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Massacres of the South

Chapter 2
The death of Henri IV led to new conflicts, in which although at first success was
on the side of the Protestants it by degrees went over to the Catholics; for with
the accession of Louis XIII Richelieu had taken possession of the throne: beside
the king sat the cardinal; under the purple mantle gleamed the red robe. It was at
this crisis that Henri de Rohan rose to eminence in the South. He was one of the
most illustrious representatives of that great race which, allied as it was to the
royal houses of Scotland, France, Savoy, and Lorraine; had taken as their
device, "Be king I cannot, prince I will not, Rohan I am."
Henri de Rohan was at this time about forty years of age, in the prime of life. In
his youth, in order to perfect his education, he had visited England, Scotland, and
Italy. In England Elizabeth had called him her knight; in Scotland James VI had
asked him to stand godfather to his son, afterwards Charles I; in Italy he had
been so deep in the confidence of the leaders of men, and so thoroughly initiated
into the politics of the principal cities, that it was commonly said that, after
Machiavel, he was the greatest authority in these matters. He had returned to
France in the lifetime of Henry IV, and had married the daughter of Sully, and
after Henri's death had commanded the Swiss and the Grison regiments--at the
siege of Juliers. This was the man whom the king was so imprudent as to offend
by refusing him the reversion of the office of governor of Poitou, which was then
held by Sully, his father-in-law. In order to revenge himself for the neglect he met
with at court, as he states in his Memoires with military ingenuousness, he
espoused the cause of Conde with all his heart, being also drawn in this direction
by his liking for Conde's brother and his consequent desire to help those of
Conde's religion.
From this day on street disturbances and angry disputes assumed another
aspect: they took in a larger area and were not so readily appeased. It was no
longer an isolated band of insurgents which roused a city, but rather a
conflagration which spread over the whole South, and a general uprising which
was almost a civil war.
This state of things lasted for seven or eight years, and during this time Rohan,
abandoned by Chatillon and La Force, who received as the reward of their
defection the field marshal's baton, pressed by Conde, his old friend, and by
Montmorency, his consistent rival, performed prodigies of courage and miracles
of strategy. At last, without soldiers, without ammunition, without money, he still
appeared to Richelieu to be so redoubtable that all the conditions of surrender he
demanded were granted. The maintenance of the Edict of Nantes was
guaranteed, all the places of worship were to be restored to the Reformers, and a
general amnesty granted to himself and his partisans. Furthermore, he obtained
what was an unheard-of thing until then, an indemnity of 300,000 livres for his
expenses during the rebellion; of which sum he allotted 240,000 livres to his co-
religionists--that is to say, more than three-quarters of the entire amount--and
kept, for the purpose of restoring his various chateaux and setting his domestic