Animalogy: Conquest of the Animal World by Bassam Imam - HTML preview
Download the book in PDF, ePub, Kindle for a complete version.
FOOD FUR FARMING
Throughout history, animals have been used in ways that have resulted in the worst forms of killing, abuse, torment, torture, mass slaughter, humiliation, frivolous entertainment, and fun killing (killing for no legitimate reason or gain). All's not bad, however. Animals have also been used for beneficial purposes, and thankfully there are many people who love and care about animals.
This book is tilted towards the animal welfare perspective, not animal rights.
The animal welfare perspective proposes the humane use of animals for beneficial purposes. Brutality, sadism, abuse use for unnatural purposes and humiliation of animals is not tolerated. This is not speceism, it is realism. Humans have used animals and they will continue using them indefinitely.
There are a plethora of uses for animals and an even greater number of websites about animals including but not limited to animal rights, animal welfare, animal use, animal abuse, entertainment, social work, social studies, human services, consumption, war, history, criminal justice, criminology, breeding, trafficking, work, clothing, killing, hunting and trapping, trading, medicine (medication, anatomy, physiology, vivisection), pharmacology, health, psychology (behaviour, vivisection), academics, display, food (pet food, animals as food), etc.
There are an estimated 80 million cats and over 70 million dogs living in American households. This does not include the unknown number of strays. Between 5 and 7 millions cats and dogs are euthanized in animal shelters annually.
Animal activism is prevalent throughout much of the world.
In addition to this, we need animal studies courses in the fields of criminology, criminal justice, and social work. Further on, if possible, our colleges and universities need to incorporate degree programs in Animal Welfare. One university in India has already done this.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs should be "academically extended" to companion animals. What does your dog or cat need to attain self-actualization?
Companion animals that are treated with love, kindness, and compassion, by their owners should be ever so thankful. Companion animals, like babies, cannot speak. As such, acts of abuse and neglect may go unnoticed, except by caring visitors to homes. Worse yet, sadism and brutality against companion animals are often hidden from the public's eye.
Animals have been our companions, guards, slaves, entertainers (cinema, fighting and display), objects of vivisection (animal experimentation), non-paid soldiers, traction workers (pulling), worship, toys, objects of displaced aggression, hoarding, consumption, aphrodisiacs (by-products).
Humans have literally conquered the "animal world".
Countless deep sea creatures cannot evade the human pollution of the oceans. In addition, discovered and undiscovered animal species in remaining forests are on borrowed time. Wildlife can neither run humanity. Our weapons can take down anything that is alive. _
Ten billion animals area slaughtered annually for food in the U.S. This does not include what is taken from the water. Over 90 percent of slaughtered animals are from the poultry sector.
Worldwide, over fifty billion animals are slaughtered each year for food. Furthermore, billions of animals are extracted from oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and ponds. Much of what is extracted from the oceans is by-catch (non-intended catches; usually tossed back into the sea).
Tuna nets are responsible for the killing of countless dolphins every year. Thankfully, new and improved dolphin safe nets are on the market. However, this new discovery is not universal. The shrimp industry is responsible for the most by- catch killings.
Large-scale meat eating in what was to later become the U.S. began in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Salted pork was placed in large barrels for storage and sale.
In 1641, the Massachusetts Bay Colony enacted the first animal cruelty statute. Article 92, called the "Body of Liberties". This law forbade any person from exercising cruelty or tyranny unto an animal that is used by "man".
This law, incredible for its time, was enacted only two decades after the Mayflower landed on Plymouth Rock.
This however, did not stop the large-scale trail drives pr the establishment of the gigantic slaughtering facilities. The most famous of which was the Chicago Union Stockyards.
Factory farms carry the highest number of food animals. The future may see multi-level factory farms. Larger areas of land cost more; this is a big business.
"AGRIBIGNESS" is in the business of making money. Factory farms hold units, or 'singular-stocks" not living creatures.
In addition to meat, humans use the skins, eggs, milk, fat, enzymes, hair, fur, teeth, eyes, testicles, bones, bone marrow, tongues, entrails, brains, heart, blood, fecal matter, urine and semen of animals.
Regarding factory farms, the sheer quantity of output makesit quite difficult to go slow and easy with each and every slaughtering (workers can't take their time).
Many people still believe that factory farm animals live normal animal lives. People need to know the truth. It's the consumer who brings in the money.
Factory farmed animals end up nicely packaged into "pretty"pink-red, red, or white slabs that can be cooked into edible food. We prefer to see the "packaged version" of the slaughtered animals._
The Chicago Union Stockyards (CUSY) was established in 1865 to feed millions of Americans. Even then, America was a powerful nation with a growing population.
The CUSY encompassed nearly one square mile. In the CUSY, labourers unloaded animals directly into the facility for slaughtering, canning and then packing.
Over twenty five thousand people were employed in Chicago's meatpacking industry. It would eventually reach forty five thousand.
The CUSY was responsible for "meat-feeding" eighty percent of America. Americans as a whole still love meat.
Rapid technological advances during the 1870's helped to bring forth refrigerated transport. We can thank a genius named Gustav Swift for developing the first refrigerated railroad car. Processed meat could be shipped long distances. Prior to this remarkable invention, animals were transported live. Meat producers now had a choice.
Refrigerated freight cars could be "parked" at loading docks to be filled with meats to be transported vast distances.
Although the CUSY improved the assembly line system of processing, it was in Cincinnati that this process was first used. The famed Henry Ford discovered the use of the assembly line of production from the slaughterhouse operations.
In the CUSY many thousands of carcasses (regardless of shape, weight, or size) could be processed quickly. Overhead rails were used to move large carcasses from station to station. This method is still being used in many slaughterhouses.
Not surprisingly, work in this environment is potentially harmful to labourers and seriously compromises animal welfare protections of animals. CUSY labourers had to work 'too fast". Brutality to animals was the norm.
Knockers used sledge hammers to smash the heads of large animals. Sometimes, several blows were needed to knock out or kill an animal. The knocker had to hit a homerun on the first blow.
Women at the CSU comprised twenty percent of the labour force. They performed jobs that required dexterity (canning, packaging and cleaning the entrails). These women had to work at lightning speed.
Accidents during canning, cutting, and cleaning were commonplace. The repetitive motions on their hands and fingers resulted in pain; sometimes lifetime injuries.
In order to induce the women workers to work harder and faster, bonuses were given for extra canning. _
CUSY labourers were hard-working individuals who fed millions of people. Many of the workers had no alternative job offers. It was a tough period for many of America's new desperate immigrants.
Soon afterwards, ethnic tensions at the CUSY and nearby Chicago neighbourhoods reached a boiling point.
