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FM 3-04.120 (FM 1-120)

February 2007

Air Traffic Services Operations

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Headquarters, Department of the Army

This publication is available at

Army Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil) and

General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine

Digital Library at (www.train.army.mil).

*FM 3-04.120(FM 1-120)

Field Manual

Headquarters

FM 3-04.120

Department of the Army

Washington, D.C. 16 February 2007

Air Traffic Services Operations

Contents

Page

PREFACE ..............................................................................................................v Chapter 1

ORGANIZATION AND MISSIONS .................................................................... 1-1

Operational Framework...................................................................................... 1-1

Organization ....................................................................................................... 1-2

Mission and Support Capabilities ....................................................................... 1-4

Chapter 2

COMMAND AND CONTROL............................................................................. 2-1

Section I – Battle Command............................................................................ 2-1

Organization ....................................................................................................... 2-1

Section II – Command and Staff Responsibilities......................................... 2-2

Air Traffic Services Company............................................................................. 2-2

Airfield Operations Battalion............................................................................... 2-6

Theater Airfield Operation Group ..................................................................... 2-10

Section III – Communications Equipment.................................................... 2-15

Communication Systems.................................................................................. 2-15

Command and Control Nets............................................................................. 2-17

Chapter 3

EMPLOYMENT .................................................................................................. 3-1

Section I – Air Traffic Services Company ...................................................... 3-1

Airspace Information Services............................................................................ 3-1

Terminal Services............................................................................................... 3-2

Forward Area Support Services ......................................................................... 3-2

Employment Considerations .............................................................................. 3-2

Austere Airfields/Landing Sites .......................................................................... 3-4

Section II – Theater Airfield Operations....................................................... 3-11

Intermediate Staging Base ............................................................................... 3-11

Pre-Deployment Planning Considerations ....................................................... 3-12

Employment Considerations ............................................................................ 3-13

Austere to Enduring Airfield.............................................................................. 3-17

Joint Interdependence...................................................................................... 3-20

Section III – Stability and Civil Support Operations ................................... 3-21

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

*This publication supersedes FM 1-120, 22 May 1995.

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Contents

Disaster Relief...................................................................................................3-22

Homeland Security Operations.........................................................................3-22

Reconstruction and Restoration Operations.....................................................3-23

Chapter 4

TRAINING AND READINESS............................................................................4-1

Section I – Training Overview..........................................................................4-1

Battle-Focused Training......................................................................................4-2

Section II – Air Traffic Training Program........................................................4-3

ATTP Progression...............................................................................................4-3

Commander’s Evaluation....................................................................................4-4

ATTP Forms and Records ..................................................................................4-4

Section III – ATS Maintenance Training Program..........................................4-4

AMTP Progression..............................................................................................4-5

Commander’s Evaluation....................................................................................4-6

AMTP Forms and Records .................................................................................4-6

Section IV – Unit Status Reporting .................................................................4-7

General ...............................................................................................................4-7

Assessing and Reporting Unit Proficiency..........................................................4-7

Section V – Additional Training Considerations ...........................................4-8

Chapter 5

MAINTENANCE OPERATIONS ........................................................................5-1

Section I – Unit-Level Maintenance.................................................................5-1

Two-Level Maintenance Operations ...................................................................5-1

Positioning Maintenance Support Assets ...........................................................5-2

Split-Based Operations .......................................................................................5-3

Contract and Civilian Maintenance Support .......................................................5-3

Section II – External Maintenance Organizations..........................................5-3

ATS Maintenance Company–FORSCOM ..........................................................5-4

United States Army Materiel Command .............................................................5-4

CECOM...............................................................................................................5-4

United States Army Aviation and Missile Command ..........................................5-4

National Maintenance SORs...............................................................................5-5

Section III – Additional Maintenance Considerations ...................................5-5

Army Warranty Program .....................................................................................5-5

New Equipment Training Teams ........................................................................5-6

Army Test, Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment .......................................5-6

Appendix A DEPLOYMENT-REDEPLOYMENT LIFE-CYCLE ............................................ A-1

Appendix B AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS ............................................................... B-1

Appendix C COMPOSITE RISK MANAGEMENT ................................................................ C-1

Appendix D CHECKLISTS .................................................................................................... D-1

GLOSSARY .......................................................................................... Glossary-1

REFERENCES.................................................................................. References-1

INDEX

.........................................................................................................

