability to do this. But, in cases or jurisdictions that can, it could be done whenever possible and helpful.
Dogs have been used as guards for thousands of years. They’ve guarded everything from livestock, properties, people, and land.
Most dogs inadvertently act as guards when at home or on their property. Friendly, vicious, or in-between, a dog will often bark at a passerby, guest, or intruder. They consider the ground or property as part of their home turf or territory, and the humans and animals therein as part of their pack or family. Watchdogs can be any breed of dog, any size, or any makeup so long as they bark when supposed to. Depending on the dog’s

temperament, upbringing, and training, it may or may not also be a good guard dog.
Guard dogs are watchers, alarm callers, but must also hold their ground by growling, snarling, intimidation, threatening, holding an intruder at bay, or if needed to fight, sometimes to the death.
Guard dogs must work by instinct and training. A guard dog should be trained. Otherwise, the dog may attack and/or kill a non-threatening person. A trained dog is a much more secure investment than a non-trained on. A good guard dog must be properly trained. The owner is liable for unjustifiable aggression upon anyone, including another dog. Understand the law well, and work within its boundaries.
Dogs that appear menacing and have a terrifying snarl and bark are usually enough to ward off any would-be intruder. In addition, dark-coated dogs are more menacing than lighter colour-coated dogs. Dogs can also be trained to guard flocks. These dogs are generally large (at least 75 lbs.) and preferably white in order to blend in with the animals they protect. These dogs are trained to herd (steer in a specific direction) or round up (retrieve) animals. Some dog breeds nip at the animals while others bark, glare, and may intimidate wanderers with their posture.
Traditionally, American Pit Bull Terriers haven’t been trained as guard dogs. However, their appearance alone can intimidate any potential trespasser, intruder, or criminal. Bull Terrier type dogs are athletic, agile, know how to hold their ground, and if need be will fight to the death to protect their family and property.
Many dog owners, especially the ones who dump their dogs in shelters, don’t have their dogs trained by a professional trainer.
Healthy dogs, in general, are trainable. Training is to remove problem behaviours, prevent them, and mould new and improved behaviours (sports, guarding, obeying basic commands, etc.), reduce the overall stress in the household, caused by misbehaviours or regular miscommunication, potty training, and/or any other behaviour or activity that suits your needs. No certified dog trainer should ever train a dog to be a better fighter in the pit. If you happen to know of a trainer who does this kind of work notify the authorities immediately. Thankfully, this would be a rare case, indeed. People who train their dogs to attack people or to be better fighting dogs are rabble, regardless of how wealthy they are.
Dog trainers train the dog and the owner. It is preferable that other family members get to know the trainer, ask him/her questions, and if time and circumstances permit be part of the

routine. After all, the dog will return to its family, which consists of all members.
Regardless of your dog’s purpose, equipment including Collars, leashes, Beds and Blankets, Food Bowls and Feeders, Muzzles-if applicable, Crates or Cages, Correct Type of Dog Food, Cooling Equipment, First Aid Kit, bones, toys, emergency phone numbers including veterinarian, clinic, ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center contact info (always at hand or ‘fluently memorized’), and literature pertaining to dog science, medical and vaccination records
Special equipment is needed for Agility, Clicker, Law Enforcement K-9, Schutzhund, or Dog Shows.
For new dogs in the family the owner must find out the kind of diet that it was being fed by the ‘reputable breeder’. Any change in diet must be gradual; 10 days or a few more should do the job. No sudden changes because this will certainly lead to digestive and health problems. Talk to the breeder and your veterinarian.
The first step in helping to end or prevent dog abuse is awareness and education. Educate yourself about what constitutes dog abuse. Understand that like abuse in general, it’s more prevalent than we’d like to think. Also know the law in your state, province, or other jurisdiction. Know what to look for; physical and behavioural signs manifested in abused dogs. The size and ferocity of the dog doesn’t guarantee safety from an abusive owner. I’m sure you’ve heard stories about fighting dogs being abused by their owners. Also, large, powerful non-fighting dogs can be abused.
Because it’s imperative that every human in the family must hold higher rank than their dog/s this creates a situation of trust. The ‘trustee’ is the human master. The master feeds, waters, cleans, houses, grooms (coat, nail clipping), cleans, provides love and emotional and physical security, and all veterinary medical and pharmaceutical needs.
The master can toss his/her dog out onto the street, send it to a shelter, in some cases sell it to a bio lab or to another person or family, use it for a special purpose, or abuse it. In effect, under normal circumstances, the master is just that, a master to his/her dog. The dog cannot lodge a complaint with the authorities. On a broader level, animals, including dogs can’t vote. So, on the political-legal level, it’s us humans who must be the activists in our fight against animal cruelty. Although cruelty occurs to animals, this book is about dogs and to a lesser extent other canids.
Cruelty is unjustifiable, unnecessary, immoral physical and/or mental harm or neglect of a dog. Regarding the use of the word ‘immoral’ it is sometimes culture based. In some cultures
it’s okay to brutalize dogs and then eat them. Thankfully, most of us don’t follow their morality.
Dogs are eaten, stripped of their skins (often when still alive), are trapped in filthy wire-mesh cages, chained to trees for extensive periods of time, eaten, beaten, forced to train and participate in events (racing, fighting, etc.) that far exceed the normal levels of stamina and endurance a ‘free dog’ would ever tolerate.
Zoophilia (human-animal-sex) is another problem, and dogs are one of the major species used in this heinous act. Unfortunately images of this kind of behaviour can be found on the internet. As always with porn, women are the primary human participants in this endeavour. Therefore, human-on-animal porn will include a female human paired with an animal.
Many of us have heard a story or two about the lonely, young, single farmer who ... you know what.
Zoophilia upon a dog by its owner can possibly go on for years without anyone finding out. Whether it’s in the home or for pornographic theatre the human understands, the dog doesn’t. That’s the simple truth.
Years ago in Arkansas there was a man who made a common practice of ‘doing’ his dogs. But this fellow bragged about ‘doing his dogs’. He was arrested numerous times. The last I heard the criminal justice players had had enough of his shenanigans. His home was raided and semen was found on one of his dogs. Unfortunately, I didn’t follow up on the story. But I hope that he was put away for many years.
Dog mutilation is an extreme form of physical abuse. There have been cases of owners dowsing their dogs with gasoline and then lighting them up. In addition, tying a dog to a fender and then driving off happens now and then.
Dogs can be used as ‘punching bags’ or as a tool of
redirection. That is, aggression redirected at the dog because the true source cannot be punished or harmed. Naturally, a dog, cat, parrot, or other companion animal is an easy target. Keen-eyed veterinarians, vet techs, law enforcement
personnel, and social workers can spot dog abuse if they know what to look for, so can you. Each of the aforementioned fields must require special training in regards to animal abuse. Animal abusers often make up a story if asked about
particular dog injuries. They appear vague, nervous, stammer, and their story is choppy. Upon asking other family members the questioner may receive conflicting answers. Furthermore, explanations as to injuries do not ‘coincide’ with the particulars of the injury.
People who have the nerve to shout at and/or belittle their dogs in public most likely abuse them at home.