Ethnic groups at the CUSY were stereotyped. Members of a 'specific" ethnic group were assigned to work at a designated station. This is sometimes referred to as 'ethnic compartmentalization".
Today, many Latino migrants (Mexicans and Central Americans) are moving to small town America. Desperate for work, these Latino migrants end up working in slaughterhouses, factory farms or as farm labourers. Work conditions are usually deplorable. With no medical care, systemic racism, discrimination and no benefits they are at the mercy of employers. Regardless of what we think of their work; they are hard-working, performing duties that almost none of us would consider doing.
At the CUSY seniority meant nothing and re-instatement after a layoff was never assured. Foremen held incredible leverage over their workers. Foremen could, and often did, abuse their workers. The atmosphere lacked mercy and compassion for labourers and animals alike.
CUSY labourers worked in and around blood, sweat, stench, maggots, rats, animal droppings, shrieks, and brutality. The 'slaughterhouse stench" could"ve killed a lion. The stench extended into the surrounding neighbourhood.
Cold Chicago winters, hot and humid summers, increased the difficulty of working in the CUSY. Employees worked up to twelve hours a day with inadequate rest periods.
Slaughterhouse workers at the CUSY included Germans, Slavs, visible minorities (blacks and Hispanics).
Because of a continuous supply of new immigrants to the Chicago area, CUSY slaughterhouse workers were disposable.
This caused ferocious power struggles between the workers and management, ethnic groups, and strike breakers.
Conditions for the CUSY labourers improved with the passing of the National Labour Relations Act of 1935 (NLRA). In theory, this act enabled labourers to form and join unions without being unjustly persecuted, intimidated, or otherwise harmed by the management.
The National Labour Relations Board (1935) was formed by Congress to direct the NLRA. Although this was a step forward for the protection of labourers and their right to form unions, there were subsequent attempts by management to weaken it.
The CUSY labourers were better off with the NLRA. Not well off though, only better off.
Corporate giants often use vertical integration to ensure bigger profits and expanded control over the process. In vertical integration large corporations provide their own feed, land space, cleanup, and distribution (delivery). In horizontal integration there are other players in the system. The latter is the essence of the old time family farm.
Corporate food giants move into an area then eliminate or reduce small family farming. The system can be somewhat cold and impersonal.
Working in a hectic-paced meat packing plant is very difficult, even in today's world. Get the job done, over and over again.
Today many illegal or ethnic slaughterhouse workers are intimidated; sometimes even having to hold back their urge to urinate or defecate while working. Some workers have had to "do it" in their pants. Externally, line workers may be sprinkled with blood, poop, and sweat.
Other problems include cuts, abrasions, over-exhaustion, generalized anxiety, racism, discrimination, little or no legal recrimination, little or no worker's compensation, frustration, ambivalence, confusion, apathy, anger, fear of deportation (illegal aliens), language barrier, cultural barrier, and a general public that doesn't know the truth, and often doesn't want to either.
The southern American States are presently the most popular destination for Latino factory farm workers. Chicken catchers must be fast, hard-working, alert at all times, and can be speckled or smeared with dirt, feathers, dust, chemicals, squashed maggots and insects, fecal matter (bird and rodent), larvae, feed, blood, and other gooey stuff.
At work, a cutting instrument must be the correct sharpness and the handle must be firmly grasped.
Unfortunately this is not always the case. Cutting instruments are sometimes too sharp or too dull. Finger and hand accidents result in serious lacerations or horrible amputations. Furthermore, the fast-paced repetitive motions of the cutting, hoisting, pulling, twisting, chopping, and yanking can cause wrist or wrist and hand problems. Most North Americans would never do this kind of work.
The late Upton Sinclair a once well-known novelist visited the CUSY. He saw, smelled, and noted the horrors in the CUSY. Later, Sinclair wrote a "fictionalized version" of the CUSY and general slaughterhouse conditions of the United States. His book, 'the Jungle" was a smashing hit. The American public reacted with shock and outrage at how 'gruesome' meat could be processed, then packaged and sold to them._
Much of the meat sold at the time was infested and contaminated. Rat droppings, fecal matter, and other disgusting matter was in the meat supply.
The U.S. Government was 'pressured" into passing the Pure Food and Drug Act (PFDA), and the Beef Inspection Act (BIA). Without the public outcry, there would have been no government action; at least not then and there.
The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 paved the way to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA is responsible with testing foods and drugs.
Prescriptions were required for the purchase of what was later to be called 'prescription medication" or "prescription drugs".
The physician prescribing the medication had to be licensed. In addition, addictive drugs had to be labelled as such. The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (MIA), set required standards for animals before slaughter. Any animal that was slaughtered could be inspected by government workers post mortem. Slaughterhouses and processing plants were required to maintain an acceptable level of cleanliness. In theory it was the government that decided the acceptable standard.
Contemporary slaughterhouses are killing more animals at higher speeds. In effect, less humane measures and occasional abbreviated inspections are commonplace.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), under the Reagan Administration, granted factory farm owners and administrators "increased self-inspection" rights. In effect, they were given more "freedom" to violate slaughterhouse animals' rights and process polluted meat.
Today's food giants include Tyson Foods, Maple Leaf Foods, Pilgrim's Pride, Smithfield Foods, Iowa Beef Products, and Wayne Farms LLC.
Organizations that espouse either a "no animal use" or a "humane animal use" philosophy include animal rights and animal welfare organizations.
Animal rights activists (ARAs) and organizations may espouse a vegan, vegetarian, lacto vegetarian (dairy and vegetables), or lacto-ovo-vegetarian (dairy, fish, vegetables) diets. The most liberal animal rightists espouse a no animal use philosophy.
The Vegetarian Society based in the UK is the oldest recorded vegetarian organization in the world.
Animal welfare organizations, in general, espouse a humane use of animals, including legislation and enforcement.
Individuals and organizations may use morality, ethics, health, empathy, personal philosophy, and/or religion as a grid in determining where they stand regarding animal use.
On the far left of the Animal rights sector total animal liberation is espoused. The Animal Liberation Front is a good example of this movement.
Richard Ryder, a notable psychologist, coined the term 'speciesism" to describe our 'superiority feelings" and "attitudes" towards the animal kingdom.
The distinguished Australian philosopher and animal protectionist, Peter Singer, helped to spread the term of 'speceism". Singer's book Animal Liberation was a big hit. It helped to re-invigorate the animal protectionist movement.
The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), a department within the USDA is assigned to ensure that America's meat, poultry, and egg products are safe and wholesome enough for the public to consume. Wholesomeness inspection is mandatory while quality grading is voluntary.