Index-1

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16 February 2007

Contents

Figures

Figure 1-1. ATS company organizational chart......................................................................1-2

Figure 1-2. AOB organization.................................................................................................1-3

Figure 1-3. TAOG organization ..............................................................................................1-3

Figure 1-4. TAOG headquarters organization........................................................................1-4

Figure 3-1. Depiction of assembly area ground graphics and airspace.................................3-6

Figure 3-2. Landing zone orientation......................................................................................3-6

Figure 3-3. FARP with associated airspace and FSCMs.......................................................3-7

Figure 3-4. Depiction of inverted Y and additional landing sites ............................................3-8

Figure 3-5. LZ airspace requirements ....................................................................................3-9

Figure 3-6. Intermediate staging base..................................................................................3-12

Figure 3-7. Example of wagon wheel overlay ......................................................................3-17

Figure 3-8. Headquarters and fire truck teams ....................................................................3-19

Figure 5-1. COMNAV section.................................................................................................5-1

Figure B-1. AN/TSW-7A ATC central .....................................................................................B-1

Figure B-2. AN/MSQ-135 mobile tower system .....................................................................B-2

Figure B-3. AN/TSQ-198 TTCS..............................................................................................B-3

Figure B-4. AN/TPN-31 ATNAVICS .......................................................................................B-4

Figure B-5. AN/TSQ-221 TAIS ...............................................................................................B-4

Figure C-1. Sample risk matrix.............................................................................................. C-3

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Contents

Tables

Table 2-1. Current radio communication systems ............................................................... 2-16

Table 2-2. Company/AOB communications connectivity..................................................... 2-18

Table 2-3. TAOG communication architecture systems ...................................................... 2-23

Table 3-1. Landing distance sizes ......................................................................................... 3-8

Table 3-2. Army Airfield and Heliport classes........................................................................ 3-9

Table C-1. Steps of risk management ...................................................................................C-1

Table C-2. Sample tactical ATC risk assessment .................................................................C-2

Table C-3. Terms and definitions...........................................................................................C-3

Table D-1. Example of a pre-deployment/pre-temporary duty checklist ...............................D-1

Table D-2. Example of a convoy precombat inspection checklist .........................................D-2

Table D-3. Example of a precombat checklist .......................................................................D-4

Table D-4. Example of a LZ survey checklist ........................................................................D-8

Table D-5. Example of a reconnaissance report checklist ....................................................D-9

Table D-6. Example of a ATC handover checklist...............................................................D-11

Table D-7. Average march rates for mixed columns (in kilometers) ...................................D-14

Table D-8. Average vehicles speed (kilometers per hour) ..................................................D-14

Table D-9. Time distance rates (kilometers)........................................................................D-14

Table D-10. Time distance rates (miles)..............................................................................D-15

Table D-11. SPOTREP ........................................................................................................D-15

Table D-12. Convoy status report........................................................................................D-16

Table D-13. Weather advisory/watch (weather watch) report .............................................D-16

Table D-14. Rail load status report ......................................................................................D-17

Table D-15. Closure report ..................................................................................................D-17

Table D-16. Personnel daily summary report ......................................................................D-18

Table D-17. Major subordinate command/unit reporting .....................................................D-18

Table D-18. Meaconing, intrusion, jamming, interference report ........................................D-19

Table D-19. Medical evacuation 9-line request ...................................................................D-19

Table D-20. Unexploded ordinance report...........................................................................D-20

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Preface

Field manual (FM) 3-04.120 serves as a doctrinal guide primarily intended for the Theater Airfield Operations Group (TAOG), Airfield Operations Battalion (AOB), and air traffic services (ATS) company commanders, subordinate leaders, and assigned personnel. It is applicable for use by the division, corps, Theater Aviation Command (TAC), Theater Support Command (TSC), as well as the Army aviation community including members of allied, coalition, special operations, and civil support forces requiring air traffic and airfield management support. It also assists Army branch schools and joint military services in teaching Army ATS

operations.

Army transformation and future force development of ATS will enable the tailoring of ATS capabilities as well as embedding an airfield management capability at theater airfields. This manual describes structure, mission, employment and sustainment of ATS units supporting major combat, stability and civil support operations. It establishes responsibilities and duties of key personnel and discusses planning considerations required for training, operations, and combat. FM 3-04.120 is authoritative and prescriptive but is not inflexible. Situations in combat are resolved by the intelligent interpretation and application of this doctrine. Standardized ATS

operations at division and theater level are necessary for the success of modularity, readiness, and effective maneuver support operations.

This FM applies to the Active Army, the Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States, the United States Army Reserve, and the Army civilian employees of the transformation force unless otherwise stated. FM 3-04.120 builds on collective knowledge and experience gained through recent operations, exercises, and the deliberate process of informed reasoning. Its principles and fundamentals address new technologies and evolving responses to diverse threats. It will also assist Army branch schools in teaching ATS

operations.

