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The Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism

Catholics, and 1505 in the Acts, Paul, and Catholics) which contain a text neither
Alexandrian nor Byzantine (some have called it “Western”; this is open to debate. For
more on the matter, see the entry on 2138).
The above list shows that we know quite a bit about certain manuscripts. Even so, the
matter of manuscript classi?cation remains highly uncertain. The reader interested in a
discussion of contemporary issues is referred to the article on Text-Types and Textual
Perhaps as a result of this uncertainty, textual criticism in the twentieth century has
placed increased emphasis on internal evidence. All textual critics balance internal and
external evidence to some degree, but the twentieth century has seen a new class of
critics. Often called “Radical” or “Thoroughgoing Eclectics,” they decide readings almost
entirely on the basis of internal evidence; manuscripts are simply the sources of the
readings to be examined. Foremost among these scholars are G. D. Kilpatrick and J.
Keith Elliot.
The “documentary” methods of Hort, meanwhile, have been almost completely
abandoned. The most common method today is “Reasoned Eclecticism,” which
attempts to give both internal and external evidence full voice. The interested reader is
therefore advised to study the list of Canons of Criticism, examining both the rules for
internal and external evidence.
Final Examples
Let us conclude this far-too-brief survey with a handful of addition examples that
demonstrate both internal and external rules. A handful of additional Examples are
available in the Encyclopedia, but many of these stress the use of text-types and
external evidence, and so are perhaps not ideal for beginning students.
In the examples below, where the “lemma” (the Greek text to be examined) contains the
notation [add], it means that some manuscripts add words, to be speci?ed in the list of
variants which follows the main text.
James 5:7
? ?e?????.... ?aß? [add] p???µ?? ?a? ???µ??: the farmer.... receives.... early and late
add ?et??, “rain,” i.e. read the farmer receives early and late rain A K L P ? 049 056
0142 33 81 88 104 181 322 323 330 (436) 451 614 629 1243 1505 1611 1735 1852
2138 2344 2412 2464 2492 2495 Byz pesh harktext geoms slav
The Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism