A Discourse Upon the Origin and the Foundation of the Inequality Among Mankind
Jean Jacques Rousseau was born at Geneva, June 28, 1712, the son of a watchmaker of
French origin. His education was irregular, and though he tried many professions--
including engraving, music, and teaching--he found it difficult to support himself in any
of them. The discovery of his talent as a writer came with the winning of a prize offered
by the Academy of Dijon for a discourse on the question, "Whether the progress of the
sciences and of letters has tended to corrupt or to elevate morals." He argued so
brilliantly that the tendency of civilization was degrading that he became at once famous.
The discourse here printed on the causes of inequality among men was written in a
He now concentrated his powers upon literature, producing two novels, "La Nouvelle
Heloise," the forerunner and parent of endless sentimental and picturesque fictions; and
"Emile, ou l'Education," a work which has had enormous influence on the theory and
practise of pedagogy down to our own time and in which the Savoyard Vicar appears,
who is used as the mouthpiece for Rousseau's own religious ideas. "Le Contrat Social"
(1762) elaborated the doctrine of the discourse on inequality. Both historically and
philosophically it is unsound; but it was the chief literary source of the enthusiasm for
liberty, fraternity, and equality, which inspired the leaders of the French Revolution, and
its effects passed far beyond France.
His most famous work, the "Confessions," was published after his death. This book is a
mine of information as to his life, but it is far from trustworthy; and the picture it gives of
the author's personality and conduct, though painted in such a way as to make it
absorbingly interesting, is often unpleasing in the highest degree. But it is one of the great
autobiographies of the world.
During Rousseau's later years he was the victim of the delusion of persecution; and
although he was protected by a succession of good friends, he came to distrust and
quarrel with each in turn. He died at Ermenonville, near Paris, July 2, 1778, the most
widely influential French writer of his age.
The Savoyard Vicar and his "Profession of Faith" are introduced into "Emile" not,
according to the author, because he wishes to exhibit his principles as those which should
be taught, but to give an example of the way in which religious matters should be
discussed with the young. Nevertheless, it is universally recognized that these opinions
are Rousseau's own, and represent in short form his characteristic attitude toward
religious belief. The Vicar himself is believed to combine the traits of two Savoyard
priests whom Rousseau knew in his youth. The more important was the Abbe Gaime,
whom he had known at Turin; the other, the Abbe Gatier, who had taught him at Annecy.