Animal abusers generally don’t care about the mental and physical health of their dog or cat. True love is not part of the equation for them.
Neglect is a serious problem. It can come in three major forms; deliberate and calculated, a true inability, or in animal hoarding.
In either of the cases dogs appear emaciated, too thin (sometimes their bones are showing), listless, withdrawn or overly begging, tired, and may have broken or missing teeth, matted hair, flies and/or maggots on open, untreated wounds. Furthermore, depending on the specific circumstances, the dog may also be chained to a tree or other inanimate object for far too long.
Sometimes, and this is really true, the dog’s flesh
actually grows into and around the collar and eventually engulfs it. This occurs when the collar is placed on a still growing and maturing dog.
Housing may be in filthy, cramped, and overcrowded wire mesh cages. Visible signs of illness, urine, pasted and fresh fecal matter, blood, vomit and/or pus. Bits of flesh and blood may be pasted on wires. Food and water aren’t enough, but if present appears very dirty and unfit for consumption under any circumstances.
Most of the time, these horrific examples are from animal hoarders. Animal hoarders are sick. They may own dozens, or in some cases hundreds of dogs, cats, and a few other animals. Mass death, starvation, and neglect of animals are rampant on their properties.
Animal hoarders are too sick and dangerous to own animals. If convicted, they should receive mandatory counselling and should never be permitted to own animals again.
Unfortunately, there are far too many cases of convicted animal hoarders being given back their animals by ‘a judge’. I’d love to someday approach one of these judges and hear his/her pathetic reasoning. I understand that the criminal justice system is far overtaxed. Prisons, jails, courts, probation, parole, every area is full to the rim. Sometimes this system is overflowing with convicts and felons. However, this has no bearing on the return of neglected animals to their hoarder owners. If there’s no place else to send the animals then euthanasia should be an option.
Some animal hoarders think that they love their animals. They believe that they are treating the animals in their care with love and empathy; all the reason to remove them from their care.
You should look for abrasions, repeat injuries, eye
injuries, or injuries to the genital areas of either dogs or
bitches. Fighting dogs generally have visible signs including torn or partially torn ears or other body parts, gashes and bite marks, mutilation of face or other body part, excessive cowering or extreme aggression.
Now let’s switch over to a positive aspect of dog use; that of guide dogs and other service dogs.
Guide dogs provide a remarkable service for blind or visually impaired (legally blind) persons; they help them move in the home and outside. Most countries allow for guide dogs to enter places that other dogs are strictly forbidden into. Guide dogs are friendly, alert, are hard working, and have good concentration skills. Thankfully, this kind of work has been going on for decades and it appears to be heading for expanded use. As a bonus, many guide dogs are given away by organizations as gifts. I hope that someday all guide dogs around the world will be given in this manner.
Guide dogs are trained to ignore distraction such as scents, sounds, and movements that are irrelevant to their work. The dog is taught to walk and move at the right pace and smoothly, on the left of and a bit in front of its master. The dog must easily and quickly understand the major traffic commands. Long delays can lead to frustration or even danger. In a nutshell, there’s no room for hesitation. Verbal commands, obstacles, left turns, right turns, stopping, sitting, standing, and any other obstacles are learned about through training.
There are cases when the dog must not obey its master. Orders that lead into danger or shady areas are ignored through a process called selective disobedience. What’s bad for the master is bad for the dog.
An important note is at crosswalks. Even well-trained guide dogs can’t distinguish between traffic light colour changes. The master must use his/her ears. If it sounds clear, he/she will order the dog to move forward. Now, it is up to the dog to determine whether to obey or disobey. The master understands that if the dog refuses to go it is to avoid oncoming traffic or some other danger. Guide dogs are also trained for home work. They are an ‘essential gift’ to a blind person.
Guide dogs should not be rewarded, praised, or given snacks during work as these are sometimes dangerous distractions. If a passerby talks to or tries to pet the guide dog the master should politely inform the person that the dog is on ‘important duty’ and should not be interrupted.
German Shepherd Dogs, Labrador Retrievers, and Golden Retrievers are the 3 most popular guide dogs. The Labrador retriever however, appears to be the most popular of the three breeds. They appear calm, move steadily and smoothly, and have a

look of peacefulness. Unfortunately, the latter point can’t be seen by the master.
Ideally, guide dogs are trained from puppyhood (no later than 2 months of age) and are given to qualified trainers and dog handlers.
House training, correct responses to the presence of people, animals in general, and companion animals. Work in a home environment is very important. As everyone, blind or seeing must go back home at the end of the day. In addition, for a blind person this may be the most secure place. Furniture is fixed and there’s no traffic or other outdoor dangers to deal with. Guide dogs are trained to hold back their responses. It is possible for a master to accidentally bump into or step on the paw/s of his dog. As any person can see, guide dogs appear sedate, but not lazy or tired. This has to do with their ‘trained temperament’ during working hours.
Training can last for up to a year. The organization giving away the guide dog must ensure that the dog and potential master get to know each other gradually before the final giveaway. This is to ensure that both of them get along and can work together. I’ve yet to see a guide dog bark or growl. That’s good news considering it takes thousands of hours of hard training to certify a guide dog.
There are an estimated 10,000 persons are using guide dogs in North America and 3,000 in the United Kingdom. Hopefully, this number will rise significantly not only in the
aforementioned areas but around the world.
In a broad sense dogs that serve humans in need are called ‘service dogs’. These dogs can act as Guide Dogs, Hearing Dogs, Mobility Assistance Dogs, Mental Health Service Dogs, Medical Assistance Service Dogs and Seizure Alert & Response Dogs. Below is a list of famous dog characters (In Alphabetical Order):
ASTA was a Wire-Haired Fox Terrier who acted in the television Series The Thin Man.
BENJI was a fictitious dog name used for characters in movies during the 1970s and 1980s.
FALA was a Scottish Terrier owned by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He was very famous and part of the President’s public image in his day.
Gidget was a popular television character portrayed in the famed Taco Bell commercials.

