Animalogy: Conquest of the Animal World by Bassam Imam - HTML preview

PLEASE NOTE: This is an HTML preview only and some elements such as links or page numbers may be incorrect.
Download the book in PDF, ePub, Kindle for a complete version.


Throughout  history,  animals  have  been  used  in  ways  that have  resulted  in  the  worst  forms  of  killing,  abuse,  torment, torture,  mass  slaughter,  humiliation,  frivolous  entertainment, and  fun  killing  (killing  for  no  legitimate  reason  or  gain). All's  not  bad,  however.  Animals  have  also  been  used  for beneficial purposes, and thankfully there are many people who love and care about animals.

This book is tilted towards the animal welfare perspective, not animal rights.

The animal welfare perspective proposes the humane use of animals  for  beneficial  purposes.  Brutality,  sadism,  abuse  use for  unnatural  purposes  and  humiliation  of  animals  is  not tolerated. This is not speceism, it is realism. Humans have used animals and they will continue using them indefinitely.

There  are  a  plethora  of  uses  for  animals  and  an  even greater  number  of  websites  about  animals  including  but  not limited  to  animal  rights,  animal  welfare,  animal  use,  animal abuse,  entertainment,  social  work,   social  studies,  human services,   consumption,   war,   history,   criminal   justice, criminology,  breeding,  trafficking,  work,  clothing,  killing, hunting  and  trapping,  trading,  medicine  (medication,  anatomy, physiology,   vivisection),   pharmacology,   health,   psychology (behaviour,  vivisection),  academics,  display,  food  (pet  food, animals as food), etc.

There are an estimated 80 million cats and over 70 million dogs living in American households. This does not include the unknown number of strays. Between 5 and 7 millions cats and dogs are euthanized in animal shelters annually.

Animal activism is prevalent throughout much of the world.

In  addition  to  this,  we  need  animal  studies  courses  in  the fields  of  criminology,  criminal  justice,  and  social  work. Further on, if possible, our colleges and universities need to incorporate degree programs in Animal Welfare. One university in India has already done this.

Maslow's  hierarchy  of  needs  should  be  "academically extended" to companion animals. What does your dog or cat need to attain self-actualization?

Companion animals that are treated with love, kindness, and compassion,  by  their  owners  should  be  ever  so  thankful. Companion animals, like babies, cannot speak. As such, acts of abuse and neglect may go unnoticed, except by caring visitors to homes. Worse yet, sadism and brutality against companion animals are often hidden from the public's eye.

Animals   have   been   our   companions,   guards,   slaves, entertainers   (cinema,   fighting   and   display),   objects   of vivisection   (animal   experimentation),   non-paid   soldiers, traction workers (pulling), worship, toys, objects of displaced aggression, hoarding, consumption, aphrodisiacs (by-products).

Humans  have  literally  conquered  the  "animal  world".

Countless deep sea creatures cannot evade the human pollution of the  oceans.  In  addition,  discovered  and  undiscovered  animal species in remaining forests are on borrowed time. Wildlife can neither run humanity. Our weapons can take down anything that is alive. _

Ten billion animals area slaughtered annually for food in the U.S. This does not include what is taken from the water. Over  90  percent  of  slaughtered  animals  are  from  the  poultry sector.

Worldwide, over fifty billion animals are slaughtered each year for food. Furthermore, billions of animals are extracted from  oceans,  seas,  lakes,  rivers  and  ponds.  Much  of  what  is extracted  from  the  oceans  is  by-catch  (non-intended  catches; usually tossed back into the sea).

Tuna  nets  are  responsible  for  the  killing  of  countless dolphins every year. Thankfully, new and improved dolphin safe nets  are  on  the  market.  However,  this  new  discovery  is  not universal. The shrimp industry is responsible for the most by- catch killings.

Large-scale  meat  eating  in  what  was  to  later  become  the U.S.  began  in  the  Massachusetts  Bay  Colony.  Salted  pork  was placed in large barrels for storage and sale.

In  1641,  the  Massachusetts  Bay  Colony  enacted  the  first animal  cruelty  statute.  Article  92,  called  the  "Body  of Liberties". This law forbade any person from exercising cruelty or tyranny unto an animal that is used by "man".

This  law,  incredible  for  its  time,  was  enacted  only  two decades after the Mayflower landed on Plymouth Rock.

This however, did not stop the large-scale trail drives pr the establishment of the gigantic slaughtering facilities. The most famous of which was the Chicago Union Stockyards.

Factory farms carry the highest number of food animals. The future may see multi-level factory farms. Larger areas of land cost more; this is a big business.

"AGRIBIGNESS" is in the business of making money. Factory farms hold units, or 'singular-stocks" not living creatures.

In addition to meat, humans use the skins, eggs, milk, fat, enzymes, hair, fur, teeth, eyes, testicles, bones, bone marrow, tongues, entrails, brains, heart, blood, fecal matter, urine and semen of animals.

Regarding factory farms, the sheer quantity of output makesit  quite  difficult  to  go slow  and  easy  with  each  and  every slaughtering (workers can't take their time).

Many people still  believe that factory farm animals live normal animal lives. People need to know the truth. It's the consumer who brings in the money.

Factory farmed animals end up nicely packaged into "pretty"pink-red, red, or white slabs that can be cooked into edible food. We prefer to see the "packaged version" of the slaughtered animals._

The Chicago Union Stockyards (CUSY) was established in 1865 to feed millions of Americans. Even then, America was a powerful nation with a growing population.

The CUSY encompassed nearly one square mile. In the CUSY, labourers  unloaded  animals  directly  into  the  facility  for slaughtering, canning and then packing.

Over twenty five thousand people were employed in Chicago's meatpacking  industry.  It  would  eventually  reach  forty  five thousand.

The CUSY was responsible for "meat-feeding" eighty percent of America. Americans as a whole still love meat.

Rapid  technological  advances  during  the  1870's  helped  to bring forth refrigerated transport. We can thank a genius named Gustav Swift for developing the first refrigerated railroad car. Processed meat could be shipped long distances. Prior to this remarkable  invention,  animals  were  transported  live.  Meat producers now had a choice.

Refrigerated  freight  cars  could  be  "parked"  at  loading docks to be filled with meats to be transported vast distances.

Although  the  CUSY  improved  the  assembly  line  system  of processing,  it  was  in  Cincinnati  that  this  process  was  first used. The famed Henry Ford discovered the use of the assembly line of production from the slaughterhouse operations.

In  the  CUSY  many  thousands  of  carcasses  (regardless  of shape,  weight,  or  size)  could  be  processed  quickly.  Overhead rails were used to move large carcasses from station to station. This method is still being used in many slaughterhouses.

Not  surprisingly,  work  in  this  environment  is  potentially harmful  to  labourers  and  seriously  compromises  animal  welfare protections of animals. CUSY labourers had to work 'too fast". Brutality to animals was the norm.

Knockers used sledge hammers to smash the heads of large animals. Sometimes, several blows were needed to knock out or kill an animal. The knocker had to hit a homerun on the first blow.

Women  at  the  CSU  comprised  twenty  percent  of  the  labour force.  They  performed  jobs  that  required  dexterity  (canning, packaging and cleaning the entrails). These women had to work at lightning speed.

Accidents   during   canning,   cutting,   and   cleaning   were commonplace. The repetitive motions on their hands and fingers resulted in pain; sometimes lifetime injuries.

