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An Autobiography

of white biscuit for the second class for one day in the week. Sir John Campbell's gift of a
beautiful park to the citizens of Auckland was made while my brother John was alive.
Just recently he has given money and plans for building and equipping the first free
kindergarten in Auckland--perhaps in New Zealand--and as this includes a training
college for the students it is very complete. These Palmyra passengers have made their
mark on the history of Australia and New Zealand. It is surprising what a fine class of
people immigrated to Australia in these days to face all the troubles of a new country.
The first issue of The Register was printed in London, and gave a glowing account of the
province that was to be--its climate, its resources, the sound principles on which it was
founded. It is sometimes counted as a reproach that South Australia was founded by
doctrinaires and that we retain traces of our origin; to me it is our glory. In the land laws
and the immigration laws it struck out a new path, and sought to found a new community
where the sexes should be equal, and where land, labour, and capital should work
harmoniously together. Land was not to be given away in huge grants, as had been done
in New South Wales and Western Australia, to people with influence or position, but was
to be sold at the high price of 20/ an acre. The price should be not too high to bring out
people to work on the land. The Western Australian settlers had been wellnigh starved,
because there was no labour to give real value to the paper or parchment deeds. The
cheapest fare third class was from 17 pounds to 20 pounds, and the family immigration,
which is the best, was quite out of the reach of those who were needed. The immigrants
were not bound to work for any special individual or company, unless by special contract
voluntarily made. They were often in better circumstances after the lapse of a few years
than the landbuyers, and, in the old days, the owner of an 80-acre section worked harder
and for longer hours than any hired man would do, or could be expected to do.
In the South Australian Public Library there is a curious record--the minutes and
proceedings of the South Australian Literary Society, in the years 1831-5. As the
province was non-existent at that time, this cultivation of literature seems premature, but
the members, 40 in number, were its founders, and pending the passage of the Bill by the
Imperial Parliament, they met fortnightly in London to discuss its prospects, and to read
papers on exploration and on matters of future development and government. The first
paper was on education for the new land, and was read by Richard Davies Hanson. The
South Australian Company and Mr. George Fife Angas came to the rescue by buying a
considerable area of land and making up the amount of capital which was required. It is
interesting to note that the casting vote in the House of Lords which decided that the
province of South Australia should come into existence was given by the Duke of
Wellington. Adelaide was to have been called Wellington, but somehow the Queen
Consort's name carried the day. The name of the conquerer of Waterloo is immortalized
in the capital of the Dominion of New Zealand, in the North Island, which, like South
Australia, was founded on the Wakefield principle of selling land for money to be applied
for immigration. The 40 signatures in the records of the South Australian Literary Society
are most interesting to an old colonist like myself, and the names of many of them are
perpetuated in those of our rivers and our streets:--Torrens, Wright, Brown, Gilbert,
Gouger, Hanson, Kingston, Wakefield, Morphett, Childers, Hill (Rowland), Stephens,
Mawn, Furniss, Symonds. The second issue of The Register was printed in Adelaide. It