LAIKA was a Soviet Dog. She was the first animal to orbit the Earth.
Lassie, a Collie character was created by Eric Knight in the short story Lassie Come Home (1938) published in the Saturday Evening Post. Lassie is likely the most famous dog character in the world.
Moose played the part of Eddie Crane in Frazier. His son Enzo was used as a stand-in.
ODIE was a character from the famed comic strip Garfield. Pete the Pub was a dog character used in Hal Roach’s Our Gang, later called Little Rascals.
Pluto (formerly Pluto the Pup) was a cartoon character in several Disney cartoons.
Pongo was the first Dalmatian in the famed move One Hundred and One Dalmatians.
Rin Tin Tin was a fictional name used for several German Shepherd Dog actors from the 1930s through the 1950s. I’d like to remind dog owners and potential dog owners to know the law pertaining to Breed Specific Legislation: and you can go to: Note: For the latter URL address if you click on ‘click here’ you can find the BSL laws of every state in the Union. Good Luck!
Breed Specific Legislation (BSL) is a ‘response’ to vicious attacks by powerful or fighting dog breeds. Whether this response is correct or the attacks should be averted in another manner depends on the perspective that you take. Kennel Clubs in general, breeders of targeted dog breeds, and some owners are dead against BSL.
BSL consists of laws and regulations pertaining to the ownership of ‘dangerous’ dog breeds. Opponents are dead against targeting specific breeds. They believe that there are dangerous dogs out there but they come in all breeds, types, shapes, and sizes.
Depending on the jurisdiction, laws may require muzzles, strong leashes, or an outright ban of the specific breed. Vacationers should know the laws in the jurisdictional areas they plan to go to. Furthermore, there are canine quarantine laws; these should be understood too.

Travelers with pets can find pet friendly hotels at: or you can go to:
Regarding the subject of vivisection, I’ll emphasize dogs but will also include other animals.
Anti-vivisectionists believe that experimentation on Beagles holds little or no worth for humanity; obvious physiological and mental differences between humans and dogs ensures that drug reactions for one species (dogs) cannot be a reliable indicator of the reaction of humans.
Tobacco experiments performed in Hazelton’s (now Covance) laboratories in Reston, Virginia involved ‘smoking Beagles’ in ‘sustained’ exposure to cigarette smoke ‘adorned’ with carbon monoxide.
During the mid-20th century tobacco experiments conducted on Beagles involved securely restraining Beagles (side by side), and each fitted with a secure face mask. The gizmo allowed experimenters to replace spent up cigarettes with fresh ones, one after another until the sequence of the particular experiment was over. In addition, experiments regarding secondhand
smoke were also performed on Beagles. Beagles are a prime choice for experiments. They’re trusting of humans, friendly, small, and docile.
Indeed, everyone knows that the chemicals in tobacco are carcinogenic. The best method to combat this problem is to never smoke (prevention), education, and to change the behaviour of smokers. I know, easier said than done. I don’t know what a ‘safer cigarette’ will look like or contain. Let’s wait and see if it ever appears on the market.
Dr. Ivan Pavlov (1848-1936), a Russian physiologist
performed experiments on dogs to better understand the connection between salivation and the digestive system. Classical Conditioning was born out of Pavlov’s
experiments. Dr. Pavlov received a Nobel Prize in 1904 for Medicine and Physiology.
In 1628 William Harvey proved that blood travels through the circulatory system through experimentation on living animals.
Countless research dogs are obtained through pound seizure, Greyhound racing tracks, puppy mills, the internet, from questionable sources, ‘from free to a good home ads’, specialized breeding labs, or in-facility breeding.
Scientists use words like number, subject, object, or research model when referring to the animals in their experiments.

Vivisection is very emotionally charged. Especially when the animals used are dogs, cats, or primates (especially great apes).
Painful and invasive procedures targeting the head or eyes are very sensitive. In addition procedures requiring the strapping of animals so they can’t move or block an action or even shift in place are considered cruel by antivivisectionists. Graphic pictures or images without a scientific context causes induces strong feelings in untrained persons. The best way to determine the usefulness of any animal experiment is to be knowledgeable.
Anti-vivisectionists offer other options to animal
experimentation; including computer modeling an in-vitro testing.
Dogs and other animals have been used in animal tests involving biomedical, pharmaceutical, toxicity, tobacco, burning, trauma, and military (Chemical, Laser Injuries, Biological, Microwaves, Shootings, Explosions, Nerve Gas, Burns, Radiation, Electric Shocks, War Trauma, Bio-toxins, Biological Agents, and Patch Up Surgery).
Attitudes of past centuries regarding dogs and pain during experimentation have not changed much in many military establishments.
Rene Descartes (Famous French Mathematician and
Philosopher, 1596-1650) believed and argued that animals did not feel. In effect, he believed that when dogs squeal and yelp during experimentation it was an automatic response. Animals were automatons and nothing else.

Every continent contains wild dogs except Antarctica. Domesticated Dogs come in varying shapes, sizes; coat lengths, thickness, and colours. Furthermore, there are over 400 recognized breeds of dogs, and at least 100 more non-recognized breeds. Also, there are dog types; based on function. In addition, each dog has its own particular temperament. Humans have literally ‘moulded’ dogs to suit our own needs. Dogs outside of this mould are wild, some strays, or wolves; not worthy of respect in many cases, especially the latter. There’s no way to pinpoint the exact time period for the beginning of dog domestication. But it’s considerably more than 10,000 years and perhaps 15,000 years or more. All dogs are descended primarily from the gray wolf (timber wolf), but also to a considerably less potency coyotes and jackals. Genetically, foxes are the furthest away from modern day dogs.