The FSIS employs nearly 9,400 full-time career employees. Whatever it costs to sustain this department is well-worth it in tax dollars. Helping to assure a safe meat and poultry supply is mandatory for any nation.
The entry-level inspectors are responsible for inspecting the animals before and after slaughter. But there are too many slaughterhouses, too many animals and too many violations and not enough funding. In defence of the USDA and FSIS America's meat and egg supply has been relatively safe. If you take into consideration the magnanimous levels of meat and egg consumption you'll agree with my statement.
Plant operations work at a hectic pace. Inspectors are sometimes reluctant to stop the operation if they see a violation. It takes time to analyze the violation and file the official report.
Depending on the plant, workers and supervisors may not take too kindly to inspectors who hold-up the operations. There have been cases of inspectors being intimidated. Inspectors should be given more authority. Plant operators must respect FSIS inspectors, so that these same inspectors can do their job without any obstacles.
On January 28, 2008, Ed Schafer was officially sworn in as the new Secretary of the USDA.
On May 15, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln established a Department of Agriculture.
In creating the USDA President Lincoln had good intent and foresight. America was rapidly expanding in population and size.
The pilgrims had a strong appetite for meat, milk, and eggs. They were no different than much of the world. In those days, there was no assembly-line-style of animal slaughter or meatpacking on a grand scale. Animals were generally slaughtered one at a time. It all came down to the sharpness of the instrument, the talent of the butcher, and the luck of the animal.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is the Canadian counterpart to the USDA. There are over 6,000 employees stationed in field offices, laboratories, and processing facilities.
The CFIA is assigned the duty of safeguarding food, animals, and plants that improve the health and well-being of Canadians.
On a positive note, the USDA and the CFIA have comprehensive websites. "Polite inquiries" are answered politely. Their British counterpart is The U.K. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.
Worst case scenarios for food animals in factory farms or slaughterhouses includes kicking, beating, tossing, throwing (poultry industry), de-horning, skinning (sometimes while the animal is still conscious), amputation (blunt or sharp instrument, sometimes while the animal is still alive), ear or tail twisting, scalding, or castration (without anaesthesia).
"Chicken eating" in America got a big boost with Herbert Hoover's 1928 campaign promise of having a chicken in every pot.
Today, processed chicken has engulfed North America.
Popular foods like chicken nuggets, chicken fingers, breasts, paddies, wings, thighs, steak, filets, broth, strips, soup, stir-fry, hot dogs, gravy, chicken pot pie, salami, bologna, salad, and burgers can be found in supermarkets across North America.
During the Second World War, The War Food Administration did not ration chicken. Their "brethren" the pigeons, immensely aided the Allied War effort, especially for the British who sent messages across the English Channel.
Fast food chicken products are usually loaded with fat and salt. Never mind the fries, mayo, sauce, and other garnish.
Still, most fast food chicken products are very tasty.
Manufacturers understand the consumers" palate. Chickens set for transfer to a slaughtering facility may be yanked from their cages. Often, the chicken 'inadvertently' leaves part of its body behind, like a toe or more. Afterwards, these chickens are manhandled then tossed into a box or cage inside the transport vehicle.
Larger animals, like steer, can be enticed to move along by being kicked and/or prodded. They're too big and heavy to be snatched, hoisted, or thrown by a human.
Bovine Spongiform Encaphalopy (BSE) or Mad Cow Disease is a communicable brain disease (in cattle) that causes degeneration and is fatal. BSE has an incubation period of up to 5 years in cattle; longer for humans. An infected animal can transmit BSE to others. Potential for a wide-scale catastrophe is there. Thus far, we"ve been lucky.
BSE first appeared in the United Kingdom, in 1986. Infected feed (containing brain, spinal cord) was the avenue of transmission. Feed should never contain rendered meat or any other product animals shouldn't eat. People who eat BSE contaminated meat are at risk of acquiring Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
Windowless poultry sheds can contain over 100,000 chickens. The chickens receive no rest breaks, natural sunshine, freedom to move about, forage, or dust-bathe. Chickens expectedly go nuts in these hell holes. Contrast this with the turn of the 20th century where farm chickens in the U.S. were free-roaming.
Chickens were first domesticated 9,000 years ago in China and India. Intensive farming of chickens saw a major upswing in the late 1950's. Large chicken farms began to spring-up in the U.S. Although factory farming of chickens began in the 1930s the 1950's was when the number of chickens in chicken farmsexploded.
Chickens could no longer be personalized. The pace of operations accelerated considerably. Chickens in factory farms were routinely brutally snatched from their cages, tossed, thrown, kicked, and chocked. In addition, transport distances were lengthened; no food, water, veterinary care, or temperature regulation.
The broiler chicken industry first took hold in the Delamar Region (Delaware, Virginia, Maryland), during the 1950's. Broilers are housed for up to 7 weeks, before slaughter. Broilers" cages or enclosures are tiny; leaving each chicken trapped, unable to stretch its wings.
Because broilers are raised to attain "extreme size", they're too big to move around. Chickens need to move around, spread their wings, dust bathe, and eat whenever and whereverthey need to.
Broilers are raised for meat, not for eggs. Housed in window-less sheds, surrounded by filth, chemicals, death, disease, and ammonia from dried up urine.
The horrible conditions result in immense pain, agony, and torment for every single live broiler. Many go mad.
The system is fast-paced, cruel, and automated. Everything is regulated; food, water, temperature, waste disposal, chemicals, lighting, life, antibiotics, and ventilation.
Broilers legs are too weak to sustain their unnaturally large bodies. Imagine trying to walk around with the legs of a stork. Also, imagine being forced to stand up day and night.
Broilers" legs become deformed.
Broilers who can't sustain their own weight simply collapse. Unnatural weight causes many broilers to die of heart attacks.
Dead chickens are callously taken away by farm workers to be tossed away or used as low grade food; maybe soup, or rendered (recycled as chicken feed).
In order to prevent chicken-to-chicken aggression roosters have their soft, tender beaks sliced off with a hot blade. This ensures that they don't peck at each other.
If the blade isn't hot enough or the slice isn't perfect, the broiler is assured increased pain. The hectic pace makes the use of pain killers non-viable. Bulbous swellings and infections are common. Antibiotics are used to help prevent infection.
This hectic pace of the poultry industry doesn't permit slow calculated movements by the line workers. One ailing chicken will never stop the process.
Chickens may have their claws or part of their toes sliced off to inhibit aggression. If part of the toe of a chicken 'encrusts' itself on the wiring, it poses another problem.
When these chickens are yanked out of their cages, the encrusted flesh stays put.
Chickens in the wild live according to a pecking order. In cramped cages, social behaviour becomes twisted, and extremely brutal.
