The Communist Manifesto
MANIFESTO OF THE
[From the English edition of 1888, edited by Friedrich Engels]
A spectre is haunting Europe—the spectre of Communism. All
the Powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance
to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Czar, Metternich and
Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies.
Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as
Communistic by its opponents in power? Where is the Opposition
that has not hurled back the branding reproach of Communism,
against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its
Two things result from this fact.
I. Communism is already acknowledged by all European Powers to
be itself a Power.
II. It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the
whole world, publish their views, their aims, their tendencies, and
meet this nursery tale of the Spectre of Communism with a
Manifesto of the party itself.
To this end, Communists of various nationalities have assembled
in London, and sketched the following Manifesto, to be published
in the English, French, German, Italian, Flemish and Danish
I. BOURGEOIS AND PROLETARIANS