The gray wolf is the most numerous and largest of wolf species. This canid can weigh up to 175 lbs. and can reach heights of up to 3 feet at the shoulder and 6 feet in length. Although the gray wolf could once be found in the Arctic, all the way south into Mexico and the area between, humans have ensured that it was no longer so. Unless humans are beaten back into the dark ages this is probably the way it will be for a long time, or always. The gray wolf (sub-species included) was listed as endangered since 1978 in all the continental U.S. except for Minnesota.
Wolves are wild carnivores. They belong to the family Canidae. Historically wolves have gotten a bum deal. Actually, a horrible deal! In the United States alone, gray wolves have been hunted without mercy, killed, trapped, poisoned, demonized, cursed, had bounties on their heads, and have been ruthlessly driven off their habitats without a tear shed.
If left alone and adequate prey is available wolves are a formidable predator. They hunt in pack, have a hierarchical system and together can ward off a grizzly bear or a mountain lion from a fresh kill. In addition, they have incredible endurance and stamina, able to trot along for many miles. In addition, wolves can eat a plethora of animals, from small, to large.
By 1973, the gray wolf had nearly been exterminated in the United States. Wolves in Minnesota and parts of Michigan fared a bit better. Today, people kill wolves that are in the wrong place at the wrong time. A comparison in historical attitudes regarding wolves and dogs goes as follows; A DOG IS MAN’S BEST FRIEND; THE BIG BAD WOLF.
In 2003 Alaska began a merciless aerial shooting
(slaughtering) campaign against wolves. But let us not forget, although wolves are important for the ecosystem, the too need to eat. Ranchers’ livestock needs to be protected.
There’s some bad news; a federal government ‘pack of wolves’ reintroduction program into the mountains of eastern Arizona has been cancelled. The state of Arizona wants a condition for the wolves’ reintroduction; that anyone in the livestock industry can kill a wolf on a ‘whim’. Wolves have felt the wrath of humanity many times over. Anyway, unless you are a livestock owner, you don’t know what it feels like to have to protect your livestock and property from marauding predators. Red wolf DNA is a combination of gray wolf and coyote. Coyotes have also undergone demonizing, hunting, slaughter, trapping, and poisoning. However, coyotes are more adaptable than wolves. They can more easily move to new areas, eat smaller game, and have better evading skills when it comes to humans. They’re like raccoons, still here and don’t want to go away.
The Mexican gray wolf, at 4.5 feet long and only reaching a maximum of 32 inches is noticeably smaller than the gray wolf. In the late 19th century the Mexican wolf was dealt a double blow; a noticeable reduction in prey animals, and then eradication by humans. One of the causes of the latter was the Mexican wolf’s turning to domestic livestock as a food source. The Mexican gray wolf is an endangered species many of them are housed in zoos. They are presently undergoing a re-introduction program. Re-introduction pertains to the human controlled and induced reestablishment of wolves to areas they had been translocated
from; either by direct human intervention or by
In 1995 wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park and Idaho. Furthermore, wolves are conserved in Oregon; they are not being reintroduced, individuals are entering from Idaho.
The Swift Fox or the Kit Fox is the fastest in the fox family. The Kit Fox along with the Arctic fox are perhaps the cutest and most adorable animals in the Canid family. The Swift Fox is 12 inches tall just over 1.5 ft. Long, and weighs a measly 5 to 7 lbs.
The incredible speed and nocturnal nature of the Swift Fox allows it to eat a plethora of tiny animals including frogs, prairie dogs, squirrels, mice, birds, and fruit. However, their incredible speed has not helped them to evade human
encroachment. Their historical range of the Swift Fox has shrunk immeasurably. Historically, this canid was found in the Great Plains extending into Canada.
The conversion of grasslands into farmlands has hit the Swift fox like a ton of bricks. Government ordered poisoning (primary target animals included wolves and coyotes) of carcasses, trapping, and global warming have had an adverse effect on the Swift Fox. The Swift fox was primarily a nontarget animal in government ordered poisonings, nevertheless it made no difference upon the end result; death.
It’s not all bad news though. A successful Alberta-based captive breeding program (begun in 1973) has attained positive results. The Swift Fox Recovery Team has pursued a
program that has extended into Saskatchewan, and
will hopefully include other areas in its pervious habitat. The Arctic Fox’s habitat is further north than any other fox sub-species. It resides primarily in the Arctic Circle or nearby. Their bodies and incredible fur (warmer fur than any other mammal including the Polar Bear and Arctic Wolf), and their hunting and sheltering habits enable them to survive in temperatures as low as -58F.

The Arctic Fox is 10 to 12 inches tall and weighs a measly 6 to 10 lbs.
The Arctic Fox lives in burrows or dens that are dug, usually by the fox but sometimes the home belongs to a smaller animal. In this case the Arctic Fox enlarges the home and then takes it over.
Most Arctic Fox wear a white coat. Some are gray-blue. The white coat gives it excellent camouflage. Often, the prey animal doesn’t see it until it’s too late. The coat sheds and turns brown during the summer months, another camouflage colour. The Arctic Fox eats lemmings, small rodents, birds, birds’ eggs, voles, hares, squirrels, and often scavenge off carcasses and off the remains of polar bear kills.
The Arctic Fox must beware of Polar Bears and humans. For the former they are food. For the latter, they’re furs are beautiful, thick, comfortable, and worth money. There’s hardly an animal that can escape the wrath of humanity.
Coyotes are remarkably adaptable and are naturally
opportunistic animals, able to change its breeding habits, diet, and habitat. At the onset of the massive European settlement of America vast and new food sources became available for coyotes. Livestock and carcasses were now more prevalent. They coyotes are just the right size; able to eat small animals but when the opportunity arises can eat bigger animals.
Coyotes can live in varying habitats ranging in Western North America, Mexico, Panama, deserts, grassy plains, mountainous areas, and farther north.
The Coyote is roughly a big as a medium-sized dog but is built more like a Collie. They weigh 20 to 50 lbs. Mountain coyotes tend to weigh more than their desert brethren. The onslaught against coyotes hasn’t ended. Because coyotes are ever-present in many areas they are blamed by farmers and ranchers for livestock killings. The end result is shooting, trapping, poisoning, and more demonizing. The latter 19th century saw an emergence of stringent coyote control programs. During the middle ages (Europe) it was commonly believed that wolves were devils dressed in wolf clothing. It wasn’t long afterwards that wolves were successfully exterminated from England and Ireland.
The Ethiopian wolf is in dire straits. There are only a few hundred individuals left.
Wolves almost never attack humans. In fact, it is rare. Reasons for attacks are famine, sickness or intrusion into territory (especially when a female is nursing her pups). The Mexican gray wolf was listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Being ‘listed’ means that a
particular species or sub-species are legally and officially recognized as endangered.
Just a few years later, the United States and Mexico began a bi-national captive breeding program as a safety net and to increase the number of Mexican gray wolves. The Mexican Gray Wolf Recovery Plan of 1982 recommended a minimum of 100 Mexican gray wolves in their original range and maintenance of the breeding program.
East Africa contains 3 species of Jackal; Sandy-Coloured Golden Jackal (wide grassy plains), Side-Striped Jackal (lives near bodies of water and much undergrowth), Black-Backed Jackal (most commonly seen; diurnal).
Ancient Egyptians believed that Jackals were deities of the underworld. Because Jackals are loud and have a plethora of barks and other noises Ancient Egyptians opted to believe that Jackals’ sounds were the songs of the dead.
Because of their size Jackals can be killed and eaten by larger predators. East Africa is a very tough neighbourhood for animals. As such, Jackals are known to be cunning, calculating, intelligent, and can work in pairs or related groups especially when hunting or raising pups. Regarding pups, elder siblings are normally helpful and stay around.
Jackals mate for life. They mark and defend their
territory. They howl, growl, yip and yowl to communicate with each other and to ward off potential intruders and trespasser onto their territories.
Jackals can hunt young or small antelope, reptiles,
insects, birds (when on the ground), and can also eat plants, and scavenge.
Jackals, like Coyotes, are adaptable and can endure tough lives of deprivation. However, human encroachment (habitat loss) results in a clash with farmers and ranchers. Livestock provide a tasty meal for Jackals, especially if there are pups to feed. I have made the summary part of this book short, not going into ‘expanded detail’ because I feel that the reader will gain much more knowledge browsing through the INFORMATION BOOTH. Therein, you can choose the precise subject or topic that befits your interest or goal.
Thanks for taking time out to read my book. I wish you the best of luck in your ventures. I must inform you that regarding dog breed measurements I noticed contradictions regarding weights, heights and other aspects. If you want to purchase a dog, are doing research pertaining to canines, or just want to learn for whatever reason, it’ll be best to read several sources first; a multi-pronged approach.
Companion animals and wildlife are maimed, wounded, killed, displaced, terrorized, confused and mentally scarred in wars,
civil wars, so-called police actions, skirmishes, acts of punishment, collateral damage, and those merciless United Nations sanctions inflicted upon a ‘targeted nation’ will include countless animals as victims.
Statistics should be recorded and made public to estimated animal casualties in all ‘combative conflicts’ and all sanctions. This is the least we can ask for.
Finally, landmines cause immense damage to humans and animals; death is usually the lucky way out. Landmines were made to maim and terrify. These are horrible weapons! Please go to the link below and act; tell your family and friends about it. ‘International Campaign to Ban Landmines’. After getting on the site, move your cursor to ‘What You Can Do’ and then double click on Action Alerts. Good Luck!




