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The Kama Sutra

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subject was popularly called Koka Shastra, or doctrines of Koka,
which is identical with the Kama Shastra, or doctrines of love, and
the words Koka Shastra and Kama Shastra are used
The work contains nearly eight hundred verses, and is divided into
ten chapters, which are called called Pachivedas. Some of the
things treated of in this work are not to be found in the Vatsyayana,
such as the four classes of women, viz., the Padmini, Chitrini,
Shankini and Hastini, as also the enumeration of the days and
hours on which the women of the different classes become subject
to love. The author adds that he wrote these things from the
opinions of Gonikaputra and Nandikeshwara, both of whom are
mentioned by Vatsyayana, but their works are not now extant. It is
difficult to give any approximate idea as to the year in which the
work was composed. It is only to be presumed that it was written
after that of Vatsyayana, and previous to the other works on this
subject that are still extant. Vatsyayana gives the names of ten
authors on the subject, all of whose works he had consulted, but
none of which are extant, and does not mention this one. This
would tend to show that Kukkoka wrote after Vatsya, otherwise
Vatsya would assuredly have mentioned him as an author in this
branch of literature along with the others.
The author of the 'Five Arrows' (No. 2 in the list) was one
Jyotirisha. He is called the chief ornament of poets, the treasure of
the sixty-four arts, and the best teacher of the rules of music. He
says that he composed the work after reflecting on the aphorisms
of love as revealed by the gods, and studying the opinions of
Gonikaputra, Muladeva, Babhravya, Ramtideva, Nundikeshwara
and Kshemandra. It is impossible to say whether he had perused all
the works of these authors, or had only heard about them; anyhow,
none of them appear to be in existence now. This work contains
nearly six hundred verses, and is divided into five chapters, called
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