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Democratizing Innovation


Contents
Contents
Democratizing Innovation,
Eric von Hipel 1
Attribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Democratizing Innovation 3
1 Introduction and Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 Development of Products by Lead Users . . . . . . . . 15
3 Why Many Users Want Custom Products . . . . . . . . 23
4 Users' Innovate-or-Buy Decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5 Users' Low-Cost Innovation Niches . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
6 Why Users Often Freely Reveal Their Innovations . . . 50
7 Innovation Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
8 Adapting Policy to User Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
9 Democratizing Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10 Application: Searching for Lead User Innovations . . . 84
11 Application: Toolkits for User Innovation and Custom
Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
12 Linking User Innovation to Other Phenomena and Fields105
Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Index
127
Metadata 134
SiSU Metadata, document information . . . . . . . . . . . 134
SiSU
iii
 
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