Indigenous Dogs of Southern Africa Affenpinsher Club of America Affenpinscher Rescue Afghan Hound Club of America Afghan Hounds Afghan Hound Rescue The Afghan Hound Club of Canada Aidi (Atlas Mountain Dog) Airedale Terrier Club of America This Site Contains Information about Airedales This Site Contains Much Information About Airedales Airedale Rescue & Adoption High Altitude Airedale Terrier Club Akitas Akita Rescue Society of Florida The Akita Club of America Akita Rescue Society of America Alano Espanol Dogs The Alapaha Blue-Blood Bulldog Association
Alaskan Klee Kai Kennelette United Alaskan Klee Kai Association Alaskan Malamute Club of America Alaskan Malamute Assistance League (AMAL) Alaskan Malamute Club of Canada National American Alsatian Club American Bully Association American Eskimo dog Club of America (Referred to as German Spitz in Germany) American Eskimo Dogs Organization of Vancouver The American Spaniel Club The American Cocker Spaniel Club of Canada American Cocker Spaniel Rescue DFW Cocker Recue (The DFW stands for Dallas/Fort Worth) Rescue a Cocker This is a Cocker Spaniel Recue/Adoption Site American Foxhound Club, Inc American Foxhound Dog Breed Profile Bulldog Club of America (American Bulldog) Bulldog Club of Central Canada National American Pit Bull Terrier Association This Site Contains Information about Pit Bulls This Site Contains Information about the American Pitt Bull Terrier This Site Contains Information about the American Pitt Bull Terrier Staffordshire Terrier Club of America

104 American Staffordshire Club of Canada
B. Basenji Club of America Basenji Rescue and Transport, Inc. (BRAT) Basenji Club of Canada Basset Hound Club of America Basset Hound Rescue Basset Hound Club of Canada National Beagle Club of America Houston Beagle & Hound Rescue, Inc. Seattle Beagle Rescue Ontario Association of Beagle Clubs Bearded Collie Club of America Bearded Collie Rescue Bearded Collie Club of Canada Bergamasco Sheepdog Club of America The Bergamasco Sheepdog Association of Canada American Black and Tan Coonhound Rescue American Black and Tan Coonhound Club Blizzard Peak Bergamascos The Bernese Mountain Dog Club of America Bernese Mountain Dog

Rescue Bernese Mountain Dog Club of Canada Bichon Frise Club of America, Inc. Bichon Frise Rescue Bichon Frise Club of Canada Border Collie Society of America America Border Collie Association Ontario Border Collie Club Boston Terrier History (Good Site) Information about the Boston Terrier Boston Terrier Club of America, Inc. Boston Terrier Rescue Boston Terrier Club of Canada American Boxer Club American Boxer Rescue Association The Guide for Boxer Dog Information Heart of America Boxer Club, Inc. Boxer Club of Canada Inc. The British Bulldog Club British Bulldog Club of South Australia Bulldog Rescue and Rehoming (UK) Bulldog Club of America Bulldog Club of America Rescue Network HeavenSent Bulldog Rescue Cascade Bulldog Rescue/Rehome Inc. Very Good Site Containing Comprehensive Information about Breeds and More Southern California Bulldog Rescue

105 French Bulldog Rescue Network Bulldog Club of Central Canada American Bullmastiff Association The American Bullmastiff Association Rescue Program International French Brittany Club of America French Brittany Gun Dog Association of America The American Brittany Club American Brittany Rescue The Brittany Spaniel Club of Canada Bull Terrier Club of America Bull Terrier Club of America, Inc. Rescue Network Miniature Bull Terrier Club of America Miniature Bull Terrier Rescue Bull Terrier Club of Canada
C. Cairn Terrier Club of America Inc Cairn Rescue USA Cairn Terrier Club of Canada The Canaan Dog Home Page and the Israel Canaan Club of America Canaan Dog Club of America Canaan Dog Rescue Network Canadian Canaan Dogs Cane Corso Association of America Cane Corso Vero Cardigan Welsh Corgi Club of America Yankee Cardigan Welsh Corgi Club Canadian Cardigan Corgi Club Cardigan Welsh Corgi Training Blue Ridge Cane Corsos Cardigan Welsh Corgi Club of America Cardigan Welsh Corgi National Rescue Trust Canadian Cardigan Corgi Club The Carolina Dog Association The Chihuahua Club of America Chihuahua & Small Dog Rescue The Chihuahua Guide Chihuahua Connection Magazine Chinese Shar-Pei Club of America Shar-Pei Rescue North America Chinese Shar-Pei Club of Canada The Chow Chow Club, Inc. Chow Chow Rescue Chow Chow Club of Canada Curly Coated Retriever Club of America Curly Coated Retriever Club of Canada Curly Coated Retriever Club (UK) Curly Coated Retrievers Breeders Directory Landara Curl Curly Coated Retrievers Aarowag Curly-Coated Retrievers