'Recessive chickens' can't run or hide. This category of chickens ends up being brutalized by cage mates. Also, they tend to occupy the worst part of the cage, smothered, or unable to eat and drink enough to stay alive. Stronger and larger chickens don't have mercy on their weaker cage mates; the strong live, while the weak die.
Chickens are cheaper than the cages they"re put in. Therefore, the system can sacrifice many lives, because many more will survive. The surviving ones will bring in most of the money. As stated earlier, even the dead ones can also bring in money.
Breeding roosters live their lives in a state of hunger. They peck excessively at anything they can and to try to get something into their empty stomachs.
A device called a NOZBONZ is used by some poultry farms. This device is shoved into roosters' noses (without anaesthesia) from one side to the other then left there. The purpose of the NOZBONZ is to stop roosters from sticking their heads into the cages or feeding troughs of other chickens. In essence, they"re being prevented and punished for behaving like roosters.
Poultry farms housing egg producing chickens have no need for the male chicks. Male chicks" flesh is of lower quality.
Upon birth, the male chicks are tossed into a bag, where they"re suffocated. Or they can be thrown into a chicken grinder. Either way, they"re treated as disposable chickens.
Chickens in overcrowded sheds endure extreme thirst. Owners want to save on water bills and cleaning times. More water means increased watery stools.
Lights in chicken sheds are turned on 23 hours a day. When the lights are on the chickens are in "production mode". The one hour or so of no lighting is not for the chickens" benefit. It's a safety precaution in case there's a sudden blackout.
Chickens that have never been in the dark will go berserk during a sudden blackout.
Countless chickens that are taken to the slaughterhouse suffer from broken bones and severe bruises. They're routinely manhandled, tossed into tiny, filthy, boxes for transport.
Right before slaughter chickens are sent through electrically charged water. Because of the hectic pace their throats may not be properly cut at the time of slaughter.
Forced molting is the process of starving chickens in order to alter (enhance, increase) the egg-laying cycle. The word "molting" originally meant the natural replacement of old feathers with new ones. A normal replacement of feathers occurs during the course of a year. Forced molting can last up to 2 weeks. Up to 7 million chickens are molted each year in the U.S.
Molted chickens are given high doses of antibiotics. The doses cause side effects that can be dangerous to chickens' natural immunity, especially when the drugs are withdrawn. These chickens suffer from immense pain, agony, and frustration. Overcrowding, over-flowing excrement, lack of freedom, stimulus overload, unnatural lighting, callous workers, and not being able to breathe clean air, take their toll. Ammonia from urine, fecal matter, dust, chemical pollution, blood, discharges, and death stink up the chicken sheds.
Build-up of excrement, rotting flesh, and disease cause toxic fumes to 'engulf' the interior of the chicken sheds. Many chickens develop heart and lung problems. The ever-presence of mice, rats, flies, parasites, and the fecal matter of the aforementioned aggravate matters.
These creatures must eat. Caged chickens in infested sheds have nowhere to run or hide. Other problems include salmonella, swollen head syndrome, and fatty liver syndrome.
School hatching programs began in the 1950's, probably to glamorize the factory farming of chickens. Pre-teens and their teachers place fertilized eggs in classroom incubators. Twenty five days later the eggs hatch. Children make a connection between the incubator and the hatchings.
Pigs in the wild can choose to play and roll in mud for pleasure, to cool off, and to protect themselves from nasty insects. Pigs are intelligent, social animals. They also have a pecking order and can be extremely nasty to each other at times, even cannibalistic. Being out in the open field is not always an animal paradise.
Electronic sow feeding involves dozens to several hundred sows that are housed together and individually fed in high-tech computer food stations.
What is proposed in this book is an improvement in housing, feeding, and slaughter of food animals. Animal welfare standards should encompass all food species. This cannot be done overnight. The use of animals is an essential part of human existence. It will never end, regardless of what some individuals and organizations think.
Over 100 million hogs are slaughtered every year in the United States producing twenty billion pounds of pork, almost all of it for food. Roughly 80 percent of America's pig farms produce more than 5000 hogs per year.
Canada and Denmark are large exporters of pork. Current trends indicate that the numbers of slaughtered hogs will increase. It's a multi-billion dollar industry employing (directly or indirectly) hundreds of thousands of persons. In high concentration hog farms, most hogs spend much of their lives inside sheds or other enclosures.
Small town family farms are disappearing from the North American landscape. Factory farm style establishments have already begun their encroachment into the Third World. There are an estimated 500 million farmed pigs in China. If you eat you must defecate.
The Government of China has a notorious reputation for dumping waste with little or no consideration for the potential harm.
Pigs in factory farms are unable to breathe clean air, exercise, or wallow in mud. Wallowing in mud is important to pigs because they don't sweat. The ammonia in the air can cause lung and heart problems. Many pigs that reach the slaughterhouse suffer from pneumonia.
Pigs used for breeding are called breeding sows. They"re locked into gestation crates. Gestation crates are often so tiny the breeding sow can only stand and lie down. In worse cases, the sow can't properly lie down.
The reasoning behind this is to protect the piglets from being inadvertently crushed by their mother. Also, the piglets can be nursed at will. Breeding sows that move less gain weight faster. Some pig producers are beginning to breed for less fat and more muscle; a healthier pig for the consumer.
Over two thirds of the 6 million breeding sows in the United States spend seventy percent of their adult lives locked inside tiny gestation crate.
Large doses of antibiotics must be given to the breeding sows to prevent medical problems.
Muscle atrophy, lameness, digestive system problems, and mastitis are common problems.
The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) supports the use of gestation crates. Gestation crates are an anathema to animals' overall physical and mental health. Gestation crates are an example of "immobility-incarceration".
Piglets who survive the first three weeks of life are taken away from their mothers to a feeding pen where they"re castrated, have their tales sliced off, ears notched, and teeth ground down, without anaesthesia.
Tail docking and teeth grinding are done to prevent aggression amongst pigs, like tail biting and the biting of other body parts too. The pigs are reacting to the circumstances of their environment.
Many pigs don't see the light of day until transport to the slaughterhouse, which is usually far away. Transport is cramped, filthy, tiny, and little or no protection is provided from the elements. Winter transport results in the death of some of the pigs being transferred. After collapsing, their bodies may begin to freeze onto the side railing or the floor. Transport laws regarding maximum number of hours on the road and rest periods are quite difficult to adequately enforce. It all depends on the owners.
All transport is not horrible though. Some livestock owners are more humane than others. However, in large-scale, fast operations, humanity is the exception not the prevalent rule.
