The Problems of Philosophy
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May
1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathem-
atician, historian, religious sceptic, social reformer, socialist and pacifist.
Although he spent the majority of his life in England, he was born in
Wales, where he also died. Russell led the British "revolt against ideal-
ism" in the early 1900s and is considered one of the founders of analytic
philosophy along with his protégé Wittgenstein and his elder Frege. He
co-authored, with A. N. Whitehead, Principia Mathematica, an attempt
to ground mathematics on logic. His philosophical essay "On Denoting"
has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy." Both works have had a
considerable influence on logic, mathematics, set theory, linguistics and
analytic philosophy. He was a prominent anti-war activist, championing
free trade between nations and anti-imperialism. Russell was imprisoned
for his pacifist activism during World War I, campaigned against Adolf
Hitler, for nuclear disarmament, criticised Soviet totalitarianism and the
United States of America's involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1950,
Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "in recognition of his
varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian
ideals and freedom of thought."
Also available on Feedbooks for Russell:
• Mysticism and Logic and Other Essays (1918)
• Political Ideals (1917)
• Proposed Roads to Freedom (1918)
Copyright: This work was published before 1923 and is in the public do-
main in the USA only.
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