In order to induce the women workers to work harder and faster, bonuses were given for extra canning. _

CUSY  labourers  were  hard-working  individuals  who  fed millions of people. Many of the workers had no alternative job offers.  It  was  a  tough  period  for  many  of  America's  new desperate immigrants.

Soon  afterwards,  ethnic  tensions  at  the  CUSY  and  nearby Chicago neighbourhoods reached a boiling point.

Ethnic groups at the CUSY were stereotyped. Members of a 'specific" ethnic group were assigned to work at a designated station.   This   is   sometimes   referred   to   as   'ethnic compartmentalization".

Today,   many   Latino   migrants   (Mexicans   and   Central Americans) are moving to small town America. Desperate for work, these Latino migrants end up working in slaughterhouses, factory farms  or  as  farm  labourers.  Work  conditions  are  usually deplorable.   With   no    medical   care,   systemic   racism, discrimination  and  no  benefits  they  are  at  the  mercy  of employers. Regardless of what we think of their work; they are hard-working,  performing  duties  that  almost  none  of  us  would consider doing.

At  the  CUSY  seniority  meant  nothing  and  re-instatement after  a  layoff  was  never  assured.  Foremen  held  incredible leverage over their workers. Foremen could, and often did, abuse their workers. The  atmosphere lacked mercy and compassion  for labourers and animals alike.

CUSY labourers worked in and around blood, sweat, stench, maggots,  rats,  animal  droppings,  shrieks,  and  brutality.  The 'slaughterhouse  stench"  could"ve  killed  a  lion.  The  stench extended into the surrounding neighbourhood.

Cold Chicago winters, hot and humid summers, increased the difficulty of working in the CUSY. Employees worked up to twelve hours a day with inadequate rest periods.

Slaughterhouse workers at the CUSY included Germans, Slavs, visible minorities (blacks and Hispanics).

Because  of  a  continuous  supply  of  new  immigrants  to  the Chicago area, CUSY slaughterhouse workers were disposable.

This caused ferocious power struggles between the workers and management, ethnic groups, and strike breakers.

Conditions for the CUSY labourers improved with the passing of the National Labour Relations Act of 1935 (NLRA). In theory, this act enabled labourers to form and join unions without being unjustly  persecuted,  intimidated,  or  otherwise  harmed  by  the management.

The  National  Labour  Relations  Board  (1935)  was  formed  by Congress to direct the NLRA. Although this was a step forward for the protection of labourers and their right to form unions, there were subsequent attempts by management to weaken it.

The CUSY labourers were better off with the NLRA. Not well off though, only better off.

Corporate giants often use vertical integration to ensure bigger  profits  and  expanded  control  over  the  process.  In vertical integration large corporations provide their own feed, land space, cleanup, and distribution (delivery). In horizontal integration there are other players in the system. The latter is the essence of the old time family farm.

Corporate food giants move into an area then eliminate or reduce small family farming. The system can be somewhat cold and impersonal.

Working  in  a  hectic-paced  meat  packing  plant  is  very difficult, even in today's world. Get the job done, over and over again.

Today  many  illegal  or  ethnic  slaughterhouse  workers  are intimidated; sometimes even having to hold back their urge to urinate or defecate while working. Some workers have had to "do it" in their pants. Externally, line workers may be sprinkled with blood, poop, and sweat.

Other  problems  include  cuts,  abrasions,  over-exhaustion, generalized anxiety, racism, discrimination, little or no legal recrimination, little or no worker's compensation, frustration, ambivalence,  confusion,  apathy,  anger,  fear  of  deportation (illegal  aliens),  language  barrier,  cultural  barrier,  and  a general public that doesn't know the truth, and often doesn't want to either.

The southern American States are presently the most popular destination  for  Latino  factory  farm  workers.  Chicken  catchers must  be  fast,  hard-working,  alert  at  all  times,  and  can  be speckled  or  smeared  with  dirt,  feathers,  dust,  chemicals, squashed maggots and insects, fecal matter (bird and  rodent), larvae, feed, blood, and other gooey stuff.

At work, a cutting instrument must be the correct sharpness and the handle must be firmly grasped.

Unfortunately  this  is  not  always  the  case.  Cutting instruments are sometimes too sharp or too dull. Finger and hand accidents result in serious lacerations or horrible amputations. Furthermore, the fast-paced repetitive motions of the cutting, hoisting,  pulling,  twisting,  chopping,  and  yanking  can  cause wrist  or  wrist  and  hand  problems.  Most  North  Americans  would never do this kind of work.

The late Upton Sinclair a once well-known novelist visited the CUSY. He saw, smelled, and noted the horrors in the CUSY. Later, Sinclair wrote a "fictionalized version" of the CUSY and general  slaughterhouse  conditions  of  the  United  States.  His book,  'the  Jungle"  was  a  smashing  hit.  The  American  public reacted with shock and outrage at how 'gruesome' meat could be processed, then packaged and sold to them._

Much  of  the  meat  sold  at  the  time  was  infested  and contaminated. Rat droppings, fecal matter, and other disgusting matter was in the meat supply.

The U.S. Government was 'pressured" into passing the Pure Food and Drug Act (PFDA), and the Beef Inspection Act (BIA). Without the public outcry, there would have been no government action; at least not then and there.

The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 paved the way to the creation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The FDA is responsible with testing foods and drugs.

Prescriptions were required for the purchase of what was later  to  be  called  'prescription  medication"  or  "prescription drugs".

The physician prescribing the medication had to be licensed. In addition, addictive drugs had to be labelled as such. The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 (MIA), set required standards for animals before  slaughter.  Any  animal  that  was  slaughtered  could  be inspected by government workers post mortem. Slaughterhouses and processing plants were required to maintain an acceptable level of cleanliness. In theory it was the government that decided the acceptable standard.

Contemporary  slaughterhouses  are  killing  more  animals  at higher speeds. In  effect, less humane measures and occasional abbreviated inspections are commonplace.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), under the  Reagan  Administration,  granted  factory  farm  owners  and administrators  "increased  self-inspection"  rights.  In  effect, they  were  given  more  "freedom"  to  violate  slaughterhouse animals' rights and process polluted meat.

Today's food giants include Tyson Foods, Maple Leaf Foods, Pilgrim's Pride, Smithfield Foods, Iowa Beef Products, and Wayne Farms LLC.

Organizations that espouse either a "no animal use" or a "humane animal use" philosophy include animal rights and animal welfare organizations.

Animal  rights  activists  (ARAs)  and  organizations  may espouse  a  vegan,  vegetarian,  lacto  vegetarian  (dairy  and vegetables),  or  lacto-ovo-vegetarian  (dairy,  fish,  vegetables) diets. The most liberal animal rightists espouse a no animal use philosophy.

The  Vegetarian  Society  based  in  the  UK  is  the  oldest recorded vegetarian organization in the world.

Animal welfare organizations, in general, espouse a humane use   of   animals,   including   legislation   and   enforcement.

Individuals and organizations may use morality, ethics, health, empathy,  personal  philosophy,  and/or  religion  as  a  grid  in determining where they stand regarding animal use.

On the far left of the Animal rights sector total animal liberation is espoused. The Animal Liberation Front is a good example of this movement.

Richard  Ryder,  a  notable  psychologist,  coined  the  term 'speciesism"   to   describe   our   'superiority   feelings"   and "attitudes" towards the animal kingdom.

The   distinguished   Australian   philosopher   and   animal protectionist,  Peter  Singer,  helped  to  spread  the  term  of 'speceism". Singer's book Animal Liberation was a big hit. It helped to re-invigorate the animal protectionist movement.