Line workers in slaughterhouse plants use metallic hooks or electric prods to encourage hogs onto transport trailers. When used, the device is plunged into flesh, resulting in the hog's encouragement to load onto the transport trailer's ramp. Because the hogs have lived rough lives, they may be resistant to boarding the trailer ramp. But once inside the transport vehicle, the hogs are sandwiched into a tiny area. They can suffer from breathing, internal, or rectal problems. Sandwiching ensures maximum transport at minimum expense.
There have been cases of hogs being squashed so badly, their guts actually pop out. Hog trailers are recognizable from the powerful stench, and the protruding snouts that are searching for clean air and freedom.
Slaughter of pigs is preceded by being stunned with a captive bolt gun. Aim and accuracy are never guaranteed.
In Islam and Judaism the animal must be fully conscious during slaughter. The animal must not appear sickly during slaughter.
While pigs are on the conveyer hooks, they scream, shriek, struggle, and kick. Afterwards, the pigs are sent to a scalding tank. The scalding is supposed to make skinning easier. Under optimal conditions it doesn't pose a problem. Unfortunately, some pigs are still alive during the scalding phase.
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), a French chemist, invented the process of pasteurization (heating food in order to destroy harmful organisms). Although this lead to many improvements in food safety and longevity, it was really Franz non Soxhlet (1848-1926), a Belgian chemist, who first applied pasteurization on milk. As a result milk can be stored for longer periods of time. Unfortunately, Soxhlet has been forgotten.
Under normal circumstances, cows can live to twenty five years. Dairy cows in large operations are used for 3 or 4 years then are sent to the slaughterhouse. Dairy cows normally produce 10 pounds of milk per day. In order to increase milk output Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH) is injected into the dairy cows. BGH is a synthetic hormone that alters the normal milk production patterns and quantities for dairy cows. Cows can produce up to 100 pounds of milk per day. BGH can cause birth defects in calves.
Cows have a gestation period of 9 months. Increase in yields calls for a cow to give birth once a year. The repeated birth cycles can cause milk fever; dairy cows can't produce enough calcium to compensate for the rapid birth cycle.
Milk is mainly consumed as a liquid, sliced into cheeses, ice cream, butter, yogurt, coffee cream, and as part of a cereal snack or meal.
Veal production using the standard method cannot be humane.
The mothers of veal calves are dairy producers. Their male calves are taken away from them soon after birth. As a result, there's no time to form a true loving bond between mother and son. Bob veal is a veal calf that is taken away for slaughter shortly after birth.
Veal calves are sent to special open pens, where they"ll spend the next 16 weeks inside a tiny pen. In inhumane farms they're incarcerated, usually chained, given a milk substitute lacking in iron, forced to live in darkness, and are deprived of sufficient water.
Consumers expect their veal meat to be tender, pale pink or white in color. Not being able to move around causes the veal calves to lose muscle mass and tone, thereby tenderizing their flesh. A state of sub-clinical anaemia develops, causing the flesh to appear pale. The deprivation of water causes veal calves to drink more of the milk substitute. Since the milk substitute is not water, the veal calves live their lives in a state of unending thirst. Like other factory farmed animals, veal calves are given high doses of antibiotics.
The darkness in the sheds causes veal calves to control their movements. In the past, veal calves only weighed a fraction of what they do today.
In Holland a new technique was discovered that caused the fattening of veal calves. This resulted in pain, boredom (no playing, grass, sunshine, or just running around), for 16 weeks.
Today, veal calves can weigh up to 400 lbs.
The craving for iron causes veal calves to lick their own urine and rust off the metallic bars in their stalls. Wooden boards are used in their stalls to prevent veal calves from licking the iron off the rust.
Today more veal producers are using less cruel methods of rearing their calves. Calves may be placed near their mothers longer and water is given. It's up to the consumer to find out where the purchased meat comes from and the circumstances of rearing, transport, and slaughter. Contact an animal protection organization in your area, or a nationally known one.
Most animal protection organizations in are more than happy to answer your inquiries. If you need a guide or a helping hand, check the INFORMATION BOOTH Section of this book.
Steers are bulls that have been castrated. Castration is usually done quickly and without anaesthesia. De-horning and branding are also common. Be aware, branding an animal's face can cause severe eye or facial damage.
Today OPTIBRAND absolute traceability collects retinal images for purposes of identifying and tracing livestock.
Although the animal must be restrained for the procedure, it's painless. The animal resists out of fear not pain.
Steers are usually fed low quality feed in order to cut expenses. Even paper, manure, and rendered meat have been used.
Hormones are administered to steers for the enhancement of growth; anything to make a buck.
Branding is the act of heating a marker on the hide of a livestock animal. Branding helps protect steer owners from theft. Thankfully, branding is being phased out through the use of tagging and modern techniques of identification.
If used, branding includes capital letters, symbols, numbers, or combinations thereof. Ear tagging and radio frequency identification tagging are making headway.
'Beef animals' have been an important part of American history. The American trail drives changed the face of the continental United States. Cattle herds, sometimes exceeding 2,000 head each were taken to richer grazing sites and/or railheads.
Railheads were the end of rails, or places where military supplies were dropped off. Long trail drives from Texas to Kansas, or from Texas to lands further north, took a few months to complete.
Stampedes (often at night-time), severe weather, cattle rustlers, problems with settlers, crossing Indian lands, river crossings, and exhaustion of the cattle hands and cattle were problems to be dealt with.
Every worker in the trail drive had to be tough and dedicated. The man in charge was the trail boss.
The cook drove the chuck wagon (containing food and necessary supplies), performed rudimentary medical care, and helped make the cattle hands feel at ease. The cook told interesting stories, relaxing the hands.
Trail drives had four main checkpoints. The point man roden in front of the herd, while the flank riders rode on the left and right sides, and the dragsiders rode in the back of the herd. Dragsiders had the most difficult job because dust from the trailing of cattle would be jettisoned in their faces.
During the night, one or more hands were chosen to slowly ride around the herd in order to keep it in check. This activity helped prevent many but not all stampedes.
As soon as a stampede began the cattle hands shot onto their horses and got to work trying to control the herd. When the dust cleared, it was expected that a few head of cattle would unaccounted for.
Trail taggers, tagged along trail drives. They waited on the peripheral of the herd for a chance to snatch a stray animal/s. Trail taggers came in two forms; human or animal. The former was more formidable and quite dangerous at times.
These fellows were nothing but low-down thieves bent on getting free cattle. Potential for the use of deadly force was in the air. Trail drivers were ready for gun battles if need be.
The Chisholm Trail, Pecos Trail, and Santa Fe Trail are embedded in American History.
The Chisholm Trail was likely named after Jesse Chisholm. Chisholm was a mix of European and Cherokee blood.