The proponent of this publication is Headquarters, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Send comments and recommendations on Department of the Army (DA) Form 2028

(Recommended Changes to publications and Blank Forms) or automated link

(http://www.usapa.army.mil/da2028/daform2028.asp) to Commander, United States Army Aviation Warfighting Center (USAAWC), ATTN: ATZQ-TD-D, Fort Rucker, Alabama 36362-5263. Comments may be e-mailed to the Directorate of Training and Doctrine (DOTD) at av.doctrine@us.army.mil. Other doctrinal information can be found on the Internet at Army Knowledge Online (AKO) or call defense switch network (DSN) 558-3551 or (334) 255-3551.

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men.

This publication has been reviewed for operations security considerations.

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Chapter 1

Organization and Missions

Over the last century, warfare became increasingly complex. Army organizations changed from large division sized organizations to today’s brigade-based combined arms teams. To meet this challenge ATS organizations have undergone a

transformation to better enable aviation to meet the requirements of the changing battlefront. ATS organizations are now designed to efficiently support Army

aviation and joint, interagency, interdepartmental, and multinational (JIIM) forces.

ATS organizations enable safe and efficient use of positive and procedural control measures with a designated airfield management structure managing high-density and congested airfields at theater level. The organizational tenets for this design are doctrinally balanced, logistically supportable, modernized, multifunctional, and modular.

OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK

1-1. ATS organizations are an enabling

component of the modular, scalable and tailored

Contents

Army aviation force. Responsiveness requires a

capability to support forcible and early entry

Operational Framework............................1-1

contingency response and conduct simultaneous

Organization.............................................1-2

operations immediately on arrival. Air traffic

Mission and Support Capabilities .............1-4

operations are conducted overseas within

contiguous and noncontiguous areas, throughout

the spectrum of conflict, and during all phases of campaign themes. Air traffic organizations conduct civil support operations in response to natural or manmade disasters, accidents, and incidents within the United States and its territories.

1-2. ATS companies assigned to a combat aviation brigade (CAB) conduct operations as organizational elements of the general support aviation battalion (GSAB). This command relationship maximizes efficiency of operations, serving as a combat enabler for Army aviation and divisions. The company must be able to operate and complete its mission with the CAB or as a member of an aviation task force supporting JIIM forces. The company and its elements may operate within an aviation battalion task force in a direct support (DS) or general support (GS) role.

1-3. AOBs and TAOGs are additional ATS forces that support theater-level requirements. The AOBs have an airfield management element as well as air traffic personnel and equipment to execute airfield and air traffic responsibilities. One TAOG is capable of supporting five theater airfields as required.

TAOGs and AOBs are deployed based on METT-TC and may operate from a single base, or conduct split-based operations in multiple locations within the theater of operations.

UNIT SUPPORT CAPABILITY

1-4. The ATS company, AOB, and TAOG must be prepared to support—

z

Strategic deployment planning and execution.

z

Administrative and tactical movements.

z

Intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB).

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Chapter 1

z

Employment of communications systems.

z

Force protection/sustainment.

PLANNING

1-5. The ATS company, AOB, and TAOG headquarters must be able to simultaneously—

z Plan, prepare, execute, and assess current and future operations.

z Visualize, describe, and direct subordinate elements to accomplish missions.

z Protect and sustain their forces.

ENVIRONMENTS

1-6. All units must train for and accomplish operations under the following conditions: z

Near ground forces.

z

Day or night.

z

Under limited visibility (instrument meteorological conditions [IMCs] proficiency is critical).

z

All environments such as desert; mountain; rolling hills; dense forest; jungle; plains; urban; hot, basic, cold and severe cold weather; and chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN).

ORGANIZATION

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES COMPANY

1-7. The ATS company (figure 1-1) is organic to the GSAB for training, safety, standardization, leader development and sustainment. It is inherently dependent on the GSAB for ground maintenance, logistics, personnel actions, feeding, health care, and other sustainment support services.

Figure 1-1. ATS company organizational chart

1-2

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Organization and Missions

AIRFIELD OPERATIONS BATTALION

1-8. The AOB (figure 1-2) is composed of several staff and operational sections/platoons required for the management and execution airfield activities at designated airfields within the theater of operations.

The AOB has organic ATS forces, airfield management headquarters, and sustainment personnel.

Figure 1-2. AOB organization

THEATER AIRFIELD OPERATIONS GROUP

1-9. The TAOG (figure 1-3) is organic to the theater aviation command. A TAOG consists of a headquarters and headquarters company (HHC), and five AOBs. The TAOG provides theater airfield command and control (C2), planning, and oversight throughout the theater of operations.

Figure 1-3. TAOG organization

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Chapter 1

1-10. Figure 1-4 depicts the TAOG headquarters organization.

