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Psychology and Meaning

as naming any-
thing, but as possessing an intension and an extension.
This book may be regarded as a third volume of the
series which I have
called "Studies in Semantics", two volumes of which
were published ear-
lier. However, the present book does not presuppose the
knowledge of its
predecessors but is independent. The semantical terms
used in the present
volume are fully explained in the text. The present
method for defining the
L- terms (for example, 'L-true', meaning* logically
true', ' analytic') differs
from the methods discussed in the earlier Introduction
to Semantics. I now
think that the method used in this volume is more
satisfactory for lan-
guages of a relatively simple structure.
After meaning analysis, the second main topic discussed
in this book is
modal logic, that is, the theory of modalities, such as
necessity, contin-
gency, possibility, impossibility, etc. Various systems
of modal logic have
been proposed by various authors. It seems to me,
however, that it is not
possible to construct a satisfactory system before the
meanings of the
modalities are sufficiently clarified. I further
believe that this clarification
can best be achieved by correlating each of the modal
concepts with a cor-
responding semantical concept (for example, necessity
with L-truth). It
will be seen that this method also leads to a
clarification and elimination
of certain puzzles which logicians have encountered in
connection with
modalities. In the Preface to the second volume of
"Studies in Semantics,"
I announced my intention to publish, as the next
volume, a book on
modal logic containing, among other things, syntactical
and semantical
systems which combine modalities with quantification.
The present book,