The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), a department within  the  USDA  is  assigned  to  ensure  that  America's  meat, poultry, and egg products are safe and wholesome enough for the public to consume. Wholesomeness inspection is mandatory while quality grading is voluntary.

The FSIS employs nearly 9,400 full-time career employees. Whatever it costs to sustain this department is well-worth it in tax dollars. Helping to assure a safe meat and poultry supply is mandatory for any nation.

The entry-level  inspectors are responsible for  inspecting the animals before and after slaughter. But there are too many slaughterhouses, too many animals  and too many violations  and not enough funding. In defence of the USDA and FSIS America's meat and egg supply has been relatively safe. If you take into consideration the magnanimous levels of meat and egg consumption you'll agree with my statement.

Plant  operations  work  at  a  hectic  pace.  Inspectors  are sometimes  reluctant  to  stop  the  operation  if  they  see  a violation. It takes time to analyze the violation and file the official report.

Depending  on  the  plant,  workers  and  supervisors  may  not take too kindly to inspectors who hold-up the operations. There have  been  cases  of  inspectors  being  intimidated.  Inspectors should  be  given  more  authority.  Plant  operators  must  respect FSIS inspectors, so that these same inspectors can do their job without any obstacles.

On January 28, 2008, Ed Schafer was officially sworn in as the new Secretary of the USDA.

On May 15, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln established a Department of Agriculture.

In creating the USDA President Lincoln had good intent and foresight. America was rapidly expanding in population and size.

The  pilgrims  had  a  strong  appetite  for  meat,  milk,  and eggs. They were no different than much of the world. In those days, there was no assembly-line-style of animal  slaughter or meatpacking on a grand scale. Animals were generally slaughtered one  at  a  time.  It  all  came  down  to  the  sharpness  of  the instrument,  the  talent  of  the  butcher,  and  the  luck  of  the animal.

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is the Canadian counterpart  to  the  USDA.  There  are  over  6,000  employees stationed  in   field  offices,  laboratories,  and  processing facilities.

The  CFIA  is  assigned  the  duty  of  safeguarding  food, animals, and plants that improve the health and well-being of Canadians.

On   a   positive   note,   the   USDA   and   the   CFIA   have comprehensive   websites.   "Polite   inquiries"   are   answered politely. Their British counterpart is The U.K. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs.

Worst case scenarios for food animals in factory farms or slaughterhouses  includes  kicking,  beating,  tossing,  throwing (poultry  industry),  de-horning,  skinning  (sometimes  while  the animal   is   still   conscious),   amputation   (blunt   or   sharp instrument, sometimes while the animal is still alive), ear or tail twisting, scalding, or castration (without anaesthesia).

"Chicken eating" in America got a big boost with Herbert Hoover's 1928 campaign promise of having a chicken in every pot.

Today,  processed  chicken  has  engulfed  North  America.

Popular  foods  like  chicken  nuggets,  chicken  fingers,  breasts, paddies,  wings,  thighs,  steak,  filets,  broth,  strips,  soup, stir-fry,  hot  dogs,  gravy,  chicken  pot  pie,  salami,  bologna, salad,  and  burgers  can  be  found  in  supermarkets  across  North America.

During the Second World War, The War Food Administration did not ration chicken. Their "brethren" the pigeons, immensely aided the Allied War effort, especially for the British who sent messages across the English Channel.

Fast food chicken products are usually loaded with fat and salt. Never mind the fries, mayo, sauce, and other garnish.

Still,  most  fast  food  chicken  products  are  very  tasty.

Manufacturers understand the consumers" palate. Chickens set for transfer to a slaughtering facility may be yanked  from  their  cages.  Often,  the  chicken  'inadvertently' leaves part of its body behind, like a toe or more. Afterwards, these chickens are  manhandled then tossed into a box or cage inside the transport vehicle.

Larger animals, like steer, can be enticed to move along by being kicked and/or prodded. They're too big and heavy to be snatched, hoisted, or thrown by a human.

Bovine Spongiform Encaphalopy (BSE) or Mad Cow Disease is a communicable brain disease (in cattle) that causes degeneration and is fatal. BSE has an incubation period of up to 5 years in cattle; longer for humans. An infected animal can transmit BSE to others. Potential for a wide-scale catastrophe is there. Thus far, we"ve been lucky.

BSE first appeared in the United Kingdom, in 1986. Infected feed  (containing  brain,  spinal  cord)  was  the  avenue  of transmission.  Feed  should  never  contain  rendered  meat  or  any other  product  animals  shouldn't  eat.  People  who  eat  BSE contaminated  meat  are  at  risk  of  acquiring  Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Windowless poultry sheds can contain over 100,000 chickens. The chickens receive no rest breaks, natural sunshine, freedom to  move  about,  forage,  or  dust-bathe.  Chickens  expectedly  go nuts in these hell holes. Contrast this with the turn of the 20th century where farm chickens in the U.S. were free-roaming.

Chickens were first domesticated 9,000 years ago in China and India. Intensive farming of chickens saw a major upswing in the late 1950's. Large chicken farms began to spring-up in the U.S. Although factory farming of chickens began in the 1930s the 1950's  was  when  the  number  of  chickens  in  chicken  farmsexploded.

Chickens  could  no  longer  be  personalized.  The  pace  of operations accelerated considerably. Chickens in factory farms were  routinely  brutally  snatched  from  their  cages,  tossed, thrown,  kicked,  and  chocked.  In  addition,  transport  distances were lengthened; no food, water, veterinary care, or temperature regulation.

The broiler chicken industry first took hold in the Delamar Region  (Delaware,  Virginia,  Maryland),  during  the  1950's. Broilers  are  housed  for  up  to  7  weeks,  before  slaughter. Broilers"  cages  or  enclosures  are  tiny;  leaving  each  chicken trapped, unable to stretch its wings.

Because  broilers  are  raised  to  attain  "extreme  size", they're too big to move around. Chickens need to move around, spread their wings, dust bathe, and eat whenever and whereverthey need to.

Broilers  are  raised  for  meat,  not  for  eggs.  Housed  in window-less  sheds,  surrounded  by  filth,  chemicals,  death, disease, and ammonia from dried up urine.

The horrible conditions result in immense pain, agony, and torment for every single live broiler. Many go mad.

The system is fast-paced, cruel, and automated. Everything is   regulated;   food,   water,   temperature,   waste   disposal, chemicals, lighting, life, antibiotics, and ventilation.

Broilers  legs  are  too  weak  to  sustain  their  unnaturally large bodies. Imagine trying to walk around with the legs of a stork. Also, imagine being forced to  stand up  day and night.

Broilers" legs become deformed.

Broilers  who  can't  sustain  their  own  weight  simply collapse. Unnatural weight causes many broilers to die of heart attacks.

Dead chickens are callously taken away by  farm workers to be tossed away or used as low grade food; maybe soup, or rendered (recycled as chicken feed).

In order to prevent chicken-to-chicken aggression roosters have their soft, tender beaks sliced off with a hot blade. This ensures that they don't peck at each other.

If the blade isn't hot enough or the slice isn't perfect, the broiler is assured increased pain. The hectic pace makes the use of pain killers non-viable. Bulbous swellings and infections are common. Antibiotics are used to help prevent infection.

This  hectic  pace  of  the  poultry  industry  doesn't  permit slow  calculated  movements  by  the  line  workers.  One  ailing chicken will never stop the process.

Chickens may have their claws or part of their toes sliced off  to  inhibit  aggression.  If  part  of  the  toe  of  a  chicken 'encrusts' itself on the wiring, it poses another problem.

When  these  chickens  are  yanked  out  of  their  cages,  the encrusted flesh stays put.

Chickens in the wild live according to a pecking order. In cramped cages, social behaviour becomes twisted, and extremely brutal.

'Recessive chickens' can't run or hide. This category of chickens ends up being brutalized by cage mates. Also, they tend to occupy the worst part of the cage, smothered, or unable to eat and drink enough to stay alive. Stronger and larger chickens don't have mercy on their weaker cage mates; the strong live, while the weak die.

Chickens  are  cheaper  than  the  cages  they"re  put  in. Therefore,  the  system  can  sacrifice  many  lives,  because  many more will survive. The surviving ones will bring in most of the money. As stated earlier, even the dead ones can also bring in money.

Breeding roosters live their lives in a state of hunger. They peck excessively at anything they can and to try to get something into their empty stomachs.

A device called a NOZBONZ is used by some poultry farms. This device is shoved into roosters' noses (without anaesthesia) from one side to the other then left there. The purpose of the NOZBONZ is to stop roosters from sticking their heads into the cages or feeding troughs of other chickens. In essence, they"re being prevented and punished for behaving like roosters.

Poultry farms housing egg producing chickens have no need for the male chicks. Male chicks" flesh is of lower quality.

Upon birth, the male chicks are tossed into a bag, where they"re  suffocated.  Or  they  can  be  thrown  into  a  chicken grinder. Either way, they"re treated as disposable chickens.

Chickens in overcrowded sheds endure extreme thirst. Owners  want  to  save  on  water  bills  and  cleaning  times.  More water means increased watery stools.

Lights in chicken sheds are turned on 23 hours a day. When the lights are on the chickens are in "production mode". The one hour or so of no lighting is not for the chickens" benefit. It's a safety precaution in case there's a sudden blackout.

Chickens that have never been in the dark will go berserk during a sudden blackout.

Countless  chickens  that  are  taken  to  the  slaughterhouse suffer from broken bones and severe bruises. They're routinely manhandled, tossed into tiny, filthy, boxes for transport.

Right   before   slaughter   chickens   are   sent   through electrically  charged  water.  Because  of  the  hectic  pace  their throats may not be properly cut at the time of slaughter.

Forced molting is the process of starving chickens in order to  alter  (enhance,  increase)  the  egg-laying  cycle.  The  word "molting"  originally  meant  the  natural  replacement  of  old feathers with new ones. A normal replacement of feathers occurs during the course of a year. Forced molting can last up to 2 weeks. Up to 7 million chickens are molted each year in the U.S.

Molted chickens are given  high  doses of antibiotics.  The doses  cause  side  effects  that  can  be  dangerous  to  chickens' natural immunity, especially when the drugs are withdrawn. These chickens  suffer  from  immense  pain,  agony,  and  frustration. Overcrowding, over-flowing excrement, lack of freedom, stimulus overload,  unnatural  lighting,  callous  workers,  and  not  being able to breathe clean air, take their toll. Ammonia from urine, fecal matter, dust, chemical pollution, blood, discharges, and death stink up the chicken sheds.

Build-up  of  excrement,  rotting  flesh,  and  disease  cause toxic fumes to 'engulf' the interior of the chicken sheds. Many chickens develop heart and lung problems. The ever-presence of mice,  rats,  flies,  parasites,  and  the  fecal  matter  of  the aforementioned aggravate matters.

These creatures must eat. Caged chickens in infested sheds have nowhere to run or hide. Other problems include salmonella, swollen head syndrome, and fatty liver syndrome.

School hatching programs began in the 1950's, probably to glamorize the factory farming of chickens. Pre-teens and their teachers place fertilized eggs in classroom incubators. Twenty five  days  later  the  eggs  hatch.  Children  make  a  connection between the incubator and the hatchings.

Pigs in the wild can choose to play and roll in mud for pleasure,  to  cool  off,  and  to  protect  themselves  from  nasty insects. Pigs are intelligent, social animals. They also have a pecking order and can be extremely nasty to each other at times, even cannibalistic. Being out in the open field is not always an animal paradise.

Electronic sow feeding involves dozens to several hundred sows that are housed together and individually fed in high-tech computer food stations.

What is proposed in this book is an improvement in housing, feeding, and slaughter of food animals. Animal welfare standards should  encompass  all  food  species.  This  cannot  be  done overnight.  The  use  of  animals  is  an  essential  part  of  human existence.  It  will  never  end,  regardless   of  what  some individuals and organizations think.

Over  100  million  hogs  are  slaughtered  every  year  in  the United States  producing twenty billion pounds of pork, almost all of it for food. Roughly 80 percent of America's pig farms produce more than 5000 hogs per year.

Canada  and  Denmark  are  large  exporters  of  pork.  Current trends  indicate  that  the  numbers  of  slaughtered  hogs  will increase.  It's  a  multi-billion  dollar   industry  employing (directly or indirectly) hundreds of thousands of persons.  In high  concentration  hog  farms,  most  hogs  spend  much  of  their lives inside sheds or other enclosures.

Small  town  family  farms  are  disappearing  from  the  North American  landscape.  Factory  farm  style  establishments  have already begun their encroachment into the Third World. There are an estimated 500 million farmed pigs in China. If you eat you must defecate.

The  Government  of  China  has  a  notorious  reputation  for dumping waste with little or no consideration for the potential harm.

Pigs  in  factory  farms  are  unable  to  breathe  clean  air, exercise, or wallow in mud. Wallowing in mud is important to pigs because they don't sweat. The ammonia in the air can cause lung and heart problems. Many pigs that reach the slaughterhouse suffer from pneumonia.

Pigs used for breeding are called breeding sows. They"re locked into gestation crates. Gestation crates are often so tiny the breeding sow can only stand and lie down. In worse cases, the sow can't properly lie down.

The reasoning behind this is to protect the piglets from being inadvertently crushed by their mother. Also, the piglets can be nursed at will. Breeding sows that move less gain weight faster. Some pig producers are beginning to breed for less fat and more muscle; a healthier pig for the consumer.

Over  two  thirds  of  the  6  million  breeding  sows  in  the United States spend seventy percent of their adult lives locked inside tiny gestation crate.

Large doses of antibiotics must be given to the breeding sows to prevent medical problems.

Muscle  atrophy,  lameness,  digestive  system  problems,  and mastitis are common problems.

The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) supports the use of gestation crates. Gestation crates are an anathema to animals'  overall  physical  and  mental  health.  Gestation  crates are an example of "immobility-incarceration".

Piglets who survive the first three weeks of life are taken away  from  their  mothers  to  a  feeding  pen  where  they"re castrated, have their tales sliced off, ears notched, and teeth ground down, without anaesthesia.

Tail  docking  and  teeth  grinding  are  done  to  prevent aggression  amongst  pigs,  like  tail  biting  and  the  biting  of other body parts too. The pigs are reacting to the circumstances of their environment.

Many pigs don't see the light of day until transport to the slaughterhouse, which is usually far away. Transport is cramped, filthy, tiny, and little or no protection is provided from the elements. Winter transport results in the death of some of the pigs being transferred. After collapsing, their bodies may begin to freeze onto the side railing or the floor. Transport laws regarding maximum number of hours on the road and rest periods are quite difficult to adequately enforce. It all depends on the owners.

All transport is not horrible though. Some livestock owners are  more  humane  than  others.  However,  in  large-scale,  fast operations, humanity is the exception not the prevalent rule.

