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Beyond Good and Evil

formula: it promised a transvaluation of all ancient values--It was the Orient, the
PROFOUND Orient, it was the Oriental slave who thus took revenge on Rome and its
noble, light-minded toleration, on the Roman "Catholicism" of non-faith, and it was
always not the faith, but the freedom from the faith, the half-stoical and smiling
indifference to the seriousness of the faith, which made the slaves indignant at their
masters and revolt against them. "Enlightenment" causes revolt, for the slave desires the
unconditioned, he understands nothing but the tyrannous, even in morals, he loves as he
hates, without NUANCE, to the very depths, to the point of pain, to the point of sickness-
-his many HIDDEN sufferings make him revolt against the noble taste which seems to
DENY suffering. The skepticism with regard to suffering, fundamentally only an attitude
of aristocratic morality, was not the least of the causes, also, of the last great slave-
insurrection which began with the French Revolution.
47. Wherever the religious neurosis has appeared on the earth so far, we find it connected
with three dangerous prescriptions as to regimen: solitude, fasting, and sexual abstinence-
-but without its being possible to determine with certainty which is cause and which is
effect, or IF any relation at all of cause and effect exists there. This latter doubt is
justified by the fact that one of the most regular symptoms among savage as well as
among civilized peoples is the most sudden and excessive sensuality, which then with
equal suddenness transforms into penitential paroxysms, world-renunciation, and will-
renunciation, both symptoms perhaps explainable as disguised epilepsy? But nowhere is
it MORE obligatory to put aside explanations around no other type has there grown such
a mass of absurdity and superstition, no other type seems to have been more interesting to
men and even to philosophers--perhaps it is time to become just a little indifferent here,
to learn caution, or, better still, to look AWAY, TO GO AWAY--Yet in the background
of the most recent philosophy, that of Schopenhauer, we find almost as the problem in
itself, this terrible note of interrogation of the religious crisis and awakening. How is the
negation of will POSSIBLE? how is the saint possible?--that seems to have been the very
question with which Schopenhauer made a start and became a philosopher. And thus it
was a genuine Schopenhauerian consequence, that his most convinced adherent (perhaps
also his last, as far as Germany is concerned), namely, Richard Wagner, should bring his
own life- work to an end just here, and should finally put that terrible and eternal type
upon the stage as Kundry, type vecu, and as it loved and lived, at the very time that the
mad-doctors in almost all European countries had an opportunity to study the type close
at hand, wherever the religious neurosis--or as I call it, "the religious mood"--made its
latest epidemical outbreak and display as the "Salvation Army"--If it be a question,
however, as to what has been so extremely interesting to men of all sorts in all ages, and
even to philosophers, in the whole phenomenon of the saint, it is undoubtedly the
appearance of the miraculous therein--namely, the immediate SUCCESSION OF
OPPOSITES, of states of the soul regarded as morally antithetical: it was believed here to
be self-evident that a "bad man" was all at once turned into a "saint," a good man. The
hitherto existing psychology was wrecked at this point, is it not possible it may have
happened principally because psychology had placed itself under the dominion of morals,
because it BELIEVED in oppositions of moral values, and saw, read, and
INTERPRETED these oppositions into the text and facts of the case? What? "Miracle"
only an error of interpretation? A lack of philology?