The Religion of the Samurai
3. The Universe Is The Scripture[Fn#107] Of Zen
1. Scripture is no More than Waste Paper.
[FN#107] Zen is not based on any particular sutra, either of Mahayana or of Hinayana.
There are twofold Tripitakas (or the three collections of the Buddhist scriptures)-namely,
the Mahayana-tripitaka and the Hinayana-tripitaka. The former are the basis of the
Mahayana, or the higher and reformed Buddhism, full of profound metaphysical
reasonings; while the latter form that of the Hinayana, or the lower and early Buddhism,
which is simple and ethical teaching. These twofold Tripitakas are as follows:
The Sutra Pitaka.-The Saddharma-pundarika-sutra, Samdhi-nirmocana-sutra,
Avatamsaka-sutra, Prajnyaparamita-sutra, Amitayus-sutra, Mahaparinirvana-sutra, etc.
The Vinaya Pitaka.--Brahmajala-sutra, Bodhisattva-caryanirdeca, etc.
The Abhidharma Pitaka.--Mahaprajnyaparamita-sutra, Mahayana-craddhotpada-castra,
Madhyamaka-castra, Yogacarya bhumi-castra, etc.
THE HINAYANA-TRIPITAKA. The Sutra Pitaka.--Dirghagama, Ekottaragama,
Madhyamagama, Samyuktagama, etc.
The Vinaya Pitaka.--Dharmagupta-vinaya, Mahasamghika-vinaya, Sarvastivada-vinaya,
Jnyanaprasthana-castra, Abhidharma-kosa-castra, etc.
The term 'Tripitaka,' however, was not known at the time of Shakya Muni, and almost all
of the northern Buddhist records agree in stating that the Tripitaka was rehearsed and
settled in the same year in which the Muni died. Mahavansa also says: "The book called
Abhidharma-pitaka was compiled, which was preached to god, and was arranged in due
order by 500 Budhu priests." But we believe that Shakya Muni's teaching was known to
the early Buddhists, not as Tripitaka, but as Vinaya and Dharma, and even at the time of
King Acoka (who ascended the throne about 269 B.C.) it was not called Tripitaka, but
Dharma, as we have it in his Edicts. Mahayanists unanimously assert the compilation of
the Tripitaka in the first council of Rajagrha, but they differ in opinion as to the question
who rehearsed the Abhidharma; notwithstanding, they agree as for the other respects, as
you see in the following:
The Sutra Pitaka, compiled by Ananda; the Vinaya Pitaka, compiled by Upali; the