Line workers in slaughterhouse plants use metallic hooks or electric prods to encourage hogs onto transport trailers. When used, the device is plunged into flesh, resulting in the hog's encouragement to load onto the transport trailer's ramp. Because the  hogs  have  lived  rough  lives,  they  may  be  resistant  to boarding  the  trailer  ramp.  But  once  inside  the  transport vehicle,  the  hogs  are  sandwiched  into  a  tiny  area.  They  can suffer from breathing, internal, or rectal problems. Sandwiching ensures maximum transport at minimum expense.

There  have  been  cases  of  hogs  being  squashed  so  badly, their guts actually pop out. Hog trailers are recognizable from the  powerful  stench,  and  the  protruding  snouts  that  are searching for clean air and freedom.

Slaughter  of  pigs  is  preceded  by  being  stunned  with  a captive bolt gun. Aim and accuracy are never guaranteed.

In  Islam  and  Judaism  the  animal  must  be  fully  conscious during  slaughter.  The  animal  must  not  appear  sickly  during slaughter.

While pigs are on the conveyer hooks, they scream, shriek, struggle, and kick. Afterwards, the pigs are sent to a scalding tank. The scalding is supposed to make skinning easier. Under optimal  conditions  it  doesn't  pose  a  problem.  Unfortunately, some pigs are still alive during the scalding phase.

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), a French chemist, invented the process  of  pasteurization  (heating  food  in  order  to  destroy harmful organisms). Although this lead to many improvements in food  safety  and  longevity,  it  was  really  Franz  non  Soxhlet (1848-1926), a Belgian chemist, who first applied pasteurization on milk. As a result milk can be stored for longer periods of time. Unfortunately, Soxhlet has been forgotten.

Under normal circumstances, cows can live to twenty  five years. Dairy cows in large operations are used for 3 or 4 years then are sent to the slaughterhouse. Dairy cows normally produce 10  pounds  of  milk  per  day.  In  order  to  increase  milk  output Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH) is injected into the dairy cows. BGH is a synthetic hormone that alters the normal milk production patterns and quantities for dairy cows. Cows can produce up to 100  pounds  of  milk  per  day.  BGH  can  cause  birth  defects  in calves.

Cows  have  a  gestation  period  of  9  months.  Increase  in yields calls for a cow to give birth once a year. The repeated birth  cycles  can  cause  milk  fever;  dairy  cows  can't  produce enough calcium to compensate for the rapid birth cycle.

Milk is mainly consumed as a liquid, sliced into cheeses, ice cream, butter, yogurt, coffee cream, and as part of a cereal snack or meal.

Veal production using the standard method cannot be humane.

The  mothers  of  veal  calves  are  dairy  producers.  Their  male calves are taken away from them soon after birth. As a result, there's no time to form a true loving bond between mother and son. Bob veal is a veal calf that is taken away for slaughter shortly after birth.

Veal calves are sent to special open pens, where they"ll spend the next 16 weeks inside a tiny pen. In inhumane farms they're incarcerated, usually chained, given a milk substitute lacking in iron, forced to live in darkness, and are deprived of sufficient water.

Consumers expect their veal meat to be tender, pale pink or white in color. Not being able to move around causes the veal calves to lose muscle mass and tone, thereby tenderizing their flesh.  A  state  of  sub-clinical  anaemia  develops,  causing  the flesh  to  appear  pale.  The  deprivation  of  water  causes  veal calves  to  drink  more  of  the  milk  substitute.  Since  the  milk substitute is not water, the veal calves live their lives in a state  of  unending  thirst.  Like  other  factory  farmed  animals, veal calves are given high doses of antibiotics.

The  darkness  in  the  sheds  causes  veal  calves  to  control their  movements.  In  the  past,  veal  calves  only  weighed  a fraction of what they do today.

In Holland a new technique was discovered that caused the fattening  of  veal  calves.  This  resulted  in  pain,  boredom  (no playing, grass, sunshine, or just running around), for 16 weeks.

Today, veal calves can weigh up to 400 lbs.

The craving for iron causes veal calves to lick their own urine and rust off the metallic bars in their stalls. Wooden boards  are  used  in  their  stalls  to  prevent  veal  calves  from licking the iron off the rust.

Today more veal producers are using less cruel methods of rearing their calves. Calves may be placed near their mothers longer and water is given. It's up to the consumer to find out where  the  purchased  meat  comes  from  and  the  circumstances  of rearing, transport, and slaughter. Contact an animal protection organization in your area, or a nationally known one.

Most animal protection organizations in are more than happy to answer your inquiries. If you need a guide or a helping hand, check the INFORMATION BOOTH Section of this book.

Steers are bulls that have been castrated. Castration is usually  done  quickly  and  without  anaesthesia.  De-horning  and branding are also common. Be aware, branding an animal's face can cause severe eye or facial damage.

Today  OPTIBRAND  absolute  traceability  collects  retinal images for purposes of identifying and tracing livestock.

Although the animal must be restrained for the procedure, it's painless. The animal resists out of fear not pain.

Steers are  usually fed low quality feed in order to cut expenses. Even paper, manure, and rendered meat have been used.

Hormones are administered to steers for the enhancement of growth; anything to make a buck.

Branding is the act of heating a marker on the hide of a livestock  animal.  Branding  helps  protect  steer  owners  from theft. Thankfully, branding is being phased out through the use of tagging and modern techniques of identification.

If  used,  branding  includes  capital  letters,  symbols, numbers,  or  combinations  thereof.  Ear  tagging  and  radio frequency identification tagging are making headway.

'Beef  animals'  have  been  an  important  part  of  American history.  The  American  trail  drives  changed  the  face  of  the continental  United  States.  Cattle  herds,  sometimes  exceeding 2,000  head  each  were  taken  to  richer  grazing  sites  and/or railheads.

Railheads were the end of rails, or places where military supplies  were  dropped  off.  Long  trail  drives  from  Texas  to Kansas, or from Texas to lands further north, took a few months to complete.

Stampedes  (often  at  night-time),  severe  weather,  cattle rustlers, problems with settlers, crossing Indian lands, river crossings, and exhaustion of the cattle hands and cattle were problems to be dealt with.

Every  worker  in  the  trail  drive  had  to  be  tough  and dedicated. The man in charge was the trail boss.

The  cook  drove  the  chuck  wagon  (containing  food  and necessary  supplies),  performed  rudimentary  medical  care,  and helped  make  the  cattle  hands  feel  at  ease.  The  cook  told interesting stories, relaxing the hands.

Trail drives had four main checkpoints. The point man roden in front of the herd, while the flank riders rode on the left and  right  sides,  and  the  dragsiders  rode  in  the  back  of  the herd. Dragsiders had the most difficult job because dust from the trailing of cattle would be jettisoned in their faces.

During the night, one or more hands were chosen to slowly ride around the herd in order to keep it in check. This activity helped prevent many but not all stampedes.

As  soon  as  a  stampede  began  the  cattle  hands  shot  onto their horses and got to work trying to control the herd. When the  dust  cleared,  it  was  expected  that  a  few  head  of  cattle would unaccounted for.

Trail taggers, tagged along trail drives. They waited on the  peripheral  of  the  herd  for  a  chance  to  snatch  a  stray animal/s. Trail taggers came in two forms; human or animal. The former was more formidable and quite dangerous at times.

These  fellows  were  nothing  but  low-down  thieves  bent  on getting free cattle. Potential for the use of deadly force was in the air. Trail drivers were ready for gun battles if need be.