In 1866, Chisholm took his "heavy wagon" through Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) to Wichita, Kansas. The wheels of his wagon dug deep grooves into the ground, thereby leaving a visible trail. Cattle drivers, traders, and travellers used this trail for nearly 20 years. Many historians of the era agree that the Chisholm Trail was the most famous of them all.
Trail drives brought about incredible sales. These sales were an important source of income for the broke and dilapidated South, following the civil war.
Most Americans aren't aware of this fact. The northerners received much of their beef, while the southerners received their monies; a truly symbiotic relationship had begun.
The appetite for beef has continued unabated with billions upon billions of burgers having been sold in North America alone.
As a general rule, fast food and mall food stand burgers are affordable. Unlike the burger, foie gras is an uppity food.
Foie gras is a French word meaning fatty liver. Foie gras is a specialty item in high class restaurants. Customers pay big bucks to eat this so-called delicacy.
Sadly, this food item is produced in an inhumane manner. Unlike some other meat items, foie gras cannot be produced humanely.
The force feeding of ducks was first practiced by the ancient Egyptians 4,000 years ago. Today, we're supposed to be a more civilized.
Ducks in foie gras farms are forced to accept enormous quantities of foods (corn is the principal ingredient), through a steel tube that's shoved down their throats twice a day. Food is literally pumped down their throats. The ducks can't struggle because their necks are firmly held in place by a worker.
The idea is to make the ducks super obese. The ducks take the shape of giant pears, without the stump. Foie gras ducks are unable to properly support themselves with their legs.
Throat, digestive, and in particular, liver problems develop. Incredibly, their livers may swell up to ten times the normal size. No anaesthesia is used throughout the process. This horrible delicacy should be banned altogether.
People in the foie gras business have found ways to circumvent the law. If production of foie gras is made illegal in a particular country or jurisdiction, the ban on the importation of foie gras requires another law, or an addendum to the original law. Thereafter, enforcement must be stringent.
For example, it's illegal to force feed ducks in Poland, but foie gras is imported from France into Poland in large quantities.
Other European countries have danced to this tune also; fooling their citizens, but not the ducks.
In 2005, foie gras production became illegal in Israel.
Prior to the Supreme Court decision, Israel was a big supplier of foie gras.
Foie gras is illegal in Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Turkey; California (Goes into effect in 2012; sale and production of foie gras becomes illegal).
Foie gras cholesterol level is very high. The name says it all, fatty liver.
Like their chicken brethren, factory farmed turkeys are placed together by the thousands in long, dimly-lit sheds.
North Americans eat turkeys by the millions; thanksgiving and to a lesser extent Christmas is a favourite time of year to eat turkey.
Poults (turkey chicks) spend six weeks in special brood homes. Alone, they must fend for themselves and reach for food and water without the aid of their mothers.
Countless poults die from disease, starvation, and extreme stress.
In order to curb cannibalism, feather plucking, and pecking, turkey chicks are de-beaked, without anaesthesia.
Turkeys for consumption have been bred to have large breast size. Turkey breast meat is the consumers" favourite. The turkeys grow so fast they can't support their own weight.
Turkey hens used for breeding are artificially inseminated. This process is painful and terrifying for the turkey hens. Because of their incredible size and oftentimes deformed bodies, male turkeys in factory farms can't properly mount a turkey hen. The male's chest cavity is too large, thereby adversely affecting the natural mounting capabilities of the male turkey.
As soon as turkeys have attained selling weight they're promptly packed together in crates then sent to the slaughterhouse.
At the slaughterhouse they're hung upside down by their legs, readied for slaughter. After being slashed, they're tossed into a scalding tank. The scalding water is supposed to remove the feathers. Every turkey is not dead at the time of scalding.
Lobsters are sold as delicacies. They're placed inside tiny aquariums. The lobster must be cooked alive for up to two minutes. Waste matter from lobsters in aquariums is negligible compared to what is emanated from factory farms.
Massive quantities of waste matter are accumulated from factory farms. Waste matter from factory farmed animals is high in nitrogen. When nitrogen seeps into the air it becomes ammonia. Too much ammonia in the air is harmful to those who breathe it. Not only are the animals and factory workers at risk, but also the surrounding neighbourhoods.
A large factory farm can accumulate more waste matter than a human city. Waste matter is stored, dumped, or spread by rain. As a result, many rivers and lakes have been polluted; some of them irreparably.
The Bush Administration signed an agreement that gave factory farms more flexibility in violating clear air standards. In addition, these same factory farms were forgiven of past fines and violations. Factory farms were requested to monitor their pollution levels and furnish the results to the Federal Government.
America's population is over 4 percent of the world's population however, America produces 25 percent of the world's greenhouse gas emissions.
AGRIBIGNESS has powerful allies in government. Otherwise, many factory farm owners would be paying heavy fines and seeing justice.
Homes that are located near a factory farm are usually difficult to sell. A strong stench, pollution, and lower property values are three big reasons for this.
Shocking levels of food pollution will force a government to respond. Case in point, the USDA banned downers on December 30, 2003. Mad cow disease terrified people and the government. With so many slaughterhouses it's difficult for USDA workers to identify and analyze every single downed animal.
Each animal is a large block of money. It's often up to the line workers and their supervisors to abide by the no downer law.
Ritual slaughter is permitted in Canada and the United States. The two most notable are Hallal and Kosher slaughter. Hallal is an Arabic word that means permitted, pure, and clean. The criteria for hallal slaughter are based on the Holy Quran and the Sunnah (sayings and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him).
In order for food to be certified as Hallal it must meet the following requirements:
1. The slaughterhouse must be under the supervision of a certified Hallal inspector. The inspector should be deemed a pious Muslim by the Muslim community and observant of the slaughter. A mentally unstable or feebleminded person cannot be a certified Hallal inspector.
2. Each day before the slaughtering begins, the area, instruments, and machines to be used must be cleaned, and if applicable, sharpened.
3. Each animal must be checked before slaughter. Only animals that are healthy and fully conscious can be slaughtered. An animal that has been killed by strangulation, a fall off of a cliff, trampled upon, beaten to death; tortured in any way, shape, or form; or if the slaughterer pronounced a name other than ALLAH (GOD) it is not Hallal. All pork products are categorized as Haram (forbidden). Foie gras and typical veal are not raised and slaughtered in a humane manner.
4. The blade should be cleansed after each slaughter.
5. At the time of the slaughter the slaughterer must say "In The Name Of ALLAH (GOD) and "ALLAH (GOD) Is the Greatest".
6. The jugular vein, oesophagus, and respiratory tract must be severed quickly and completely.
7. No work on the animal can be done until it is dead.
8. No animal should see the slaughter of another animal; as this may cause extreme panic and fear.
9. The Slaughterer must use his right hand to perform the action.Kosher laws pertaining to food are derived from the Bible (The Pentateuch). Kosher laws have been practiced and accepted by practicing Jews for thousands of years.