Figure 1-4. TAOG headquarters organization

MISSION AND SUPPORT CAPABILITIES

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES COMPANY

1-11. An ATS company supports CABs by providing terminal area and en route airspace information and control services. ATS companies provide services to support CABs throughout full spectrum operations. ATS companies are composed of a control tower, ground control approach (GCA), airspace information center (AIC), and two tactical aviation control teams (TACTs). They also deploy as part of the CAB and are an integral part of the brigade’s readiness.

1-12. ATS companies have the following capabilities:

z

Deployable within 96 hours of notification, and are equipped and capable of operations in any environment.

z

Control tower operations upon 30 minutes of arrival in an area of operation (AO) and become fully operational within 1 hour of arrival.

z

Provide self-sustaining operations for 72 hours upon arrival in an AO.

z

TACTs in austere/tactical environment operational 15 minutes after arrival in an AO.

z

Support aircraft recovery operations including personnel recovery, medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), and assistance to aircraft in distress (battle damage, inclement weather, and disoriented aircraft).

z

Provide airspace management operations in support of manned and unmanned air operations for its designated airspace sector by providing updates of airspace information.

z

Provide navigational assistance to friendly aircraft.

z

Coordinate air traffic control (ATC) procedures with military C2 agencies and civilian agencies/organizations, including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

z

Provide personnel for survey/reconnaissance party team; ensuring air traffic procedures, ATS

equipment emplacement criteria, and terminal instrument procedures (TERPs) are considered and addressed during site survey.

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Organization and Missions

z

Provide personnel as required for integrated aviation planning and management of air operations.

z

Provide precision and nonprecision navigational aids (NAVAIDs).

z

Provide essential situational awareness (SA) information for use in activation and execution of the airfield base defense zone (BDZ).

z

Provide ATS subject matter experts to assist with the CAB’s mission area relating to the JIIM

force.

z

Provide ATS operations across the spectrum of conflict to include civil support and homeland security operations facilitating restoration, revitalization, stability, and sustainment services.

AIRFIELD OPERATIONS BATTALION

1-13. The AOB provides airfield management, base operations, and ATS services at designated airfields throughout the theater of operations. The battalion also provides battle command to other airfield service support assets. The AOB establishes an airspace information center for airspace management and interfaces with the theater airspace system.

1-14. The organizational design of the AOB does not include the associated equipment and personnel needed to provide a full range of airfield activities in support of aviation operations. An ATC operations element, airfield services element, safety/standardization section, and communication/navigation (COMNAV) maintenance section are organic to the AOB. Aircraft crash rescue; hazardous material handling; up and down loading of cargo; weather services; petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) section; and the base defense operations center (BDOC) are external support elements.

1-15. AOB has the following capabilities—

z

Conducts airfield safety inspections.

z

Develops local flying area/rules and hazards map.

z

Transmits flight movement messages.

z

Develops and coordinates the preaccident plan.

z

Coordinates local flying rules on theater airspace.

z

Provide personnel for survey/reconnaissance party team, ensuring air traffic procedures, ATS

equipment emplacement criteria, and TERPs are considered and addressed during site survey.

z

Aircraft fuel, refueling services.*

z

Hazardous material handling.*

z

Cargo up and down loading.*

z

Force protection/security/quick reaction force (QRF).*

z

Provides liaison with the airspace authority joint force air component commander (JFACC)/Combined Air Operations Center.

z

Establishes airfield crash system and provides flight dispatch services.

z

Processes/disseminates air tasking order (ATO)/airspace control order (ACO) and special instructions (SPINS) information.

z

Provides weather service.*

z

Processes ACM requests for terminal areas.

z

Provides airspace common operating picture (COP).

z

Establishes terminal ATS (tower and GCA).

z

Establishes Airspace Information Centers.

z

Interfaces with theater or corps command, control, and communications (C3) air on airspace, aviation procedures guide (APG), or heliport procedures guide.

Note: * Capabilities requiring augmentation.

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Chapter 1

THEATER AIRFIELD OPERATIONS GROUP

1-16. The mission of a TAOG is to provide oversight, technical expertise and standardization for its assigned AOBs. The TAOG executes theater airfield operations and synchronizes air traffic in a joint environment. It establishes theater airfields in support of reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (RSOI) requirements, seaport of debarkation (SPOD), aerial port of debarkation (APOD) and JIIM operations. The TAOG coordinates and integrates airspace use requirements with the Army airspace command and control (A2C2) element of the controlling headquarters. The TAOG coordinates and schedules flight checks, reviews and processes TERPs procedures, and provides quality assurance of controller, ATC maintenance, and flight operations training and certification programs. It also supports the Army Service Component Command (ASCC) on Title 10 ATS issues, liaison responsibilities with host nation airspace authority, and other United States and combined services and agencies.