The  Chisholm  Trail,  Pecos  Trail,  and  Santa  Fe  Trail  are embedded in American History.

The Chisholm Trail was likely named after Jesse Chisholm. Chisholm was a mix of European and Cherokee blood.

In  1866,  Chisholm  took  his  "heavy  wagon"  through  Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) to Wichita, Kansas. The wheels of his wagon  dug  deep  grooves  into  the  ground,  thereby  leaving  a visible trail. Cattle drivers, traders, and travellers used this trail for nearly 20 years. Many historians of the era agree that the Chisholm Trail was the most famous of them all.

Trail  drives  brought  about  incredible  sales.  These  sales were an important source of income for the broke and dilapidated South, following the civil war.

Most Americans aren't aware of this fact. The northerners received  much  of  their  beef,  while  the  southerners  received their monies; a truly symbiotic relationship had begun.

The appetite for beef has continued unabated with billions upon  billions  of  burgers  having  been  sold  in  North  America alone.

As a general rule, fast food and mall food stand burgers are affordable. Unlike the burger, foie gras is an uppity food.

Foie gras is a French word meaning fatty liver. Foie gras is a specialty item in high class restaurants. Customers pay big bucks to eat this so-called delicacy.

Sadly, this food item is produced in an inhumane manner. Unlike  some  other  meat  items,  foie  gras  cannot  be  produced humanely.

The  force  feeding  of  ducks  was  first  practiced  by  the ancient Egyptians 4,000 years ago. Today, we're supposed to be a more civilized.

Ducks  in  foie  gras  farms  are  forced  to  accept  enormous quantities of foods (corn is the principal ingredient), through a steel tube that's shoved down their throats twice a day. Food is literally pumped down their throats. The ducks can't struggle because their necks are firmly held in place by a worker.

The idea is to make the ducks super obese. The ducks take the shape of giant pears, without the stump. Foie gras ducks are unable to properly support themselves with their legs.

Throat,  digestive,  and  in  particular,  liver  problems develop. Incredibly, their livers may swell up to ten times the normal size. No anaesthesia is used throughout the process. This horrible delicacy should be banned altogether.

People  in  the  foie  gras  business  have  found  ways  to circumvent the law. If production of foie gras is made illegal in  a  particular  country  or  jurisdiction,  the  ban  on  the importation of foie gras requires another law, or an addendum to the original law. Thereafter, enforcement must be stringent.

For example, it's illegal to force feed ducks in Poland, but  foie  gras  is  imported  from  France  into  Poland  in  large quantities.

Other  European  countries  have  danced  to  this  tune  also; fooling their citizens, but not the ducks.

In 2005, foie gras production became illegal in Israel.

Prior to the Supreme Court decision, Israel was a big supplier of foie gras.

Foie gras is illegal in Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Turkey; California  (Goes  into  effect  in  2012;  sale  and  production  of foie gras becomes illegal).

Foie gras cholesterol level is very high. The name says it all, fatty liver.

Like  their  chicken  brethren,  factory  farmed  turkeys  are placed together by the thousands in long, dimly-lit sheds.

North Americans eat turkeys by the millions; thanksgiving and to a lesser extent Christmas is a favourite time of year to eat turkey.

Poults  (turkey  chicks)  spend  six  weeks  in  special  brood homes. Alone, they must fend for themselves and reach for food and water without the aid of their mothers.

Countless poults die from disease, starvation, and extreme stress.

In  order  to  curb  cannibalism,  feather  plucking,  and pecking, turkey chicks are de-beaked, without anaesthesia.

Turkeys for consumption have been bred to have large breast size.  Turkey  breast  meat  is  the  consumers"  favourite.  The turkeys grow so fast they can't support their own weight.

Turkey hens used for breeding are artificially inseminated. This  process  is  painful  and  terrifying  for  the  turkey  hens. Because of their incredible size and oftentimes deformed bodies, male turkeys in factory farms can't properly mount a turkey hen. The  male's  chest  cavity  is  too  large,  thereby  adversely affecting the natural mounting capabilities of the male turkey.

As soon as turkeys have attained selling weight they're promptly packed together in crates then sent to the slaughterhouse.

At  the  slaughterhouse  they're  hung  upside  down  by  their legs, readied for slaughter. After being slashed, they're tossed into a scalding tank. The scalding water is supposed to remove the feathers. Every turkey is not dead at the time of scalding.

Lobsters are sold as delicacies. They're placed inside tiny aquariums.  The  lobster  must  be  cooked  alive  for  up  to  two minutes. Waste matter from lobsters in aquariums is negligible compared to what is emanated from factory farms.

Massive  quantities  of  waste  matter  are  accumulated  from factory farms. Waste matter from factory farmed animals is high in  nitrogen.  When  nitrogen  seeps  into  the  air  it  becomes ammonia. Too much ammonia in the air is harmful to those who breathe  it.  Not  only  are  the  animals  and  factory  workers  at risk, but also the surrounding neighbourhoods.

A large factory farm can accumulate more waste matter than a human city. Waste matter is stored, dumped, or spread by rain. As a result, many rivers and lakes have been polluted; some of them irreparably.

The  Bush  Administration  signed  an  agreement  that  gave factory farms more flexibility in violating clear air standards. In  addition,  these  same  factory  farms  were  forgiven  of  past fines and violations. Factory farms were requested  to monitor their pollution levels and furnish the results to the Federal Government.

America's  population  is  over  4  percent  of  the  world's population however, America produces 25 percent of the world's greenhouse gas emissions.

AGRIBIGNESS has powerful allies in government. Otherwise, many factory farm owners would be paying heavy fines and seeing justice.

Homes  that  are  located  near  a  factory  farm  are  usually difficult  to  sell.  A  strong  stench,  pollution,  and  lower property values are three big reasons for this.

Shocking levels of food pollution will force a government to respond. Case in point, the USDA banned downers on December 30, 2003. Mad cow disease terrified people and the government. With so many slaughterhouses it's difficult for USDA workers to identify and analyze every single downed animal.

Each animal is a large block of money. It's often up to the line workers and their supervisors to abide by the no downer law.

Ritual  slaughter  is  permitted  in  Canada  and  the  United States. The two most notable are Hallal and Kosher slaughter. Hallal is an Arabic word that means permitted, pure, and clean. The criteria for hallal slaughter are based on the Holy Quran and the Sunnah (sayings and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him).

In order for food to be certified as Hallal it must meet the following requirements:

1.  The  slaughterhouse  must  be  under  the  supervision  of  a certified  Hallal  inspector.  The  inspector  should  be  deemed  a pious  Muslim  by  the  Muslim  community  and  observant  of  the slaughter. A mentally unstable or feebleminded person cannot be a certified Hallal inspector.

2.  Each  day  before  the  slaughtering  begins,  the  area, instruments, and machines to be used must be cleaned, and if applicable, sharpened.

3. Each animal must be checked before slaughter. Only animals that  are  healthy  and  fully  conscious  can  be  slaughtered.  An animal that has been killed by strangulation, a fall off of a cliff,  trampled  upon,  beaten  to  death;  tortured  in  any  way, shape, or form; or if the slaughterer pronounced a name other than  ALLAH  (GOD)  it  is  not  Hallal.  All  pork  products  are categorized as Haram (forbidden). Foie gras and typical veal are not raised and slaughtered in a humane manner.

