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YOUTH
G. STANLEY HALL
CONTENTS
I.–PRE -ADOLESCE NCE
Introduction: Characterization of the age from
eight to twelve–The
era of recapitulating the stages of primitive human development–Life
close to nature–The age also for drill, habit uation, memory work, and
regermination–Adolescence superposed upon this stage of life, but
very distinct from it
II.–THE MUSCLES AND MOTOR POWERS IN GENE RAL
Muscles as organs of the will, of character, and even of thought–The
muscular virtues–Fundamental and accessory muscles and functions–The
development of the mind and of the upright position–Small muscles as
organs of thought–School lays too much stress upon these–Chorea–Vast
numbers of automatic movements in children–Great variety of
spontaneous activities–Poise, control, and spurtiness–Pen and tongue
wagging–Sedentary school life vs. free out-of-door activities–Modern
decay of muscles, especially in girls–Plasticity of motor habits at
puberty
III.–INDUS TRIA L EDUCA TION.
Trade classes and schools, their importance in the int ernational
market–Our dangers and the superiority of German workmen–The eects
of a tari–Description of schools between the kindergarten and the
industrial school–Equal salaries for teachers in France–Dangers from
machinery–The advantages of life on the old New England farm–Its
resemblance to the educ ation we now give negroes and Indians–Its
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advantage for all-sided muscular development
IV.–MANUAL TRAINING AND SLOY D.
History of the movement–Its philosophy–The value of hand training in
the development of the brain and its significance in the making of
man–A grammar of our many industries hard–The best we do can reach
but few–V ery great defects in manual training methods which do not
base on science and make nothing salable–The Leipzig system–Sloyd is
hypermethodic–These crude peasant industries can never satisfy
educational needs–The gospel of work; William Morris and the arts and
crafts movement–Its spirit desirable–The magic eects of a brief
period of intense work–The nat ural development of the drawing
instinct in the child
V.–GYMNAS TICS
The story of Jahn and the Turners–The enthusiasm which this movement
generated in Germany–The ideal of bringing out latent powers–The
concept of more perfect voluntary control–S wedish gymnastics–Doing
everything possible for the body as a machine–Liberal physical
culture–Ling’s orthogenic scheme of economic postures and movements
and correcting defects–The ideal of symmetry and prescribing
exercises to bring the body to a standard–Lamentable lack of
correlation between these four systems–Illustrations of the great
good that a systematic training can eect–Athletic records–Greek
physical training
VI.–PLAY, SPORTS, AND GAMES
The view of Groos partial, and a better explanation of play proposed
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