1-17. The TAOG has the following capabilities:

z

Develop and validate theater ATS force requirements.

z

Interface with appropriate theater staff elements for the planning and execution of airfield and ATS mission sets.

z

Reviewing and processing TERPs for terminal areas.

z

Providing personnel for survey/reconnaissance party team, ensuring air traffic procedures, ATS equipment emplacement criteria, and TERPs are considered and addressed during site survey.

z

Conduct flyability checks for theater NAVAIDs.

z

Providing expertise to ASCC on Title 10, host nation, and ATS issues, including contract ATC and ATS systems support contractors.

z

Coordinate and synchronize ATS field service representatives.

z

Synchronize theater ATS maintenance efforts.

z

Identify ATS equipment staging/reset requirements.

z

Executing ATS liaison responsibilities as required by ASCC with host nation airspace authority and combined/joint air operations center.

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Chapter 2

Command and Control

The C2 system is defined as the facilities, equipment, communications, procedures, and personnel essential to a commander for planning, directing, and controlling operations. C2 is an essential element of the art and science of warfare. No single specialized function, by itself or combined with others, has a purpose without it.

Although commanders are responsible for C2, it also applies to staff officers and noncommissioned officers (NCOs).

SECTION I – BATTLE COMMAND

2-1. Battle command incorporates three vital

components: decision making, leadership, and

Contents

control. Decision making entails knowing whether

to decide, then when and what to decide. These Section I – Battle Command .....................2-1

judgments are tactical and operational, but can be

Section II – Command and Staff

strategic as well. Control is inherent in battle

Responsibilities .....................................2-2

command; it monitors the status of organizational Section III – Communications effectiveness and identifies deviations from

Equipment ............................................2-15

standards. Control provides the means to regulate,

synchronize, and monitor forces and functions.

These tasks, performed through collection, fusion, assessment, and dissemination of information and data, allow commanders to lead from critical points on the battlefield, delegate authority, and synchronize unit actions with other battlefield operations. Skilled staffs work within command intent to direct and control units and resource allocations to support the desired end.

2-2. C2 gives commanders the structure and means to make decisions and evaluate developing situations.

Units translate decisions and higher-level intent into productive actions by using information derived from the C2 process consisting of the following steps:

z

Acquire information.

z

Assess whether new actions are required.

z

Determine what these actions should be.

z

Direct subordinates to take appropriate actions.

z

Supervise and assess.

2-3. Effective and efficient C2 begins and ends with the commander. The commander must develop techniques and procedures that promote an expeditious flow of information throughout the C2 process.

These techniques and procedures should be in the unit's tactical standard operating procedures (SOPs). FM

6-0 and FM 1-02 provide techniques.

ORGANIZATION

2-4. How the commander organizes the C2 system can complicate or simplify execution. Organizing effectively requires commanders to apply the fundamental principles of organization for C2 and manage the staff for continuous C2. Organizational decisions establish the chain of command and task organization directly affecting C2. Each of these tenets can influence where commanders obtain facts, whom they rely on for advice, and how they supervise. Organizational decisions affect the flow of information to 16 February 2007

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Chapter 2

commanders. In essence, organizations establish formal communication channels and determine how commanders distribute their forces.

2-5. Organization serves the important function of providing sources of group identity for Soldiers assigned to the command. A command operates most effectively when Soldiers consider themselves members of one or more groups characterized by high levels of loyalty, cooperation, morale, and commitment.

2-6. Information flows vertically within the chain of command, but an organization should not limit its flow to the chain of command. Information also must flow horizontally among adjacent, supported, and supporting units. Information flows informally and unofficially between individuals according to personal relationships, as well as within formal channels. Information channels provide important redundancy.

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES COMMAND AND SUPPORT RELATIONSHIPS

Air Traffic Services Company

2-7. The ATS company is assigned to the GSAB within the aligned CAB. The ability of the ATS

company to operate teams independently is paramount to mission success. Elements of the ATS company may be required to operate for short or extended periods separated from the main body of the company.

Airfield Operations Battalion

2-8. AOBs are assigned to the TAOG and operate in a GS role to the theater. An AOB deployed separately without a TAOG operates in a DS role to a geographical unit within the area of operation.

Theater Airfield Operations Group

2-9. The TAOG is assigned to the TAC. When deployed separately the TAOG may be under the operational control (OPCON) of the TSC.

SECTION II – COMMAND AND STAFF RESPONSIBILITIES

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES COMPANY

COMPANY HEADQUARTERS

Commander

2-10. The company commander is a military occupational specialty (MOS) 15B aviation officer responsible for the command and integration of the unit with Army aviation or joint agencies. The commander provides critical flying expertise to the ATS mission set that better enables planning and execution of ATS. Unique responsibilities of the ATS commander include—

z

Providing operational understanding of aircraft performance characteristics in establishing airspace and air traffic procedures.

z

Integrating aircrew and aircraft training progression into the ATS collective training scheme.

z

Evaluating ATS procedures and controller proficiency through routine flight assessments.