4. The blade should be cleansed after each slaughter.

5. At the time of the slaughter the slaughterer must say "In The Name Of ALLAH (GOD) and "ALLAH (GOD) Is the Greatest".

6. The jugular vein, oesophagus, and respiratory tract must be severed quickly and completely.

7. No work on the animal can be done until it is dead.

8. No animal should see the slaughter of another animal; as this may cause extreme panic and fear.

9.  The  Slaughterer  must  use  his  right  hand  to  perform  the action.Kosher laws pertaining to food are derived from the Bible (The Pentateuch). Kosher laws have been practiced and accepted by practicing Jews for thousands of years.

"Animals/by-products such as pork, rabbit, and horse meat, fowl such as owl and stork, fish, such as cat fish, eels, shell fish,  shrimp,  and  octopus  and  insects  are  non  kosher  foods according to Biblical definitions.

In addition, kosher meat and fowl must be slaughtered by a specially trained expert in a painless ritual fashion in order to be acceptable.

Dairy  and  meat  products  which  comingle  are  not  kosher. There are special laws relating to cheese, grape juice, and wine production." (Rabbi Yaakov Luban, Orthodox Union); Note: this is a paraphrase, not an exact quote."

Bruises,  cuts,  and  abrasions  should  not  be  found  on  the animal  prior  to  slaughter.  Furthermore,  only  hindquarters  are used  for  kosher  certification.  The  veins,  arteries,  and unacceptable fats are carefully removed after the slaughtering process.

The rules pertaining to the practice of ritual  slaughter are not always exercised in the proper manner. The pressure to produce more flesh is sometimes overwhelming. Purchase meat from a  well-respected  and  well-known  producer.  Deceit  and  animal welfare violations have and do occur at some Hallal and Kosher establishments. Corruption and greed know no bounds.

Be  aware  that  this  is  not  a  religion  book.  If  you  eat ritual slaughter foods do not use the aforementioned information as  a  religious  ruling  of  any  kind.  Go  to  a  well-respected, authorized source for a religious ruling. I have only given you some basic information pertaining to ritual slaughter. If I"ve made  any  errors  in  this  section  or  any  part  of  this  book  I sincerely apologize.

A lacto-ovo vegetarian is a person who is a vegetarian, but also includes dairy and egg products into his/her diet.

Hard-core  vegans  try  to  abstain  from  consuming  or  using dairy, meat, bird, eggs, fish or any other animal product/by- product.

The  term  vegetarian  was  first  used  by  the  British Vegetarian Society in the mid 19th century. For early humans, plant-based  foods  were  very  important  for  survival.  But  our ancestors also relied on much meat to survive.

For many people consumption of animal flesh is a regular occurrence. Humans need vegetable matter and meat for optimum health. Not too much of either, however.

Famous     vegetarians     include     Pythagoras     (Greek Mathematician), Leonardo da Vinci and George Bernard Shaw. Contrary to popular belief, Adolph Hitler was not a vegetarian. Hitler  enjoyed  eating  Bavarian  sausages,  pigeon,  and  poured liberal doses of cream into his coffee. With a personal chef, bodyguards, and close associates, it was impossible for Hitler to keep his non-vegetarian lifestyle a secret.

In China and Korea, there's a demand for dog meat, and to a lesser extent cat meat. Dog meat consumption can also be found in Thailand, the Philippines, and Taiwan but to a lesser extent than China and Korea.

In Korea, roughly 2 million dogs and hundreds of thousands of cats are sold for food in restaurants, grocery stores, and in street markets.

The dog and cat meat trade for food is horrible. In these markets  you  can  witness  an  organized  trade,  especially  in Guangzhu, located in Ching Ping. The odour emanating from these markets is stinky and noxious.

Cats  "awaiting"  slaughter  are  crammed  together  in  tiny, filthy cages. Killings are done by torching, strangulation, or beating while the animal is in a bag (for cat soup). After being beaten the cats are placed into pressure cookers.

Many of the cats are still alive when they"re placed inside the pressure cooker. This is similar to live pig scalding.

Dog farms are increasing in China. These farms hold many dogs placed in horrible conditions. Saint Barnards are the most popular breed of dogs for slaughter because they grow fast, big, and are generally tame around humans.

Saint Barnards are imported from Switzerland. These gentle giants were originally bred to rescue humans in life threatening situations. This is how they're paid back?!

As a result of the increasing  market demand, compounded with  improved  living  conditions,  dog  meat  has  become  an attainable   delicacy   for   the   average   Chinese   household. Furthermore, the dog breeding industry is expanding, including but not limited to Beijing.

Other  big  favourite  dog  breeds  include  Great  Danes  and Tibetan Mastiffs. The Beijing Hong Ding Breeding & Development Company is actively involved in this endeavour.

A  breeding  facility  established  in  1999,  in  Kangxi grassland can produced 100,000 dogs annually.

Many  people  are  duped  into  believing  that  a  raised adrenaline level of the dog at the time of death will enhance the  virility  for   the  consumer   (scientifically  unproven). Therefore, brutal methods of slaughter are performed.

In 1991, the Government of Korea passed a law forbidding the consumption of dogs and cats by humans. As a general rule, this law isn't enforced.

The Government of Korea has been under incredible pressure from within and abroad to end the eating of dogs and cats.

Creatures  living  in  water  can't  flee  intensive  animal farming. There's simply nowhere to go.

Fish farms are walled-in pens in the ocean or other bodies of water, containing fish that are used for food.

In British Columbia, Atlantic  salmon (non-native species) is a very popular choice for fish farming.

Fish  farm  waste  matter  may  equal  the  amount  of  a  small human town. This waste matter includes excreta (fecal matter) and sea lice that sometimes flow into surrounding waters. This threatens other sea creatures with high levels of pollution.

If  not  properly  enclosed,  penned  fishes  will  attract predators.

During the 1990's British Columbia fish farmers killed many seals that were trying to eat penned salmon. Obstructive sonar is one method to keep predators away from penned fish.

Salmon in fish farms are crowded into small swimming areas. Unnatural behaviour, diseases, and heavy anti-biotic treatment pose a big problem. High doses of antibiotics are given to fish in order to help prevent diseases.

Farmed fish may be fed pellets that contain fishmeal and oils, antibiotics, pesticides, or fish waste.

Fresh salmon doesn't necessarily mean that a fish that was caught by a fisherman.

The  fish  farming  industry  is  also  referred  to  as aquaculture. Corporate behemoths want to make enormous profits, without worrying about the future consequences. If matters don't change for the better, we may severe consequences.

Wild salmon has less fat content than farmed salmon. Farmed salmon are unable to burn calories by swimming. They're canned together tightly.

Australian live animal exports transport animals across the sea. These trips are quite long and gruelling for the animals in the vessels.

Australia exports more live animals (sheep, cattle, goats) than any other country, most by sea. Millions make it to their final   destination,   while   thousands   die   of   dehydration, starvation, illness, or exhaustion.

Problems begin before arrival to the vessel. The animals are  sent  from  farms  and  holding  yards  to  ports.  Because Australia  is  a  vast  country,  the  journey  may  take  up  to  two days. In order to cut down on expenses, food and water may be rationed.

Upon arrival at the port, the animals are sent to giant vessels   that   contain   multi-decked   (multi-tiered)   layers; primarily for sheep and cattle.

In linear troughs the sheep are pressed together in pens, many don't have a chance to reach food.

Sheep in overcrowded vessels may be packed up to three per square meter. Cattle may be allotted one or two square meters.

Veterinary  care  and  a  routine  cleanup  of  the  decks  is  not something that can be easily done. Emphasis is laid upon getting the animals to the slaughter destination.

