This phrase translates into English as “buyer beware”.
1.2. Commercial activity
Co mme rcia l act ivity inc ludes producing ite ms for sale, performing services
for fees, and trading one ite m for another.
Trade involves buying and selling, and e xchanging one ite m for another.
Trade is a ma jor part o f co mme rcia l activ ity, however it does not involve any
creation or production of its own accord.
Trade simply involves exchanging one ite m for another ite m.
In most cases one of the ite ms will be an a mount of cash, however the net
value that is held after the transaction is the same as the amount held before
the transaction, all e lse being equal.
Producing ite ms of practica l value may involve fa rming, manufacturing ite ms
fro m raw materials, building, and any other activity wh ich results in creating
an ite m of p ractical use.
Services involve any activity that is practically useful of its own accord,
rather than activity that results in an ite m be ing created.
This includes personal services such as haircuts, organising projects,
transactions, events, and transport.
Co mme rcia l act ivity does not involve activity that is not directed at trade
For e xa mp le, constructing a building for personal use, or creating an artistic
work, are not comme rcia l act ivities.
However, if these items were later sold to another party, then the sale itself
would be a co mme rcia l transaction.
Business involves conducting activities of a co mme rcia l nature.