First Sergeant

2-11. The first sergeant (1SG) is an MOS 15P noncommissioned officer with an MOS 15Q ATC

background. The ATS 1SG is the commander's primary advisor on enlisted Soldiers and provides unique operational experience in air traffic training, procedures, and air traffic regulation. Unique responsibilities of the ATS 1SG include—

z

Monitoring air traffic training development, proficiency, and assignments.

z

Identifying, planning, and assessing Soldier training tasks to support the performance of collective (unit) tasks of the mission essential task list (METL).

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Command and Control

z

Providing recommendations on ATS reclassification, medical suspensions, and flight fitness actions.

Platoon Leader

2-12. The platoon leader is an MOS 150A air traffic and airspace management technician warrant officer.

He supervises employment of platoon personnel and equipment. The platoon leader also—

z

Manages and supervises enlisted ATC personnel.

z

Is thoroughly knowledgeable of procedures and standards for separation and control of manned and unmanned systems, airports, and airspace.

z

Provides standardized training and quality assurance of certification programs.

z

Reviews and revises TERPs packets and assists in the certification process of associated NAVAIDs and facilities.

z

Assists in development and revision of controlled and special use airspace.

z

Provides technical expertise on installation and operation of ATC equipment.

z

Applies standards, time limitations, and policies for issuing controller qualification, certification, and facility ratings to ATC personnel.

z

Applies procedures for cancellation, suspension or reissuance, and withdrawal of certificates and facility ratings.

z

Provides ATS input for the development and revision of APGs.

Platoon Sergeant

2-13. The platoon sergeant is an MOS 15Q40 air traffic controller. The platoon sergeant is the primary assistant and advisor to the platoon leader concerning all aspects of operations, personnel, administration, ATS services, and equipment emplacement. The platoon sergeant may serve as an ATC specialist/control tower operator (CTO) examiner in accordance with Army regulation (AR) 95-2 and appropriate FAA Orders (FAAOs). The platoon sergeant assumes responsibilities of the platoon leader in his or her absence.

As the lowest level NCO involved in company METLs, the platoon sergeant teaches collective and individual tasks to Soldiers assigned to the platoon.

2-14. Using tough, realistic, and intellectually and physically challenging performance-oriented training, the platoon sergeant ensures Army standards are met and maintained. Additionally, the platoon sergeant conducts cross training to promote critical wartime skills within the unit, evaluates the effectiveness of the platoon, and provides training feedback to the commander and 1SG during after-action reviews (AARs) on unit collective training.

COMMUNICATION/NAVIGATION MAINTENANCE SECTION

2-15. The COMNAV maintenance section, organic to the ATS company, consists of an ATC Systems Maintenance Supervisor and four equipment repairers. The ATC Systems Maintenance Supervisor is an MOS 94D30 NCO. The maintenance chief is responsible for coordinating field maintenance of ATS

equipment assigned to the company.

TERMINAL CONTROL PLATOON

2-16. The terminal control platoon consists of a control tower team with nondirectional beacon (NDB) and a GCA team led by a platoon leader and platoon sergeant. This platoon is responsible for providing terminal control services to establish one airfield with associated precision and nonprecision approaches.

Control Tower Team

2-17. The control tower team is responsible for control of friendly aircraft operating within terminal airspace. This airspace is typically limited to an area visually observed and surveyed from the tower (approximately a 5-nautical mile radius from the center of the airfield with an altitude based on operational 16 February 2007

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Chapter 2

need as determined by the airspace control authority). The control tower team is also responsible for air and vehicular traffic operating on runways, taxiways, and other designated areas of the airfield.

Control Tower Facility Chief

2-18. Responsibilities include—

z

Coordinating the development of specific terminal airspace procedures peculiar to the airfield.

z

Coordinating with military/civilian agencies to ensure tower ATC services are coordinated within the ATS plan for theater of operations.

z

Managing training of all controllers assigned to the tower.

z

Understanding and implementing the ACO and the airspace control plan (ACP).

z

Resolving airspace conflicts within the terminal control area.

z

Selecting the emplacement site for team equipment.

z

Developing standard ingress/egress procedures for unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) operations.

Ground Control Approach Team

2-19. The GCA team provides IMC recovery capability to a single Army airfield, and airport surveillance radar (ASR) and precision approach radar (PAR) within designated airspace The GCA team normally operates in conjunction with a control tower team, with an NDB to form a fully instrumented airfield.

