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Psychological Types

have assumed another type if no abnormal and disturbing external influence had intervened. As
a rule, whenever such a falsification of type takes place as a result of external [p. 416]
influence, the individual becomes neurotic later, and a cur can successfully be sought only in a
development of that attitude which corresponds with the individual's natural way.
As regards the particular disposition, I know not what to say, except that there are clearly
individuals who have either a greater readiness and capacity for one way, or for whom it is
more congenial to adapt to that way rather than the other. In the last analysis it may well be that
physiological causes, inaccessible to our knowledge, play a part in this. That this may be the
case seems to me not improbable, in view of one's experience that a reversal of type often
proves exceedingly harmful to the physiological well-being of the organism, often provoking an
acute state of exhaustion.
B. The Extraverted Type
In our descriptions of this and the following type it will be necessary, in the interest of lucid and
comprehensive presentation, to discriminate between the conscious and unconscious
psychology. Let us first lend our minds to a description of the phenomena of consciousness.
Everyone is, admittedly, orientated by the data with which the outer world provides him ; yet we
see that this may be the case in a way that is only relatively decisive. Because it is cold out of
doors, one man is persuaded to wear his overcoat, another from a desire to become hardened
finds this unnecessary; one man admires the new tenor because all the world admires him,
another withholds his approbation not because he dislikes him but because in his view the
subject of general admiration is not thereby proved to be admirable; one submits to [p. 417] a
given state of affairs because his experience argues nothing else to be possible, another is
convinced that, although it has repeated itself a thousand times in the same way, the thousand
and first will be different. The former is orientated by the objective data; the latter reserves a
view, which is, as it were, interposed between himself and the objective fact. Now, when the
orientation to the object and to objective facts is so predominant that the most frequent and
essential decisions and actions are determined, not by subjective values but by objective
relations, one speaks of an extraverted attitude. When this is habitual, one speaks of an
extraverted type. If a man so thinks, feels, and acts, in a word so lives, as to correspond
directly with objective conditions and their claims, whether in a good sense or ill, he is
extraverted. His life makes it perfectly clear that it is the objective rather than the subjective
value which plays the greater role as the determining factor of his consciousness. He naturally
has subjective values, but their determining power has less importance than the external
objective conditions. Never, therefore, does he expect to find any absolute factors in his own
inner life, since the only ones he knows are outside himself. Epimetheus-like, his inner life
succumbs to the external necessity, not of course without a struggle; which, however, always
ends in favour of the objective determinant. His entire consciousness looks outwards to the
world, because the important and decisive determination always comes to him from without.
But it comes to him from without, only because that is where he expects it. All the distinguishing
characteristics of his psychology, in so far as they do not arise from the priority of one definite
psychological function or from individual peculiarities, have their origin in this basic attitude.
Interest and attention follow objective happenings and, primarily, those of the immediate
environment. Not [p. 418] only persons, but things, seize and rivet his interest. His actions,
therefore, are also governed by the influence of persons and things. They are directly related to
objective data and determinations, and are, as it were, exhaustively explainable on these
grounds. Extraverted action is recognizably related to objective conditions. In so far it is not
purely reactive to environmental stimuli, it character is constantly applicable to the actual
circumstances, and it finds adequate and appropriate play within the limits of the objective
situation. It has no serious tendency to transcend these bounds. The same holdsgood for
interest: objective occurrences have a well-nigh inexhaustible charm, so that in the normal
course the extravert's interest makes no other claims.