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Up from Slavery: An Autobiography

Black Race And Red Race
During the year that I spent in Washington, and for some little time before this, there had
been considerable agitation in the state of West Virginia over the question of moving the
capital of the state from Wheeling to some other central point. As a result of this, the
Legislature designated three cities to be voted upon by the citizens of the state as the
permanent seat of government. Among these cities was Charleston, only five miles from
Malden, my home. At the close of my school year in Washington I was very pleasantly
surprised to receive, from a committee of three white people in Charleston, an invitation
to canvass the state in the interests of that city. This invitation I accepted, and spent
nearly three months in speaking in various parts of the state. Charleston was successful in
winning the prize, and is now the permanent seat of government.
The reputation that I made as a speaker during this campaign induced a number of
persons to make an earnest effort to get me to enter political life, but I refused, still
believing that I could find other service which would prove of more permanent value to
my race. Even then I had a strong feeling that what our people most needed was to get a
foundation in education, industry, and property, and for this I felt that they could better
afford to strive than for political preferment. As for my individual self, it appeared to me
to be reasonably certain that I could succeed in political life, but I had a feeling that it
would be a rather selfish kind of success--individual success at the cost of failing to do
my duty in assisting in laying a foundation for the masses.
At this period in the progress of our race a very large proportion of the young men who
went to school or to college did so with the expressed determination to prepare
themselves to be great lawyers, or Congressmen, and many of the women planned to
become music teachers; but I had a reasonably fixed idea, even at that early period in my
life, that there was a need for something to be done to prepare the way for successful
lawyers, Congressmen, and music teachers.
I felt that the conditions were a good deal like those of an old coloured man, during the
days of slavery, who wanted to learn how to play on the guitar. In his desire to take guitar
lessons he applied to one of his young masters to teach him, but the young man, not
having much faith in the ability of the slave to master the guitar at his age, sought to
discourage him by telling him: "Uncle Jake, I will give you guitar lessons; but, Jake, I
will have to charge you three dollars for the first lesson, two dollars for the second lesson,
and one dollar for the third lesson. But I will charge you only twenty-five cents for the
last lesson."
Uncle Jake answered: "All right, boss, I hires you on dem terms. But, boss! I wants yer to
be sure an' give me dat las' lesson first."