GCA Facility Chief

2-20. The GCA facility chief is responsible for—

z

Conducting site surveys and collecting data used to initiate TERPs.

z

Coordinating and assisting with flight inspection procedures/flyability checks.

z

Coordinating development of specific GCA procedures particular to the airfield.

z

Coordinating with other military/civilian agencies to ensure radar ATC services are coordinated within the ATS plan for theater of operations.

z

Managing training of all controllers assigned to the GCA.

z

Selecting emplacement site for team equipment.

AIRSPACE INFORMATION SERVICES PLATOON

2-21. The airspace information services (AIS) platoon leadership team consists of a platoon leader and platoon sergeant. An AIS platoon consists of an AIC team and two TACT teams. This platoon is responsible for providing flight following services through procedural and positive control means to aircraft operating within assigned airspace and visual flight rule (VFR) ATC services to remote sites landing zones (LZs), pickup zones (PZs), assembly areas (AAs), and forward arming and refueling points (FARPs).

Airspace Information Center

2-22. The AIC team provides flight following services to friendly aircraft operating within assigned airspace. The actual airspace assigned is dictated by the assigned mission and communications capabilities.

Additionally, the AIC team displays the COP on the tactical airspace integration system (TAIS) as received from feeds from other battlefield automated systems (BASs) within the Army battle command system (ABCS) and battle command enablers system of systems. The AIC team monitors airspace users and ensures aircraft operate within the parameters of the ACO. The team coordinates emerging airspace requirements for current operations, broadcasts air and ground threats to participating aircraft, and maintains situational awareness of unmanned aerial systems within their area of responsibility.

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FM 3-40.120

16 February 2007

Command and Control

AIC Facility Chief

2-23. The AIC facility chief is responsible for—

z

Coordinating development of specific airspace information and flight coordination procedures specific to the assigned area of operations.

z

Coordinating with other military/civilian agencies to ensure AIC services are coordinated within the ATS plan for theater of operations.

z

Managing training of all controllers assigned to the AIC.

z

Coordinating requirements to ensure data and communication links are established for connectivity to other ABCSs and ATC facilities.

z

Developing an immediate airspace alert plan.

z

Providing input into the ACO and ACP.

z

Assisting in the establishment of procedures for aircraft operating in uncontrolled airspace within the division’s AO.

Tactical Aviation Control Team

2-24. The TACT is trained and equipped to provide initial rapid response ATC, and C3 to support Army aviation and joint missions. Tactical tower teams support operations at LZs, PZs, AAs, and FARPs.

2-25. As a stand alone ATC capability, the TACT provides ATC services for airfield seizures, noncombatant evacuation operations, domestic or foreign humanitarian assistance operations, civil disturbance operations, and short duration Army aviation/joint operations.

2-26. The TACT rapidly establishes and controls LZs, which are temporary austere landing areas for rotary wing aircraft in remote locations. The TACT is trained and task organized to—

z

Provide ATC services at designated LZs, including formulating ATC procedures, and issuing ATC clearances, instructions and advisories to effect safe, orderly, and expeditious movement of air traffic in their assigned airspace.

z

Establish a terminal control area around each LZ and control all air traffic within this area under VFR conditions.

z

Conduct LZ surveys to determine suitability of the landing surface for operations annotate hazards to aviation, including obstructions/obstacles, and to provide operational data.

z

Mark and illuminate LZs for rotary wing operations.

z

Provide nondirectional beacons.

z

Coordinate with civil and military control agencies.

z

Provide air-ground and air-to-air communications linking austere sites with higher and adjacent C2 agencies.

z

Provide limited weather observations and information.

z

Provide positive control of personnel and equipment within the AO.

Team Leader

2-27. Responsibilities of the tactical team leader include—

z

Determining site selection for emplacement of team equipment.

z

Supervising LZ/PZ marking in accordance with FM 3-21.38.

z

Assisting in LZ/PZ/drop zone certification process.

z

Participating in mission planning process with supported aviation unit.

z

Providing input for required airspace coordination measures (ACMs).

16 February 2007

FM 3-04.120

2-5

Chapter 2

AIRFIELD OPERATIONS BATTALION

HEADQUARTERS ELEMENT

Commander

2-28. The AOB commander is a MOS 15B aviation officer responsible for the integration of airfield activities with Army aviation or joint agencies. The AOB commander relies on his staff and subordinate leaders to advise and assist in planning and supervising operations. The AOB commander normally serves as the airfield commander and may be the senior airfield authority with the following duties and responsibilities:

z

Holds command authority of the airfield and associated personnel.

z

Directs planning meetings and provides input on issues affecting the airfield.

z

Sets airfield policy and provides guidelines for the use of airfield property by tenant organizations (such as parking areas, hours of operation, airfield services, complaint procedures, and other operational agreements).

z

Represents Army Aviation interests and coordinates Army Aviation requirements on joint-use airfields.

