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ANCIENT SWISS LAKE DWELLINGS, ZURICH LAKE. (From

Design by Dr. F. Keller.)

The Story of the Nations

THE STORY OF SWITZERLAND

BY

LINA HUG

AND

RICHARD STEAD

NEW YORK
 G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS
 London: T. FISHER

UNWIN
 1890
 
 Copyright, 1890
 by
 G. P. Putnam's

Sons
 
 Entered at Stationer's Hall, London
 By T. Fisher

Unwin
 
 Press of
 G. P. Putnam's Sons
 New York

THE STORY OF THE NATIONS

12MO, ILLUSTRATED. PER VOL., $1.50

THE EARLIER VOLUMES ARE

THE STORY OF GREECE. By Prof. Jas. A. Harrison
 THE STORY

OF ROME. By Arthur Gilman
 THE STORY OF THE JEWS. By Prof.

Jas. K. Hosmer
 THE STORY OF CHALDEA. By Z. A. Ragozin
 THE

STORY OF GERMANY. By S. Baring-Gould
 THE STORY OF

NORWAY. By Prof. H. H. Boyesen
 THE STORY OF SPAIN. By E.

E. and Susan Hale
 THE STORY OF HUNGARY. By Prof. A.

Vámbéry
 THE STORY OF CARTHAGE. By Prof. Alfred J.

Church
 THE STORY OF THE SARACENS. By Arthur Gilman
 THE

STORY OF THE MOORS IN SPAIN. By Stanley Lane-Poole
 THE

STORY OF THE NORMANS. By Sarah O. Jewett
 THE STORY OF

PERSIA. By S. G. W. Benjamin
 THE STORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT.

By Geo. Rawlinson
 THE STORY OF ALEXANDER'S EMPIRE. By

Prof. J. P. Mahaffy
 THE STORY OF ASSYRIA. By Z. A.

Ragozin
 THE STORY OF IRELAND. By Hon. Emily Lawless
 THE

STORY OF THE GOTHS. By Henry Bradley
 THE STORY OF

TURKEY. By Stanley Lane-Poole
 THE STORY OF MEDIA,

BABYLON, AND PERSIA. By Z. A. Ragozin
 THE STORY OF

MEDIÆVAL FRANCE. By Gustave Masson
 THE STORY OF

MEXICO. By Susan Hale
 THE STORY OF HOLLAND. By James E.

Thorold Rogers
 THE STORY OF PHŒNICIA. By George

Rawlinson
 THE STORY OF THE HANSA TOWNS. By Helen

Zimmern
 THE STORY OF EARLY BRITAIN. By Prof. Alfred J.

Church
 THE STORY OF THE BARBARY CORSAIRS. By Stanley

Lane-Poole
 THE STORY OF RUSSIA. By W. R. Morfill.
 THE

STORY OF THE JEWS UNDER ROME. By W. D. Morrison.
 THE

STORY OF SCOTLAND. By James Mackintosh.

For prospectus of the series see end of this volume

G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS, NEW YORK AND LONDON

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED
 TO
 PROFESSOR GEORG VON

WYSS
 AND
 PROFESSOR G. MEYER VON KNONAU

[Pg ix]

PREFACE.

For many reasons, some of which are obvious to the least thoughtful,

the history of Switzerland is peculiarly interesting, and not least so to

English-speaking peoples. In the first place, the "playground of

Europe" is every year visited by large numbers of British and

Americans, some of whom indeed are familiar with almost every

corner of it. Then to the Anglo-Saxon race the grand spectacle of a

handful of freemen nobly struggling for and maintaining their freedom,

often amidst enormous difficulties, and against appalling odds, cannot

but be heart-stirring. To the citizen of the great American republic a

study of the constitution of the little European republic should bring

both interest and profit—a constitution resembling in many points that

of his own country, and yet in many other respects so different. And

few readers, of whatever nationality, can, we think, peruse this story

without a feeling of admiration for a gallant people who have fought

against oppression as the Swiss have fought, who have loved

freedom as they

[Pg x]

have loved it, and who have performed the well-nigh incredible feats

of arms the Switzers have performed. And as Sir Francis O. Adams

and Mr. Cunningham well point out in their recently published work on

the Swiss Confederation, as a study in constitutional history, the

value of the story of the development of the Confederation can hardly

be over-estimated.

Few of the existing accounts of Swiss history which have appeared in

the English language go back beyond the year 1291 a.d., the date of

the earliest Swiss League, and of course Switzerland as a nation

cannot boast of an earlier origin. But surely some account should be

given of the previous history of the men who founded the League. For

a country which has been occupied at different periods by lakemen,

Helvetians, and Romans; where Alamanni, Burgundians, and Franks

have played their parts; where Charlemagne lived and ruled, and

Charles the Bold fought; where the great families of the Zaerings, the

Kyburgs, and Savoy struggled; and whence the now mighty house of

Habsburg sprang (and domineered)—all this before 1291—a country

with such a story to tell of its earlier times, we say, should not have

that story left untold. Accordingly in this volume the history of the

period before the formation of the Confederation has been dwelt upon

at some little length. It should be mentioned, too, that in view of the

very general interest caused by the remarkable discovery of the

Swiss lake settlements a few years ago, a chapter has been devoted

to the subject.

Mindful, however, of the superior importance of the

[Pg xi]

formation and progress of the Confederation, an endeavour has been

made to trace that progress step by step, showing how men differing

in race, in language, in creed, and in mode of life, combined to resist

the common enemy, and to build up the compact little state, we now

see playing its part on the European stage. The whole teaching of the

history of the country may be summed up in Mr. Coolidge's words, in

his "History of the Swiss Confederation" (p. 65). "Swiss history

teaches us, all the way through, that Swiss liberty has been won by a

close union of many small states." And Mr. Coolidge adds an opinion

that "it will be best preserved by the same means, and not by

obliterating all local peculiarities, nowhere so striking, nowhere so

historically important as in Switzerland."

It remains to add a few words as to the authorities consulted by the

writers of this little volume. The standard Swiss histories have

naturally been largely used, such as those of Dr. Carl Dändliker,

Dierauer, Vulliemin, Daguet, Strickler, Vögelin, and Weber

("Universal History"). Amongst other histories and miscellaneous

writings—essays, pamphlets, and what not—may be mentioned

those of Dr. Ferdinand Keller, Wartmann, Heer, Heierli, Von Arx,

Mommsen, Burkhardt, Morel, Marquardt, Dahn, Büdinger, Secretan,

Von Wyss, Meyer von Knonau, Schweizer, Finsler, Roget, Bächtold,

Marcmonnier, Rambert, Hettner, Scherer, Roquette, Freytag,

Pestalozzi, Schulze, and Kern. Amongst the English works consulted

are Freeman's writings, the Letters of the Parker Society, Adams and

Cunningham's

[Pg xii]

"Swiss Confederation," Coolidge's reprint from the "Encyclopædia

Britannica" of the article on the "History of the Swiss Confederation,"

Bryce's "Holy Roman Empire," &c.

The authors are indebted for most kind and valuable assistance to

several eminent Swiss scholars. To Prof. Georg von Wyss and Prof.

Meyer von Knonau special thanks are due, whilst Prof. Kesselring,

Herr J. Heierli, and others, have shown much helpful interest in the

progress of the work. They also owe many thanks to Dr. Imhoof, who

has most kindly furnished them with casts from his famous collection

of coins; and to the eminent sculptors, Vela and Lanz, who have

given permission to use photographs of their latest works for

illustration purposes.

Zurich and Folkestone, July, 1890.

[Pg xiii]

CONTENTS.

PAGE