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The Golden Bough

Chapter 31. Adonis in Cyprus
THE ISLAND of Cyprus lies but one day's sail from the coast of Syria. Indeed, on fine
summer evenings its mountains may be descried looming low and dark against the red
fires of sunset. With its rich mines of copper and its forests of firs and stately cedars, the
island naturally attracted a commercial and maritime people like the Phoenicians; while
the abundance of its corn, its wine, and its oil must have rendered it in their eyes a Land
of Promise by comparison with the niggardly nature of their own rugged coast, hemmed
in between the mountains and the sea. Accordingly they settled in Cyprus at a very early
date and remained there long after the Greeks had also established themselves on its
shores; for we know from inscriptions and coins that Phoenician kings reigned at Citium,
the Chittim of the Hebrews, down to the time of Alexander the Great. Naturally the
Semitic colonists brought their gods with them from the mother-land. They worshipped
Baal of the Lebanon, who may well have been Adonis, and at Amathus on the south coast
they instituted the rites of Adonis and Aphrodite, or rather Astarte. Here, as at Byblus,
these rites resembled the Egyptian worship of Osiris so closely that some people even
identified the Adonis of Amathus with Osiris.
But the great seat of the worship of Aphrodite and Adonis in Cyprus was Paphos on the
south-western side of the island. Among the petty kingdoms into which Cyprus was
divided from the earliest times until the end of the fourth century before our era Paphos
must have ranked with the best. It is a land of hills and billowy ridges, diversified by
fields and vineyards and intersected by rivers, which in the course of ages have carved for
themselves beds of such tremendous depth that travelling in the interior is difficult and
tedious. The lofty range of Mount Olympus (the modern Troodos), capped with snow the
greater part of the year, screens Paphos from the northerly and easterly winds and cuts it
off from the rest of the island. On the slopes of the range the last pine-woods of Cyprus
linger, sheltering here and there monasteries in scenery not unworthy of the Apennines.
The old city of Paphos occupied the summit of a hill about a mile from the sea; the newer
city sprang up at the harbour some ten miles off. The sanctuary of Aphrodite at Old
Paphos (the modern Kuklia) was one of the most celebrated shrines in the ancient world.
According to Herodotus, it was founded by Phoenician colonists from Ascalon; but it is
possible that a native goddess of fertility was worshipped on the spot before the arrival of
the Phoenicians, and that the newcomers identified her with their own Baalath or Astarte,
whom she may have closely resembled. If two deities were thus fused in one, we may
suppose that they were both varieties of that great goddess of motherhood and fertility
whose worship appears to have been spread all over Western Asia from a very early time.
The supposition is confirmed as well by the archaic shape of her image as by the
licentious character of her rites; for both that shape and those rites were shared by her
with other Asiatic deities. Her image was simply a white cone or pyramid. In like
manner, a cone was the emblem of Astarte at Byblus, of the native goddess whom the
Greeks called Artemis at Perga in Pamphylia, and of the sun-god Heliogabalus at Emesa
in Syria. Conical stones, which apparently served as idols, have also been found at Golgi
in Cyprus, and in the Phoenician temples of Malta; and cones of sandstone came to light
 
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