Air Traffic Control Operations NCO

2-29. The ATC operations NCO maintains general situational awareness of airfield activities and is overall responsible for airfield operations personnel. The ATC operations NCO conducts the following activities: z

Monitors training and ensures personnel are trained on the collective tasks of the unit’s METL.

z

Synchronizes airfield support activities.

z

Coordinates unit movement and airfield occupation/operational-use areas.

z

Executes policies and standards concerning enlisted performance, training, appearance, and conduct.

z

Provides counsel and guidance to NCOs and other enlisted Soldiers.

z

Coordinates airfield security operations, to include individual defensive positions of the battalion.

AIRFIELD MANAGEMENT HEADQUARTERS

Air Traffic Control Officer

2-30. The ATC officer is responsible for matters pertaining to operational employment, training, and mission execution of its headquarters and supporting elements. The ATC officer serves as the airfield manager and monitors daily airfield operations. Additionally, the ATC officer—

z

Holds primary supervisory and management responsibility for the airfield.

z

Publishes and synchronizes local flying rules with tenant aviation units.

z

Attends planning meetings and provides input on issues affecting the airfield.

z

Attends flight standardization committee meetings and provides input on issues affecting the airfield and local flying area.

z

Establishes performance standards, procedures, and work priorities for airfield management and airfield operations personnel.

z

Validates crash and rescue requirements in coordination with the aviation safety officer, medical personnel, firefighters, and other appropriate authorities.

z

Maintains routine reporting and coordinates activities of liaison personnel.

z

Ensures command, control, communications, computer, and intelligence (C4I) procedures are in place to resolve complexities posed by different communications systems.

z

Maintains close coordination with the TAOG logistics (S-4) and personnel staff officer (S-1).

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FM 3-40.120

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Command and Control

z

Effects coordination with the area missile defense (AMD).

z

Serves as the commander’s representative on base defense operations cell counsel when required.

ATC Operations Chief

2-31. The ATC operations chief—

z

Monitors training and ensures personnel are trained on the collective tasks of the unit’s METL.

z

Constructs airfield operating SOPs, letters of agreement, and operations letters.

z

Conducts airfield inspections and checks.

z

Monitors airfield emergencies and completes incident reports as required.

z

Synchronizes airfield support activities.

z

Coordinates airfield construction and improvement activities.

z

Reviews airfield notice to airmen (NOTAMs).

z

Maintains accountability of airfield equipment.

z

Performs airfield noncommissioned officer in charge (NCOIC) duties.

z

Supervises the flight dispatch section.

Airfield Safety and Standards Element

2-32. The airfield safety and standards element section develops and implements a comprehensive accident prevention program to minimize the risk of aviation operations. This element develops a pre-accident plan and works collaboratively with airfield services elements and the aviation community. Airfield safety and standardization personnel coordinate aircraft accident investigations, review operational hazard reports, and publish flight procedures in theater-specific APGs. Additional responsibilities include—

z

Conducting initial and follow-up airfield safety inspections.

z

Developing local airfield flight procedures and rules.

z

Developing and ensuring currency of a local hazards map.

z

Establishing the airfield crash system.

z

Coordinating and securing additional assets as needed.

z

Reviewing and processing TERPs package for completeness and accuracy.

z

Scheduling flight inspections for NAVAIDs or radar approaches.

Airfield Safety Officer

2-33. The airfield safety officer (SO) is the commander’s principal assistant during the risk management process and monitors all AOB missions to identify and address potential hazards. He recommends actions that permit mission accomplishment in the safest manner possible. The SO is responsible for the safety contents of the reading files. He is also a principal trainer and peer leader for company SOs. The airfield SO also—

z

Represents the AOB commander on all safety-related matters.

z

Performs duties outlined in AR 385-10, AR 385-40, AR 385-95, Department of the Army pamphlet (DA Pam) 385-40, and training circular (TC) 1-210.

z

Investigates accidents or incidents involving aircraft or airfield personnel or equipment.

z

Assists the ATC officer in writing the preaccident plan. (Appendix B discusses emergency plans and procedures.)

z

Conducts airfield and safety inspections and advises airfield personnel on safety-related matters.

z

Schedules and conducts safety meetings and advises the airfield commander of potential problem areas.

z

Provides input to the local flying rules on safety-related matters.

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FM 3-04.120

2-7

Chapter 2

Airfield Services Element

2-34. The airfield services element is composed of the following personnel.

Aviation Operations Sergeant

2-35. The aviation operations sergeant—

z