"Animals/by-products such as pork, rabbit, and horse meat, fowl such as owl and stork, fish, such as cat fish, eels, shell fish, shrimp, and octopus and insects are non kosher foods according to Biblical definitions.
In addition, kosher meat and fowl must be slaughtered by a specially trained expert in a painless ritual fashion in order to be acceptable.
Dairy and meat products which comingle are not kosher. There are special laws relating to cheese, grape juice, and wine production." (Rabbi Yaakov Luban, Orthodox Union); Note: this is a paraphrase, not an exact quote."
Bruises, cuts, and abrasions should not be found on the animal prior to slaughter. Furthermore, only hindquarters are used for kosher certification. The veins, arteries, and unacceptable fats are carefully removed after the slaughtering process.
The rules pertaining to the practice of ritual slaughter are not always exercised in the proper manner. The pressure to produce more flesh is sometimes overwhelming. Purchase meat from a well-respected and well-known producer. Deceit and animal welfare violations have and do occur at some Hallal and Kosher establishments. Corruption and greed know no bounds.
Be aware that this is not a religion book. If you eat ritual slaughter foods do not use the aforementioned information as a religious ruling of any kind. Go to a well-respected, authorized source for a religious ruling. I have only given you some basic information pertaining to ritual slaughter. If I"ve made any errors in this section or any part of this book I sincerely apologize.
A lacto-ovo vegetarian is a person who is a vegetarian, but also includes dairy and egg products into his/her diet.
Hard-core vegans try to abstain from consuming or using dairy, meat, bird, eggs, fish or any other animal product/by- product.
The term vegetarian was first used by the British Vegetarian Society in the mid 19th century. For early humans, plant-based foods were very important for survival. But our ancestors also relied on much meat to survive.
For many people consumption of animal flesh is a regular occurrence. Humans need vegetable matter and meat for optimum health. Not too much of either, however.
Famous vegetarians include Pythagoras (Greek Mathematician), Leonardo da Vinci and George Bernard Shaw. Contrary to popular belief, Adolph Hitler was not a vegetarian. Hitler enjoyed eating Bavarian sausages, pigeon, and poured liberal doses of cream into his coffee. With a personal chef, bodyguards, and close associates, it was impossible for Hitler to keep his non-vegetarian lifestyle a secret.
In China and Korea, there's a demand for dog meat, and to a lesser extent cat meat. Dog meat consumption can also be found in Thailand, the Philippines, and Taiwan but to a lesser extent than China and Korea.
In Korea, roughly 2 million dogs and hundreds of thousands of cats are sold for food in restaurants, grocery stores, and in street markets.
The dog and cat meat trade for food is horrible. In these markets you can witness an organized trade, especially in Guangzhu, located in Ching Ping. The odour emanating from these markets is stinky and noxious.
Cats "awaiting" slaughter are crammed together in tiny, filthy cages. Killings are done by torching, strangulation, or beating while the animal is in a bag (for cat soup). After being beaten the cats are placed into pressure cookers.
Many of the cats are still alive when they"re placed inside the pressure cooker. This is similar to live pig scalding.
Dog farms are increasing in China. These farms hold many dogs placed in horrible conditions. Saint Barnards are the most popular breed of dogs for slaughter because they grow fast, big, and are generally tame around humans.
Saint Barnards are imported from Switzerland. These gentle giants were originally bred to rescue humans in life threatening situations. This is how they're paid back?!
As a result of the increasing market demand, compounded with improved living conditions, dog meat has become an attainable delicacy for the average Chinese household. Furthermore, the dog breeding industry is expanding, including but not limited to Beijing.
Other big favourite dog breeds include Great Danes and Tibetan Mastiffs. The Beijing Hong Ding Breeding & Development Company is actively involved in this endeavour.
A breeding facility established in 1999, in Kangxi grassland can produced 100,000 dogs annually.
Many people are duped into believing that a raised adrenaline level of the dog at the time of death will enhance the virility for the consumer (scientifically unproven). Therefore, brutal methods of slaughter are performed.
In 1991, the Government of Korea passed a law forbidding the consumption of dogs and cats by humans. As a general rule, this law isn't enforced.
The Government of Korea has been under incredible pressure from within and abroad to end the eating of dogs and cats.
Creatures living in water can't flee intensive animal farming. There's simply nowhere to go.
Fish farms are walled-in pens in the ocean or other bodies of water, containing fish that are used for food.
In British Columbia, Atlantic salmon (non-native species) is a very popular choice for fish farming.
Fish farm waste matter may equal the amount of a small human town. This waste matter includes excreta (fecal matter) and sea lice that sometimes flow into surrounding waters. This threatens other sea creatures with high levels of pollution.
If not properly enclosed, penned fishes will attract predators.
During the 1990's British Columbia fish farmers killed many seals that were trying to eat penned salmon. Obstructive sonar is one method to keep predators away from penned fish.
Salmon in fish farms are crowded into small swimming areas. Unnatural behaviour, diseases, and heavy anti-biotic treatment pose a big problem. High doses of antibiotics are given to fish in order to help prevent diseases.
Farmed fish may be fed pellets that contain fishmeal and oils, antibiotics, pesticides, or fish waste.
Fresh salmon doesn't necessarily mean that a fish that was caught by a fisherman.
The fish farming industry is also referred to as aquaculture. Corporate behemoths want to make enormous profits, without worrying about the future consequences. If matters don't change for the better, we may severe consequences.
Wild salmon has less fat content than farmed salmon. Farmed salmon are unable to burn calories by swimming. They're canned together tightly.
Australian live animal exports transport animals across the sea. These trips are quite long and gruelling for the animals in the vessels.
Australia exports more live animals (sheep, cattle, goats) than any other country, most by sea. Millions make it to their final destination, while thousands die of dehydration, starvation, illness, or exhaustion.
Problems begin before arrival to the vessel. The animals are sent from farms and holding yards to ports. Because Australia is a vast country, the journey may take up to two days. In order to cut down on expenses, food and water may be rationed.
Upon arrival at the port, the animals are sent to giant vessels that contain multi-decked (multi-tiered) layers; primarily for sheep and cattle.
In linear troughs the sheep are pressed together in pens, many don't have a chance to reach food.
Sheep in overcrowded vessels may be packed up to three per square meter. Cattle may be allotted one or two square meters.
Veterinary care and a routine cleanup of the decks is not something that can be easily done. Emphasis is laid upon getting the animals to the slaughter destination.