Most of the sheep are sent to the Middle East. The MV Cormo Express  catastrophe  carrying  more  than  100,000  sheep  is  not surprising. The vessel along with others like it, are sailing factory farms.

Humane  slaughter  of  animals  in  Australia,  followed  by refrigerated transport  will solve much of the problem. Ritual slaughter  can  performed  in  Australia  by  a  certified  person. This, however, will not remove the entire problem. Some ritual slaughter  must  be  performed  on  the  spot;  the  meat  is  then divided and eaten according to religious edict, as in the Hajj slaughter.

In Australia merino sheep must be mulsed. In mulesing skin is  sliced  away  from  the  anal  area  of  the  sheep,  without administering anaesthesia. In Australia mulesing is forbidden on companion animals.

Merino sheep are specially bred to have loose skin folds. Their  unnatural  folds  accumulate  sweat,  thereby  attracting blowflies. The Australian sheep blowfly (Lucilia Cuprina) is a pest  in  Australia.  The  vast  majority  of  fly  strikes  are initiated by this pest.

The Lucilia Cuprina breeds in sheep. It's a catch 22 kind of a situation.

Mulesing, although extremely painful, is a procedure that should  be  performed  on  merino  sheep  in  order  to  prevent  the nasty blowfly infestation. The breeding of sheep that are less susceptible  to  blowfly  infection  will  be  a  good  step  in  the right direction.

Australian  sheep  farmers  are  only  responding  to  consumer demand  when  they  breed  merino  sheep.  From  their  perspective, they have an inherent right to earn a living, and in many cases to continue a multi-generational family enterprise.

Fish  have  been  eaten  by  humans  for  thousands  of  years. Catches  were  considerably  smaller  than  they  are  today.  The bodies of water were full of food and life.

Large vessels employ a smaller number of fishermen. Large vessels are increasing in number although catches are shrinking.

Fishermen have to fish more in order to obtain less. The alarm bells have already begun to ring. The reduced fish catches has increased competition amongst large vessel operators at the expense of small-scale fishermen.

Many   small-scale   fishermen   are   from   poor   countries suffering from a food shortage.

Bottom  trawling  (benthic  trawling)  harms  sea  creatures' habitats and coral reefs.

Large vessels work round the clock removing too many sea creatures even from the final sea frontiers. Governments around the world support these operations by giving large vessel owners and  operators  subsidies.  Like  cocaine,  the  pleasure  is  short term. The pain and agony will come later.

By-catch is considered a non-target sea creature. This is a throw away item

Throw away items can be as high as 90 percent of the catch. Shrimp trawling is the most wasteful of all fishing activities.

Commercial long-line fishing involves large vessels using nets up to 60 miles long, with up to 1000 hooks. Sea turtles, birds,  and  marine  mammals  die  in  large  numbers  as  by-catch. These  mega-nets  are  also  referred  to  as  "walls  of  death". Overfishing disturbs the natural relationship between  predator and  prey.  Drastic  declines  in  numbers  of  predators  may  cause significant increases in prey populations.

A new species may fill in the gap as apex predator. This causes major changes. Creatures that are affected are turtles, seabirds, whales, sharks and dolphins.

Ridley turtles have been found in the Pacific Ocean hooked onto  long-lines.  The  Pacific  leatherback  turtle  is  threatened with extinction. In the past 25 years, the Pacific Leatherback turtle population has dropped from over 90 thousand to less than 5 thousand. This is a ninety four percent decrease.

Loss of habitat is always a serious threat to land and sea creatures.Our world's food supply may soon be adversely affected not only  by  illogical  practices  but  also  by  pollution  and  global warming. We cannot imagine what a starving human world will be like. How will we humans respond?

Humans  sometimes  resort  to  unnatural  behaviours  to  stave off  their  starvation,  or  to  just  stay  alive.  Anthropophagi (cannibalism) can sometimes occur.

An example of widespread cannibalism in extraordinary timesoccurred in the Ukraine (1932-1933). Joseph Stalin and his and the Bolsheviks induced a horrific famine on the Ukrainian people especially the kulaks (peasants). Grain supplies were forcefully and mercilessly confiscated.

Ukrainian peasants who could once easily feed their nation were now starving, along with their co-nationals.

Russian troops were sent to sniff out any hidden supplies of grain or food. Any person who was caught with state grain, or who did not appear to be starving could receive up to a 10 year sentence in a Russian gulag (labour camp). Even fecal droppings were analyzed. It was a terrible act of human-on-human cruelty. Ukrainians  became  so  desperate  they  resorted  to  widespread cannibalism. Many people went mad.

The intended consequence was to break Ukrainian nationalism and the individuality of the average peasant. 7 million people starved  to  death  during  the  Ukrainian  Holocaust.  Others  were executed or sent off to a gulag.

The  Ukrainian  Holocaust  was  hidden  from  the  world  for decades. It has now been identified and accepted as a historical fact. Canada and the United States officially recognize it as such.

Andrei Chikatilo, Russia's worst serial rapist, killer, and cannibal  had  survived  the  Ukrainian  Holocaust  as  a  child.  He claimed to have seen his brother whisked away (still alive) by several of his relatives to be eaten.

Chikatilo like many others around him witnessed terrifying acts.  Some  parents  resorted  to  eating  their  own  children.  In some villages, there was a noticeable absence of children on the streets. Families warned their children to stay home. One woman thought her baby was a giant turkey; she roasted it.

For  the  most  part,  Chikatilo  was  an  "impotent"  husband, often mocked by his wife. He was finally captured, sentenced and then executed by the Russian authorities.

Albert  Fish,  a  notorious  cannibal  of  early  20th  century United States, had an unusual life. Fish had his first taste of blood in an orphanage. He was being beaten mercilessly in the orphanage and then blood dripped down to his lips. After getting a  few  lick,  he  felt  good.  But  there  was  more.  He  witnessed horrible acts of abuse therein.

This was the beginning of Fish's freaky fantasies. Later, his fantasies would be acted out.

Fish  claimed  to  have  harmed  four  hundred  children,  and feasted on at least several. In one case involving a 12 year-old girl, he made stew of her flesh, mixed with carrots, and other vegetables. He claimed to have feasted on the flesh for several days.

Fish  was  finally  captured,  arrested  then  executed.  After the execution an autopsy on his body revealed 29 sewing needles inserted into his scrotum (testicular sac).

An  example  of  state  induced  anthropophagi  (cannibalism) happened  in  China.  Historically,  China  has  been  riddled  with nasty famines.

In   Mao   Zedong's   so-called   "Giant   Leap   Forward",   a catastrophic  agricultural  policy  and  a  severe  drought  (1959-1961), caused the deaths of an estimated 30 million people in Northern  China.  The  horrible  famines  led  to  numerous  acts  of cannibalism. Sometimes the meal was to be was taken alive.

The  Red  Guards  (Mao  Zedong's  henchmen),  terrorized  the citizenry into reform. Anything appearing to represent the west,

democracy,  or  bourgeois  life,  was  deemed  "illegal".  In  other words, every aspect of Chinese society had to conform to  Mao Zedong's philosophy.

The  Red  Guards  harmed  and  killed  countless  people. Unfortunately, it did not end there. The Red Guards sometimes cannibalised their victims. On at least one occasion the Red Guards  displayed  dead  bodies  on  hooks  in  front  of  terrified students.  Afterwards,  the  students  were  ordered  to  eat  the flesh.  Although  humans  have  done  much  good  on  this  planet, they've also committed the worst of atrocities.