106 Dachshund Club of America Dachshund Club of Greater Ontario The Dachshund Rescue Web Page Dachshund Rescue of North America All American Dachshund Rescue Dalmatian Club of America Dalmatian Club of Canada This is an Internet Monthly Dalmatian Publication This is a Website Containing Information about Dalmatians Dalmatian Rescue of Colorado, Inc. This Page Contains Information Pertaining to Dingos This Page Contains Basic Information about the Dingo This Page Contains Basic Information about the Dingo and 3 Links This Page Contains Basic Information about the Dingo Doberman Pinscher Club of America Doberman Pinscher Club of Canada Doberman Pinscher Club of Manitoba Doberman Pinshcer Rescue, Filmore, California Doberman Rescue of North Texas Atlanta Doberman Rescue This Site Contains Information about Doberman Pinschers Dogo Argentino Club of America Dogo U.S.A. Las Pampas Kennels & Information about Dogo Argentinos This Site Contains Information about Dogo Argentinos This Site Contains Information about Dogo Argentinos Dogue de Bordeaux Society of America Dogue de Boreaux Rescue North American Bordeaux Federation Chateaux Rouge Bordeaux-Dogue de Bordeaux Breeders and Kennel (Canada) De Alan Vautre Kennel (Greece)
E. English Cocker Spaniel Club of America English Cocker Spaniel Breed Rescue English Cocker Spaniel Club of Canada Cocker and English Springer Spaniel Rescue (UK) English Cocker Spaniel Dog Breed Profile
www.pennycoonhounds.comPenny’s English Coonhounds (Moberly, Missouri) Breed Information and Breeding of English Foxhounds and German Shepherds (Canada) www.foxcreekfoxhounds.netSouth Creek Foxhounds (Florida’s Oldest Foxhunt) English Setter Association of America Desert English Setters (Kelowna, British Columbia) English Setter Club of Medford, NJ Hudson English Setter Club Another Chance for English Setters Above & Beyond English Setter Club Ohio English Setter Rescue Seven Oaks Kennels (Lyalta, Alberta) English Shepherd Club National English Shepherd Rescue
www.englishshepherds.netShepherd’s Way English Shepherd Dogs

107 James T. Hammond English Springer Spaniel Field Trial Association English Springer Spaniel Club of Eastern Nebraska English Springer Spaniel Club of Canada English Springer Rescue America, Inc. Worldwide English Springer Spaniel Rescue F. Field Spaniel Society of America, Inc. Field Spaniel Dog Breed Profile Fox River Field Spaniel Club
www.finnishspitzdogs.comFinkkila’s Finish Spitz Finnish Spitz Club of America Talvi Finnish Spitz Flat Coated Retriever Society of America, Inc. Capital Region Flat Coated Retriever Club The Flat Coated Retrievers of Sterling and Omega Bertschire Flat Coated Retrievers
G. A Good Article about the Plight of Galgos Galgo News Galgo Rescue International Network The German Pinscher Club of America
German Pinschers by Dots Lil Windamirs Kennel German Shepherd Dog Club of America German Shepherd Dog Club of Canada A Site of a German Shepherd Breeder Organization Located in Germany and North Carolina History of the German Shepherd Dog (GSD) The German Shepherd Dog League of Great Britain Nova Scotia German Shepherd Dog Club German Shepherd Lore This Site Contains a Good GSD Article German Spitz Alliance International German Spitz Club of NSW Inc. German Spitz Club of Great Britain: German Spitz World German Spitz Breeders and Owners Club Golden Retriever Club of America The Golden Retriever Club of Canada Ireland Golden Retrievers Top Golden Retriever Sites Gordon Setter Club of America Gordon Setter Club of Canada The Gordon Setter Webring Sassenach Gordon Setters Seven Oaks Kennels Great Dane Club of America Great Dane Club of Canada Information about Great Danes Information about Great Danes

108 Danes in Distress (Ontario Based) Great Pyrenees Club of America Great Pyreness Club of Canada Great Pyrenees Connection Great Pyrenees Dogs Greater Swiss Mountain Club of America
www.greaterswissmountaindogs.orgBarton Manor’s Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs Morning Sun Kennels (Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs) Greyhound Club of America This Site Contains Information about Greyhound Dogs This Site Pertains to Information about Adopting Greyhound Dogs Greyhound Rescue, Inc. Greyhound Pets of America Golden State Adoption & Rescue Organization This is a Well-Known Greyhound Dog Protection Organization Save the Greyhound Dogs Greyhound Protection League This Site Contains Information about Greyhound Racing History & the Life of the Racing Greyhound H. Harrier Club of America Havanese Club of America Havanese Fanciers of Canada Havanese Dog Information Alderon Farm Havanese Elfin Havana Silk Dogs {Hungarian} Puli Club of America {Hungarian} Puli Canada This Site Contains Information about the Hungarian Puli This Site Contains Information about the Hungarian Puli
I. Ibizan Hound Club of America ARBECA Ibizan Hounds This Site Contains Basic Information about Ibizan Hounds This Site Contains an Ibizand Hound Database Ibizan Hound Rescue Icelandic Sheepdog Association of America Icelandic Sheepdog-General Description Lokasteinn Icelandics: Icelandic Sheepdogs & Puppies Irish Red and White Setter Association Irish Red & White Setter Club of Canada Irish Red and White Setter Club Irish Red and White Setter Club of Britain Redwing Kennel
www.irishredandwhitesetters.caIrish Red & White Setters Aisling Cudo Reg’d Irish Red & White Setter Club of Canada Irish Setter Club of America Irish Setter Club of Canada Save Our Setters, Inc. Thendara Irish Setters; Also Contains Irish Setters Links Irish Setters UK & Ireland Irish Terrier Club of America

109 Terrier Association of Canada (Click on ‘Goto Breed Page’ for more extensive information) Irish Terriers Community This Site Contains Sites About Irish Water Spaniels. Be Aware that the Irish Water Spaniel Club of America Page Does Not Open
www.iwsac.or Irish Water Spaniel Association of Canada Irish Water Spaniels Lake Erie Irish Water Spaniel Club The Irish Wolfhound Club of America, Inc
www.irishwolfhounds.orgHilary Jupp’s Irish Wolfhound Site About the Irish Wolfhound Irish Wolfhound Club of Canada The Breed History (Irish Wolfhound) Irish Wolfhounds-Brigitte & Niilo’s Dog Page Italian Greyhound Club of America
-information. Ultimate Igs (Italian Greyhounds) Midwest Italian Greyhound Rescue Italian Greyhound Club of Canada The Italian Greyhound Club (UK) Japanese Chin Club of America Japanese Spaniel Club of Canada (The Japanese Chin is Also Referred to as the Japanese Spaniel) Japanese Chin Care and Rescue Effort Japanese Tosa-Inu General Information Jindo-Intro-Origin & Status This Site Contains Information about Korean Jindo Dogs Kang’s Jindo Dog Page The Karelian Bear Dog Club of America Karelian Bear Dogs Karelian Bear Dogs Sales Keeshond Club of America Keeshond Rescue Online Keeshond Contacts in BC/Canada United States Kerry Blue Terrier Club The Kerry Blue Terrier Foundation The Kerry Blue Terrier Club of Central Florida Empire Kerry Blue Terrier Club: This Site Contains Serves the TriState Area (New York, New Jersey, Connecticut) Kerry Blue Terriers: Overview/History This Site Contains Basic Information about the Kerry Blue Terrier Komondor Club of America Komondor Club of Great Britain Kuvasz Club of America Kuvasz Club of Canada American Kuvasz Association
L. The Labrador Retriever Club, Inc Labrador Club of Canada Labrador Retrievers-History Club Labrador-Labrador Lovers Community United States Lakeland Terrier Club Lakeland Terrier Club (UK) The Lakeland Terrier-Terrier History