Most of the sheep are sent to the Middle East. The MV Cormo Express catastrophe carrying more than 100,000 sheep is not surprising. The vessel along with others like it, are sailing factory farms.
Humane slaughter of animals in Australia, followed by refrigerated transport will solve much of the problem. Ritual slaughter can performed in Australia by a certified person. This, however, will not remove the entire problem. Some ritual slaughter must be performed on the spot; the meat is then divided and eaten according to religious edict, as in the Hajj slaughter.
In Australia merino sheep must be mulsed. In mulesing skin is sliced away from the anal area of the sheep, without administering anaesthesia. In Australia mulesing is forbidden on companion animals.
Merino sheep are specially bred to have loose skin folds. Their unnatural folds accumulate sweat, thereby attracting blowflies. The Australian sheep blowfly (Lucilia Cuprina) is a pest in Australia. The vast majority of fly strikes are initiated by this pest.
The Lucilia Cuprina breeds in sheep. It's a catch 22 kind of a situation.
Mulesing, although extremely painful, is a procedure that should be performed on merino sheep in order to prevent the nasty blowfly infestation. The breeding of sheep that are less susceptible to blowfly infection will be a good step in the right direction.
Australian sheep farmers are only responding to consumer demand when they breed merino sheep. From their perspective, they have an inherent right to earn a living, and in many cases to continue a multi-generational family enterprise.
Fish have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Catches were considerably smaller than they are today. The bodies of water were full of food and life.
Large vessels employ a smaller number of fishermen. Large vessels are increasing in number although catches are shrinking.
Fishermen have to fish more in order to obtain less. The alarm bells have already begun to ring. The reduced fish catches has increased competition amongst large vessel operators at the expense of small-scale fishermen.
Many small-scale fishermen are from poor countries suffering from a food shortage.
Bottom trawling (benthic trawling) harms sea creatures' habitats and coral reefs.
Large vessels work round the clock removing too many sea creatures even from the final sea frontiers. Governments around the world support these operations by giving large vessel owners and operators subsidies. Like cocaine, the pleasure is short term. The pain and agony will come later.
By-catch is considered a non-target sea creature. This is a throw away item
Throw away items can be as high as 90 percent of the catch. Shrimp trawling is the most wasteful of all fishing activities.
Commercial long-line fishing involves large vessels using nets up to 60 miles long, with up to 1000 hooks. Sea turtles, birds, and marine mammals die in large numbers as by-catch. These mega-nets are also referred to as "walls of death". Overfishing disturbs the natural relationship between predator and prey. Drastic declines in numbers of predators may cause significant increases in prey populations.
A new species may fill in the gap as apex predator. This causes major changes. Creatures that are affected are turtles, seabirds, whales, sharks and dolphins.
Ridley turtles have been found in the Pacific Ocean hooked onto long-lines. The Pacific leatherback turtle is threatened with extinction. In the past 25 years, the Pacific Leatherback turtle population has dropped from over 90 thousand to less than 5 thousand. This is a ninety four percent decrease.
Loss of habitat is always a serious threat to land and sea creatures.Our world's food supply may soon be adversely affected not only by illogical practices but also by pollution and global warming. We cannot imagine what a starving human world will be like. How will we humans respond?
Humans sometimes resort to unnatural behaviours to stave off their starvation, or to just stay alive. Anthropophagi (cannibalism) can sometimes occur.
An example of widespread cannibalism in extraordinary timesoccurred in the Ukraine (1932-1933). Joseph Stalin and his and the Bolsheviks induced a horrific famine on the Ukrainian people especially the kulaks (peasants). Grain supplies were forcefully and mercilessly confiscated.
Ukrainian peasants who could once easily feed their nation were now starving, along with their co-nationals.
Russian troops were sent to sniff out any hidden supplies of grain or food. Any person who was caught with state grain, or who did not appear to be starving could receive up to a 10 year sentence in a Russian gulag (labour camp). Even fecal droppings were analyzed. It was a terrible act of human-on-human cruelty. Ukrainians became so desperate they resorted to widespread cannibalism. Many people went mad.
The intended consequence was to break Ukrainian nationalism and the individuality of the average peasant. 7 million people starved to death during the Ukrainian Holocaust. Others were executed or sent off to a gulag.
The Ukrainian Holocaust was hidden from the world for decades. It has now been identified and accepted as a historical fact. Canada and the United States officially recognize it as such.
Andrei Chikatilo, Russia's worst serial rapist, killer, and cannibal had survived the Ukrainian Holocaust as a child. He claimed to have seen his brother whisked away (still alive) by several of his relatives to be eaten.
Chikatilo like many others around him witnessed terrifying acts. Some parents resorted to eating their own children. In some villages, there was a noticeable absence of children on the streets. Families warned their children to stay home. One woman thought her baby was a giant turkey; she roasted it.
For the most part, Chikatilo was an "impotent" husband, often mocked by his wife. He was finally captured, sentenced and then executed by the Russian authorities.
Albert Fish, a notorious cannibal of early 20th century United States, had an unusual life. Fish had his first taste of blood in an orphanage. He was being beaten mercilessly in the orphanage and then blood dripped down to his lips. After getting a few lick, he felt good. But there was more. He witnessed horrible acts of abuse therein.
This was the beginning of Fish's freaky fantasies. Later, his fantasies would be acted out.
Fish claimed to have harmed four hundred children, and feasted on at least several. In one case involving a 12 year-old girl, he made stew of her flesh, mixed with carrots, and other vegetables. He claimed to have feasted on the flesh for several days.
Fish was finally captured, arrested then executed. After the execution an autopsy on his body revealed 29 sewing needles inserted into his scrotum (testicular sac).
An example of state induced anthropophagi (cannibalism) happened in China. Historically, China has been riddled with nasty famines.
In Mao Zedong's so-called "Giant Leap Forward", a catastrophic agricultural policy and a severe drought (1959-1961), caused the deaths of an estimated 30 million people in Northern China. The horrible famines led to numerous acts of cannibalism. Sometimes the meal was to be was taken alive.
The Red Guards (Mao Zedong's henchmen), terrorized the citizenry into reform. Anything appearing to represent the west,
democracy, or bourgeois life, was deemed "illegal". In other words, every aspect of Chinese society had to conform to Mao Zedong's philosophy.
The Red Guards harmed and killed countless people. Unfortunately, it did not end there. The Red Guards sometimes cannibalised their victims. On at least one occasion the Red Guards displayed dead bodies on hooks in front of terrified students. Afterwards, the students were ordered to eat the flesh. Although humans have done much good on this planet, they've also committed the worst of atrocities.