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Literary and Philosophic Essays


LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL ESSAYS
VARIOUS*
HARVA RD CLASSICS V32
CONTENTS
THA T WE SHOULD NOT JUDGE OF OUR HAPPINESS UNTIL AFTER
OUR DEA TH THA T
TO PHILOS OPHISE IS TO LEA RNE How TO DIE OF THE INS TITUTION
AND
EDUCA TION OF CHILDRE N OF FRIE NDS HIP OF BOOKES BY MON-
TA IGNE
MONTA IGNE
WHAT IS A CLASSIC? BY CHASLES-A UGUS TIN SAINTE -BEUVE
THE POE TRY OF THE CE LTIC RA CES BY ERNES T RE NAN
THE EDUCA TION OF THE HUMAN RACE BY GOTTHOLD EPHRA IM
LESSING
LETTERS UP ON THE AESTHE TIC EDUCA TION OF MAN BY J. C.
FRIE DRICH VON
SCHILLER
FUNDAME NTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE ME TAPHYSIC OF MORA LS
TRANS ITION FROM POPULAR MORAL P HILOSOP HY TO THE META -
PHYSIC OF MORALS
IMMANUEL KA NT
BYRON A ND GOE THE BY GIUSEPPE MA ZZINI
INTRODUCTORY NOTE
* PDF created by pdfbooks.co.za
1Michel Eyquem De Montaigne, the founder of the modern Essay, was
born February 28, 1533, at the chat eau of Montaigne in Pirigord. He
came of a family of wealthy merchants of Bordeaux, and was educated
at the College de Guyenne, where he had among his teachers the great
Scottish Latinist, George Buchanan. Later he studied law, and held
various public o?ces; but at the age of thirty-eight he retired to
his estates, where he lived apart from the civil wars of the time,
and devoted himself to study and thought. While he was traveling in
Germany and Italy, in 1580-81, he was elected mayor of Bordeaux, and
this o?ce he ?lled for four years. He married in 1565, and had
six daughters, only one of whom grew up. The ?rst two books of his
”Essays” appeared in 1580; the third in 1588; and four years later
he died.
These are the main external facts of Montaigne’s life: of the man
himself the portrait is to be found in his book. ”It is myself I
portray,” he declares; and there is nowhere in literature a volume
of self-revelation surpassing his in charm and candor. He is frankly
egotistical, yet modest and unpretentious; profoundly wise, yet
constantly protesting his ignorance; learned, yet careless,
forget ful, and inconsistent. His themes are as wide and varied as
his observation of human life, and he has written the ?nest eulogy
of friendship the world has known. Bacon, who knew his book and
borrowed from it, wrote on the same sub ject; and the contrast of the
essays is the true re?ection of the contrast between the
personalities of their authors.
Shortly after Montaigne’s death the ”Essays” were translated into
English by John Florio, with less than exact accuracy, but in a
style so full of the ?avor of the age that we still read Montaigne
in the version which Shakespeare knew. The group of examples here
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