110 Caliente Lakelands The American Lhasa Apso Club Lhasa Apso Canada New Kailasha This Site Contains Information about the Louisiana Catahoula Leopard Dog M. American Maltese Association‘Maltese Only-The Largest & Most Complete Maltese Dog Website in the World’ (This is their Claim) American Manchester Terrier Club Canadian Manchester Terrier Club Maremma Sheepdog Club of America This Site Contains Information about the Maremma Sheepdog This Site Contains Information about Maremma Sheepdogs Mastiff Club of America This Site Contains Basic Information about Mastiffs and Links Canada Mastiffs This Site Contains Information about Mastiff History & More This Site Contains General Information about Mastiffs Xoloitzcuintle {Mexican Hair-less Dogs} Club USA Mini Foxie Club of Australia (This is the Miniature Terrier) Miniature Pinscher Club of America Canadian Miniature Pinscher Club This Site Contains Information about the Blue Miniature Pinscher This Site Contains Information about the Miniature Pinscher The American Miniature Schnauzer Club The Miniature Schnauzer Club of Canada This Contains Basic History and Facts about Miniature Schnauzers
N. United States Neapolitan Mastiff Club The United Kingdom Neapolitan Mastiff Club Newfoundland Club of America The Newfoundland Dog Club of Canada The Newfoundland Dog Club UK Northern Newfoundland Club of Club of Great Britain The Colonial Newfoundland Club The Newfoundland Club of New Zealand This Site Contains Basic Information about the Newfoundland Dogs Norfolk Terrier Club Norfolk Terrier Club of Canada Norfolk Terrier Club of Great Britain American Norfolk Terrier Association The Northern Inuit Society HIGHGROUND Northern Inuit Information The Northern Inuit Society-A Howling Success

111 Honiahaka-Northern Inuits Norwegian Elkhound Association of America Northeastern Illinois Norwegian Elkhound Association Norwegian Elkhound Club of Canada Norwegian Elkhound Rescue The Norwegian Elkhound Club of Greater Houston Norwegian Elkhound Rescue & Referral of New England RiverWind Norwegian Elkhounds Norwich Terrier Club of America This Site is the Norwich Terrier Club (UK Branch)
O. Otterhound Club of America Otterhound Club (UK) This is an Extensive Site for Bulldogs, however, the Alphabetized Placement for this Particular URL is for the Original English Bulldog; Hence the Letter ‘O’ in the Alphabet. This Site Contains Information about Bulldog Breeds; Including but Indeed Not Limited to the Original English Bulldog Old Red
P. This Site Contains Information about the Pakistani Bull Dog (Gull Dong) and other Breeds This Site Contains Information about the Pakistani Bulldog, and other Breeds Papillon Club of America Papillon Canada Papillon Secrets Parson Russell Terrier Association of America Red Rock Parson Russell Terrier The Pekingese Club of America Pekingese Dog-All about the Pekingese Dog This Site Contains Basic Information about the Pekingese Dog This Site Contains Basic Information about the Pekingese Dog Pembroke Welsh Corgi Club of America Pembroke Welsh Corgi Association of Canada This Site Contains Information about the Pembroke & Welsh Corgi Dog Breeds Pharaoh Hound Club of America This Site Contains Basic Information about the Pharaoh Hound (Kelb tal-Fenek) American Pomeranian Club Pomeranian Club of Canada Pomeranian Dogs Poodle Club of America Poodle Club of Canada Poodle Council (UK) The Poodle Club of NSW Inc. Poodle History Project This Site Contains Information about Poodles Admiration Standard Poodle Poodle Health Registry

112 Pug Dog Club of America Pug Club of Canada Pug Club of Cape Town Pug Central A Good Site for Pug Owners Pyrenean Shepherd Club of America

R. Redbone Coonhound Association of America, Inc. Redbone Coonhound History and Information The Rhodesian Ridgeback Club of the United States Rhodesian Ridgeback Club of Canada Rhodesian Ridgeback Club of Eastern Canada The South African Rhodesian Ridgeback Club Association of Rhodesian Ridgeback Fanciers New England Rhodesian Ridgeback Club The Rhodesian Ridgeback Club of Great Britain The Rhodesian Ridgeback Club of South Australia Midwest Rhodesian Ridgebacks This is a Roman Cane Corso Dog Site {Roman} Cane Corso Association of America {Roman} Canadian Cane Corso Association Old World {Roman} Cane Corso American Rottweiler Club Rottweiler Club of Canada The Rottweiler Club (UK) Rottweiler Club of Victoria West Coast Rottweiler Club (Perth, Australia) This Page Contains Information about the Rottweiler This Site Contains Information about Roman Rottweiler; the Colossal Rottweiler Saluki Club of America Saluki Club (UK) This Site Contains Basic Information about Salukis Samoyed Club of America Samoyed Association of Canada The Samoyed Breed Council (Represents the Samoyed Breed Clubs of Great Britain) Homepages of the Samoyed Dogs The American Shetland Sheepdog Association Canadian Shetland Sheepdog Association Tasmanian Collie & Shetland Sheepdog Club Shetland Sheepdog Club of Queensland Shetland Sheepdog Club of NSW Inc National Sheba Club of America Shiba Inu Canada Shiba Inu
www.saijoto.kdKennel Saijoto Shiba’s American Shih Tzu Club The Canadian Shi Tzu Club Shi Tzu Club (UK)

113 The Shi Tzu Club of Australia Siberian Husky Club of America, Inc Siberian Husky Club of Canada The Siberian Husky Club of Britain This Site Contains Information about Siberian Huskies Silky Terrier Club of America Maple Leaf Silky Terrier Club The Australian Silky Terrier Club of Queensland Australian Silky Terrier Club of Great Britain Skye Terrier Club of America Skye Canada Tsuki Skye Terriers (Small Family Kennel, UK) Skye Terrier Breed History and Information Smooth Fox Terrier Association of America American Fox Terrier Club (Information about Smooth Fox Terriers and Wire Fox Terriers The Fox Terrier Club (UK) This Site Has Information about Smooth Fox Terriers and Wire Fox Terriers Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier Club of America The Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier Association of Canada Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier Club of Great Britain Irish Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier Club of Ireland
T. The National Tamaskan Club of America The Tamaskan Club of America The Tamaskan Dog Society of Great Britain Tamaskan Breeders Association Japanese Tosa-Inu This Page is Part of the Bulldog Information Website; In Particular the Tosa Inu also Known as the Japanese Tosa Inu. This is a Very Good Website for Obtaining Bull-Type Dog Information
V. The Vizsla Club of America Vizsla Canada Vizsla Society of Ontario Vizsla Clubs (Extensive Listing in Many Countries) The Weimaraner Club of America International Weimaraner Clubs (This Page is Located in the Weimaraner Club of America Site) I Added it as a Reminder to You). Weimaraner Association of Canada Weimaraner Club of Great Britain The Blue Weimaraner Club Website Weimaraners and their Training and Care
W. White German Shepherd Dog Club International, Inc. American White Shepherd Association This Blog Contains Information about the White German Shepherd Dog White German Shepherd Dog Club, Inc The Wirehaired Vizsla Club of America

