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Stoics and Skeptics


as being precisely the attitude of the ancient Stoics,
he
is, I think, open to criticism, but, even so, it seems
to
me that he has helped me to understand the true inward-
ness of ancient Stoicism better than I should have
done otherwise. For Posidonius and the Middle Stoa,
A. Schmekel's Die Philosophic der mittleren Stoa (1892)
is now the book. In French there is a readable mono-
graph by F. Ogereau, Essai sur le systime philosophique
des Stoiciens (1885). In English, two books on Stoicism
have been produced in recent years, Professor W. L.
Davidson's The Stoic Creed (1907) and Professor E.
Vernon Arnold's Roman Stoicism (1911). If the only
references to them in the following lectures express
dissent, I hope I shall not be understood to deny the
PREFACE 7
merits of either work. The points on which one feels
in disagreement are naturally the points where one is
moved to speak. When one assents, no remark seems
called for. Mr. St. George Stock's little book,
Stoicism,
in Constable's Philosophies Ancient and Modern, and
Mr. R. D. Hicks's Stoic and Epicurean (1910) in the
Epochs of Philosophy series (Longmans), may also be
read
with profit. On the subject of Posidonius and the
later Hellenistic theology, Professor Gilbert Murray's
third lecture in his recently published book, Four
Stages
of Greek Religion, should by no means be overlooked.
It will take many people for the first time into a dim
world which is only beginning to be explored, and
they could have no more delightful mystagogos than
Professor Murray. A pupil is not in a position to
dispense praise to his master, but he may express
gratitude. The texts upon which a study of the
Old Stoa must be based have been collected by Hans
von Arnim (Stoicorum velerum fragment^ Leipzig,
vol. i, 1 905 ; vols. ii and iii, 1 903). There is an
earlier
collection of the fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes, by
A. C. Pearson (Cambridge University Press, 1891),
still useful because of the commentary by which the
texts are accompanied. References to earlier writers on
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