114 The Hungarian Wirehaired Vizsla Club of Great Britain Australian Vizsla Clubs Whippet Breed Standard Whippet Rescue and Placement (WRAP)
X to Z Yorkshire Terrier Club of America Canadian Yorkshire Terrier Association How to be Yorkshire Terrier Savvy-Advice for Yorkie Owners This Site Contains Information about Yorkshire Terriers This Site Contains Information about the Yorkshire Terrier OTHER CANIDS (WEB SITES):
FOR GOOD SHORT ARTICLES ABOUT THE ARCTIC FOX, ARCTIC WOLF, COYOTE OR FOX Go to Yahoo Search Engine and Type in CANADIAN ANIMALS-food, enemies, adaptations, homes, the young. Double Click and then You Will See the Title as One of the Choices. Double Click on it. This Will Take You to the Canadian Animals Page. This Page Contains Information about the Arctic Fox This Page Contains Information about the Arctic Fox This Site is a Pro-Fox Hunting Website League Against Cruel Sports (Type in ‘Fox Hunting’ on their Search Engine. This Site Will Take You to an Anti-Fox Hunting Page). This Page Contains Information about Coyotes Effects of Coyote Control on Their Prey: A Review AWF: Wildlife: Jackal AWF is an Acronym for African Wildlife Foundation Jackals of the African Crater/Nature U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: The Mexican Wolf Recovery Program Article about the Mexican Gray Wolf The 2010 Evaluation of the Oregon Wolf Conservation and Management Plan Contains a Swift Fox Page Swift Fox-Defenders of Wildlife This Page Contains Information about the Swift Fox Article about Wolf Reintroduction WELL-KNOWN CLUBS: American Kennel Club The Australian National Kennel Council Canadian Kennel Club Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI) The Kennel Club (UK) The National Kennel Club New Zealand Kennel Club United Kennel Club Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show Continental Kennel Club
A. American Academy of Veterinary Acupuncture This is a Good Page about Herding Dogs. Scroll down the Page to Find a Herding Dog Breed List American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association Military Experiments-The War on Animals All Dog Names American Canine Registry Animal Behaviour Society All about Dog Breeds This Site Contains Much Information about Dogs Good Article about Breed Specific Legislation Animal Pet Registry, Inc. Good Article about Guide Dogs This Site Contains Gift Items with Dog Pictures and Images on them Dog Information When Puppies Die Association of Pet Dog Trainers This Site Contains Information about Dogs & More American Rare Breed Association American Rescue Dog Association Spanish Terrier Club
ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Go to the ASPCA Blood Sports Category for Good Articles & More American Veterinary Medical Association

Canine Cyber-Magazine Bird and Dog Retriever News Work Dogs International (Bomb Detection Dogs) This Site is a Breeders Directory for Dogs and Other Animals This Site Contains Information about Dog Breeds & More This Site Contains Much Information about Dogs Breeds of Dog; A Reference for Dog Information Phoenix Child Bite Victim Attorneys- Breyer Law Offices, P.C. Good Bulldogs Information Site Part of the Canine Information Library; Very Good Bulldog Information Site The American Bully Pedigree Database British Veterinary Association

C. Rescue Every Dog (This is a Support Group for Shelter Workers and Exceptional Animals in Need in Public Animal Shelters)
Canada’s Guide to Dogs
116 Canadian Veterinary Medical Association The Canine Information Library Canine Coalition Information about Dog Breeds and More Canine Eye Registration Foundation Canine Freestyle Federation, Inc Canine Health Information Center This Site Contains Some Information about Dogs Type ‘The Canine Information Library’ and then Double Click on Guard Dogs The Carolina Dog Training Club (Greensboro, North Carolina) This Site Contains Information about Cattle Dogs (Dog Owner's Guide-This Site is an Online Magazine for All Pet & Show Dog Owners) Canine Developmental Health and Performance Registry Celebrity Dog Blog The Index of Famous Dogs Information Pertaining to Clicker Training Hahn-50thAP-K9/K9History
K-9 History: The Dogs of War (Comprehensive Site)

D. The Daily Puppy
This Site Contains Information about Dogs Dog Actors Guild Better Dog Training (Based in Sacramento, California) Dog Bite Law This Site Contains Information about Dogs, Dog Breeds and More Koreans Eating Dogs and Cats, Cruelty at its Worst Dog Breed Facts Dog Breed Information Center This Site Contains Much Information about Dogs Dog Club-Internet Directory This Site Contains Much Information about Dogs This Site Pertains to Dog DNA Testing
Pertaining to Dog Equipment Smith Training Equipment This Site Contains Information about Dogs Dog Guide: Animal Planet This Site Contains Dog Breed Information & More Petition Page Calling for the End of Dog Eating in the Philippines This is a Graphic Site that Includes 89 Photos Pertaining to Eating Dogs. I have Posted this URL for the Purpose of Educating the Reader and by no Means Whatsoever Do I Advocate the Eating of Any Dog/s. Famous Dog Names: Famous Dogs from Cartoons, Movies and TV History and Evolution of Dogs Dog Names and Breeds Contains Diet Information for Dogs with Cancer Dog Registry of America, Inc.

117 is a Graphic Site of 89 Photos Pertaining to Eating Dogs I’ve Posted their URL for the Purpose of Educating the Reader and by no Means Whatsoever Do I Advocate the Eating of Any Dogs.
Dog News This Site Contains Much Relevant Information about Dog Breeds and Dog Related Issues
Dog Registry of America, Inc Dog Abuse Contains Good Links Pertaining to Helping and Saving Dogs The Online Dog Encyclopaedia Dogs in the News This Page Contains Good Article about Dog Fighting in Afghanistan from Dogs in the News This Site Contains Much Information about Dogs Dog Breed Information and More Dog Trainers Directory Dog TV A-Z the Dog Breeds Alphabet Site is a Canine Rescue (Doberman Pinschers) Northern California/San Francisco Bay Area. It is non-Profit.

E. Global Trade of Dog and Cat Fur (Article) Online Advice for Dog Lovers Good Articles about Dog Aggression This Site Contains Information Pertaining to Dog Breeds A Short Stray Dogs Article
F. Famous Paws 4Paws for Ability First World Information Pertaining to Dogs Dog Breed Information & More This Site Contains Dog Breed Information
G. Information Pertaining to Dogs Articles about Dogs Go Pets America Dog and Other Animal Pictures Greyhound Racing Association of America This Site Contains Information about Dog Breeds & More American Canine Registry